The Dörenberg is a hill, 331.2 m above sea level, in the Teutoburg Forest in the district of Osnabrück, in the German state of Lower Saxony. Dören could be derived in the area of Ostwestfalen-Lippe, from Dör, the Low German word for a hill or mountain pass; the Dörenberg, the highest elevation in the centre section of the Teutoburg Forest, lies between Bad Iburg and the Georgsmarienhütte village of Oesede, whereby the boundary of both parishes runs over its southern flank, close to the summit. East of the hill, the B 51 runs between both settlements in a north-northeast to south-southwest direction; the summit can be reached on woodland tracks from this road. On the summit of the Dörenberg stands the Hermann's Tower, from which, at a height of 352 m above NN, there are views southeast over the Teutoburg Forest, southwards of the Münsterland and north to the Wiehen Hills. On the Lammersbrink, 2.8 kilometres northwest, stands the Varus Tower. Both observation towers are linked by the Kammweg. In 1962 an aeroplane of the Royal Air Force crashed on the Dörenberg.
Both crew members died. A memorial stone has been laid on the Zigzag Way that runs from the Karlsplatz west of the summit towards the Benno Quarry, it bears the inscription: "Am 18. Januar 1962 stürzte an dieser Stelle ein Flugzeug ab. Zwei junge Flieger im Alter von 24 und 26 Jahren fanden den Fliegertod." The memorial tablet stands below the first bend on Zigzag Way. Geology of the Dörenberg
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors; these two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in 14 AD, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, in 70 AD. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals, four books long. Tacitus' other writings discuss oratory and the life of his father-in-law, the general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain focusing on his campaign in Britannia. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, he lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics. Details about his personal life are scarce.
What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 57 to an equestrian family. One scholar's suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the older aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic, Tacitus makes it clear that he owed his rank to the Flavian emperors; the claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Germania. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, but it is possible that this refers to a brother—if Cornelius was indeed his father; the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families.
The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis or Northern Italy. His marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus' dedication to Lucius Fabius Justus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, his friendship with Pliny suggests origins in northern Italy. No evidence exists, that Pliny's friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Pliny's letters hint that the two men had a common background. Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, so was asked if he was Tacitus or Pliny. Since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces Gallia Narbonensis, his ancestry, his skill in oratory, his sympathetic depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, had been subjugated by Rome.
As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics. In 77 or 78, he married daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their domestic life, save that Tacitus loved the outdoors, he started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus. He advanced through the cursus honorum, becoming praetor in 88 and a quindecimvir, a member of the priestly college in charge of the Sibylline Books and the Secular games, he gained acclaim as an orator. He served in the provinces from c. 89 to c. 93, either in command of a legion or in a civilian post. He and his property survived Domitian's reign of terror, but the experience left him jaded and ashamed at his own complicity, giving him the hatred of tyranny evident in his works; the Agricola, chs. 44–45, is illustrative: Agricola was spared those years during which Domitian, leaving now no interval or breathing space of time, but, as it were, with one continuous blow, drained the life-blood of the Commonwealth...
It was not long before our hands dragged Helvidius to prison, before we gazed on the dying looks of Mauricus and Rusticus, before we were steeped in Senecio's innocent blood. Nero turned his eyes away, did not gaze upon the atrocities which he ordered. From his seat in the Senate, he became suffect consul in 97 during the reign of Nerva, being the first of his family to do so. During his tenure, he reached the height of his fame as an orator when he delivered the funeral oration for the famous veteran soldier Lucius Verginius Rufus. In the following year, he wrote and published the Agricola and Germania, foreshadowing the literary endeav
A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm and bran. The term may refer to the resulting grain itself. Cereal grain crops are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat and chia, are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural, whole grain form, cereals are a rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and protein; when processed by the removal of the bran, germ, the remaining endosperm is carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is still substantial; the word cereal is derived from the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and the development of cities, it created the need for greater organization of political power, as decisions had to be made regarding labor and harvest allocation and access rights to water and land.
Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled down for long periods of time, which led to the accumulation of material goods. Early Neolithic villages show evidence of the development of processing grain; the Levant is the ancient home of the ancestors of wheat and peas, in which many of these villages were based. There is evidence of the cultivation of figs in the Jordan Valley as long as 11,300 years ago, cereal production in Syria 9,000 years ago. During the same period, farmers in China began to farm rice and millet, using man-made floods and fires as part of their cultivation regimen. Fiber crops were domesticated as early as food crops, with China domesticating hemp, cotton being developed independently in Africa and South America, Western Asia domesticating flax; the use of soil amendments, including manure, fish and ashes, appears to have begun early, developed independently in several areas of the world, including Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and Eastern Asia. The first cereal grains were domesticated by early primitive humans.
About 8,000 years ago, they were domesticated by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture. Around the same time and rices were starting to become domesticated in East Asia. Sorghum and millets were being domesticated in sub-Saharan West Africa. During the second half of the 20th century there was a significant increase in the production of high-yield cereal crops worldwide wheat and rice, due to an initiative known as the Green Revolution; the strategies developed by the Green Revolution focused on fending off starvation and were successful in raising overall yields of cereal grains, but did not give sufficient relevance to nutritional quality. These modern high yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins and other quality factors. While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar.
Most are annual plants. Wheat, triticale, oats and spelt are the "cool-season" cereals; these are hardy plants that cease to grow in hot weather. The "warm-season" cereals are prefer hot weather. Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops per year. For the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in perennial grain plants; this interest developed due to advantages in erosion control, reduced need for fertiliser, potential lowered costs to the farmer. Though research is still in early stages, The Land Institute in Salina, Kansas has been able to create a few cultivars that produce a good crop yield; the warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn and grow vegetatively become dormant during winter, they mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization: exposure to low temperatures for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop, farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals. Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle; the plants di
Horn-Bad Meinberg is a German city in the Principality of Lippe in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia on the edge of the Teutoburg forest. The district Bad Meinberg is a spa resort, it has 17,185 inhabitants. It was formed in 1970 by merging various other municipalities that had grown together, including Bad Meinberg and Horn - the new entity's original name was Bad Meinberg-Horn, before taking its present name. Horn-Bad Meinberg is the location of the Externsteine, a rock formation consisting of several tall, narrow columns. In the municipality are the two highest peaks of the Eggegebirge, the Lipp Velmerstot and the Prussian Velmerstot with about above sea level and the highest elevation of the Teutoburg forest, the Barnacken with; the deepest point of the metropolitan area is. Between the districts Horn and Holzhausen-Externsteine is the most famous natural monument of the Teutoburg Forest, the Externsteine, nearby springs the Wiembecke. Starting in the west the municipality is bordering to Schlangen, Detmold and Schieder-Schwalenberg in Lippe.
It follows in the south Höxter with the community Steinheim. Southwest still meets the Kreis Paderborn with the communities Altenbeken and Bad Lippspringe on the border with the municipality Horn-Bad Meinberg; the merger of the city of Horn and the municipalities Bad Meinberg, Bellenberg, Fromhausen, Holzhausen-Externsteine, Schmedissen, Vahlhausen at Horn and Wehren and Kempenfeldrom and the integration of parts of the municipalities Oberschönenbuch Hagen and Schönemark formed the newly Horn-Bad Meinberg" The oldest known written mention of Horn shows that the foundation of the city was in 1248. Armed conflicts around the city were during the Soest Feud and during the Thirty Years' War. 1761 the town resisted in the Seven Years' War the siege of the French troops commanded by the princes of Beauvau. In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed including the old town hall. A connection for the city of Horn to the railway connection was made in 1895; the station is located on the route Detmold-Altenbeken.
In the east of Horn arose at the beginning of World War II, the settlement Moorlage. Reason was the relocation of the village Haustenbeck in Senne, given to the Sennelager Training Area. Many people from the community moved to Horn; the farmers received courtyards of the Reichsumsiedlungsgesellschaft. On February 18, 1938, the first proposal was made to build a closed settlement; some forty families settled around to Horn. End of August 1939 arrived mayor Wilhelm Mehrmann. 1989 were still 42 of 44 settlement houses owned by the families, who they built before the war. Official website Official website
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
The Westphalian Lowland known as the Westphalian Basin is a flat landscape that lies within the German region of Westphalia, although small areas fall within North Rhine and in Lower Saxony. Together with the neighbouring Lower Rhine Plain to the west, it represents the second most southerly region of the North German Plain, after the Cologne Bight, it is variously known in German as the Westfälische Bucht, the Münsterländer or Westfälische Tieflands- or Flachlandsbucht. The Westphalian Lowland consists of the individual regions of Münsterland, the Emscherland in the south, regions further south that flank the Sauerland around the Hellweg; the Westphalian Lowland is classified as a major unit group within the natural regions of Germany and is number 54 in the Handbook of the Natural Regional Divisions of Germany and region D34 in the BfN system. From a natural region perspective the Westphalian Lowland major unit group is sub-divided into the following three-figure major units: 54 Westphalian Basin 540 East Münsterland 541 Kernmünsterland 542 Hellweg Börde 543 Emscherland 544 West Münsterland 545 West Hellweg The Westphalian Lowland has the character of a basin because it is bounded by ridges of the Lower Saxon Hills from the northeast to east and by the northern part of the Süder Uplands to the south.
These hills rise to heights of several hundred metres above the basin floor. The boundary of this natural region runs, clockwise from the north, as follows: From Rheine southeastwards along the southern edge of the Teutoburg Forest, from southwest of Osnabrück heading southwest of Bielefeld to the point where the Teutoburg Forest meets the Eggegebirge. From here the boundary runs to the Paderborn Plateau in front of the Egge heading south-southwest via Paderborn and Büren. From east of Rüthen its boundary with the North Sauerland Oberland runs in a westerly direction, passing the Möhnesee south of the Haarstrang and runs south of the Hellweg to the edge of the Lower Sauerland to south of Dortmund, from where its course takes it further west, north of the Ardey Hills and the adjoining parts of the Lower Berg-Mark Hills heading south of Bochum and Essen to the vicinity of Mülheim. From east of Mülheim its unremarkable boundary with the Lower Rhine Plain runs northwards via Bottrop, Dorsten and along the state border with the Netherlands, to Gronau.
The largest centres of population in the Westphalian Lowland are the cities of the central and eastern Ruhrgebiet north of the River Ruhr in the southwest of the region and the cities of Münster in the centre, Gütersloh in the north and Paderborn on the eastern periphery. The city of Bielefeld itself lies outside the region over the other side of the Teutoburg Forest, however parts of the borough lies within the northern part of the basin; the most populous cities in the Westphalian Lowland are: Dortmund Essen Bochum Bielefeld Münster Gelsenkirchen Oberhausen Hamm Herne Mülheim Paderborn Recklinghausen Bottrop Witten Gütersloh The most important river systems are: Münsterland: the Ems and Lippe Emscherland: the entirely underground or canalised Emscher that gives the region its name. Right tributaries of the Möhne and the lower reaches of the Ruhr play a rather small role in the extreme south by the Hellweg; the area is called in German, the Münsterländische Bucht, because a large part of this low-lying plain lies in central and eastern Münsterland.
It is therefore used pars pro toto for the whole region. The use of the term Bucht stems from the geological origin of the region, half surrounded by the ridges of the Central Uplands. At one time it formed a bay in the coastline of the Cretaceous Sea the shape of which can be discerned from the topography; the majority of the population of the Westphalian Lowland live in the area bordering the southern perimeter, in the region of the historic Hellweg east-west trade route through Germany, in the northern Ruhr. At various sites in the Westphalian Lowland giant ammonites have been found in Cretaceous layers of rock below the surface, for example when the underground railway network was being built in Dortmund; these cephalopods, with a shell diameter of more than two metres are the largest known invertebrates. Geography of Germany Natural regions of Germany Natural region maps from the individual 1:200,000 map series of the Federal Institute for Regional Geography - relevant natural units are those on map sheets beginning with "54": Sheet 83/84 - Osnabrück/Bentheim Sheet 85 - Minden Sheet 95/96 - Kleve/Wesel Sheet 97 - Münster Sheet 98 - Detmold Sheet 108/109 - Düsseldorf-Erkelenz Sheet 110 - Arnsberg NRW State Agency for Nature and Consumer Protection LANUV information page – natural landscape map
Teutoburg Forest / Egge Hills Nature Park
The Teutoburg Forest / Egge Hills Nature Park is a nature park founded in 1965 in the northeast of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. After being expanded in 2008, the nature park in the southern Teutoburg Forest and Egge Hills has an area of 2,711 km2, making it the largest in the state and the sixth largest in Germany; the Teutoburg Forest / Egge Hills Nature Park won the state competition for nature parks, "Naturpark.2009. NRW", with its concept "Natural Health"; the northern part of the nature park begins southeast of Bielefeld and runs over the southern Teutoburg Forest in a southeasterly direction via Oerlinghausen and Detmold to Horn-Bad Meinberg. The southern part of the area is contiguous to it and runs along the Egge Hills southwards via Bad Driburg and Willebadessen as far as Marsberg. In the east, the nature park reaches as far as the River Weser near Höxter, it is adjoined by the Northern Teutoburg Forest-Wiehen Hills Nature Park northwest of Bielefeld. In addition to the two Central Upland ranges that give the park its name, there are elements of the Weser Uplands, the Oberwälder Land and the Lippe Uplands in the park as well as parts of the karst landscape of the Paderborn Plateau and the Senne.
The highest point of the park, at 495.8 m above sea level, is the Köterberg near Höxter. The second highest elevation is the Preußische Velmerstot at 468 m above sea level; the volcano of Sandebeck in Steinheim-Sandebeck is the northernmost volcano in Germany. The regional climate has average annual temperatures of 7 to 8 °C and average annual precipitation between 625 mm and 1,132 mm; the region of the nature park is called the Health Garden of Germany. The reason for this sobriquet is its unique plethora of natural spa resources, such as brine, bogs and hot springs. There are spas like Bad Salzuflen, Bad Lippspringe, Bad Meinberg and Bad Driburg, as well as numerous climatic and Kneipp spas, on the edtge of the Teutoburg Forest; the name of the nature park is written – contrary to typographical conventions – with spaces either side of the forward slash. This was agreed by the park authority on 6 December 2007; the German language authority, gives freedom to firms and associations to do this. The typographically or orthographically correct way of writing the name would be "Teutoburg Forest/Egge Hills Nature Park".
Some 60% of the area of the nature park is forested. As a large, contiguous forest, the landscape unit fulfils an ecological balancing function; the Egge Hills and the Teutoburg Forest are thus important components of the state-wide wildlife corridor. A good 85% of the area is protected landscape, some 10% is nature reserve and around 14% is Special Areas of Conservation. In addition, there are about 1,000 designated natural monuments; the mascot of the nature park is the wildcat, whose presence in the region is one of the oldest to have survived to the present day in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Externsteine Hermannsdenkmal Blue zinc violets in the Bleikuhlen at Blankenrode Eggeweg and Hermannsweg Preußischer and Lippischer Velmerstot Köterberg Desenberg Altenbeken Viaduct Fürstenallee Rheder Castle near Brakel Berlebeck Eagle Observatory Iburg near Bad Driburg Sparrenberg Castle in Bielefeld Dalheim Abbey Hardehausen Abbey Corvey Abbey Detmold Open-air Museum Naturpark Teutoburger Wald / Eggegebirge: Ihr Guide to the nature park.
Detmold, o. J. Naturschutzzentrum Senne: Senne und Teutoburger Wald. Tpk-Regionalverlag Bielefeld, 2008, ISBN 978-3-936359-32-9. Willy Lippert: Das Eggegebirge und sein Vorland. Eggegebirgsverein. Bad Driburg. 1996. 5th ed. Sabine Schierholz: Reiseführer Naturpark Teutoburger Wald / Eggegebirge. Tpk-Regionalverlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-936359-34-3. World Habitat Society: Freizeitkarte Naturpark Teutoburger Wald / Eggegebirge 1:100.000, 2009, ISBN 978-3-9811646-1-9. List of nature parks in Germany Teutoburg Forest / Egge Hills Nature Park Westfalen regional - The Teutoburg Forest / Egge Hills Nature Park