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Tewkesbury Abbey

The Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin, Tewkesbury, in the English county of Gloucestershire, is a parish church and a former Benedictine monastery. It is one of the finest examples of Norman architecture in Britain, has the largest Romanesque crossing tower in Europe. Tewkesbury had been a centre for worship since the 7th century; the present building was started in the early 12th century. It was unsuccessfully used as a sanctuary in the Wars of the Roses. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries it became the parish church for the town. George Gilbert Scott led Restoration in the late 19th century; the church and churchyard within the abbey precincts includes tombs and memorials to many of the aristocracy of the area. Services now include Parish Eucharist, choral Mass and Evensong; these choirs. There is a ring of twelve bells, hung for change ringing; the Chronicle of Tewkesbury records that the first Christian worship was brought to the area by Theoc, a missionary from Northumbria, who built his cell in the mid-7th century near a gravel spit where the Severn and Avon rivers join together.

The cell was succeeded by a monastery in 715. In the 10th century the religious foundation at Tewkesbury became a priory subordinate to the Benedictine Cranborne Abbey in Dorset. In 1087, William the Conqueror gave the manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert Fitzhamon, with Giraldus, Abbot of Cranborne, founded the present abbey in 1092. Building of the present Abbey church did not start until 1102, employing Caen stone imported from Normandy and floated up the Severn. Robert Fitzhamon was wounded at Falaise in Normandy in 1105 and died two years but his son-in-law, Robert FitzRoy, the natural son of Henry I, made Earl of Gloucester, continued to fund the building work; the Abbey's greatest single patron was Lady Eleanor le Despenser, last of the De Clare heirs of FitzRoy. In the High Middle Ages, Tewkesbury became one of the richest abbeys of England. After the Battle of Tewkesbury in the Wars of the Roses on 4 May 1471, some of the defeated Lancastrians sought sanctuary in the abbey; the victorious Yorkists, led by King Edward IV, forced their way into the abbey.

At the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the last abbot, John Wakeman, surrendered the abbey to the commissioners of King Henry VIII on 9 January 1539. Because of his cooperation with the proceedings, he was awarded an annuity of 400 marks and was ordained as the first Bishop of Gloucester in September 1541. Meanwhile, the people of Tewkesbury saved the abbey from destruction. Insisting that it was their parish church which they had the right to keep, they bought it from the Crown for the value of its bells and lead roof which would have been salvaged and melted down, leaving the structure a roofless ruin; the price came to £453. The bells merited an unusual feature in English sites. After the Dissolution, the bell-tower was used as the gaol for the borough until it was demolished in the late 18th century; the central stone tower was topped with a wooden spire, which collapsed in 1559 and was never rebuilt. Restoration undertaken in the late 19th century under Sir George Gilbert Scott was reopened on 23 September 1879.

Work included the rood screen. Flood waters from the nearby River Severn reached inside the Abbey during severe floods in 1760, again on 23 July 2007. 23 October 1121 – the choir consecrated 1150 – tower and nave completed 1178 – large fire necessitated some rebuilding ~1235 – Chapel of St Nicholas built ~1300 – Chapel of St. James built 1321–1335 – choir rebuilt with radiating chantry chapels 1349–59 – tower and nave vaults rebuilt, its massive crossing tower was said, by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, to be "probably the largest and finest Romanesque tower in England". Fourteen of England's cathedrals are of smaller dimensions, while only Westminster Abbey contains more medieval church monuments.. Notable church monuments surviving in Tewkesbury Abbey include: 1107 – when the abbey's founder Robert Fitzhamon died in 1107, he was buried in the chapter house while his son-in-law Robert FitzRoy, Earl of Gloucester, continued building the abbey 1375 – Edward Despenser, Lord of the Manor of Tewkesbury, is remembered today chiefly for the effigy on his monument, which shows him in full colour kneeling on top of the canopy of his chantry, facing toward the high altar 1395 – Robert Fitzhamon's remains were moved into a new chapel built as his tomb 1471 – a brass plate on the floor in the centre of the sanctuary marks the grave of Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, the son of King Henry VI and end of the Lancastrian line, killed in the Battle of Tewkesbury – the only Prince of Wales to die in battle.

He was aged only 17 at his death. 1478 – the bones of George, Duke of Clarence, his wife Isabel are housed behind a glass window in a wall of their inaccessible burial vault behind the high altar 1539 – the cadaver monument which Abbot Wakeman had erected for himself is only a cenota

Prathap (Kannada actor)

Prathap is an Indian film actor in the Kannada film industry.. He made his debut in the movie Sixer, went on to cast in many commercial films; some of the notable films of Prathap as an actor include Mylari, Godfather and Auto Raja. He entered the Bigg Boss Kannada house as a contestant in October 2019. Though he gained much popularity he ended up as the runner-up of the show Bigg Boss Kannada. Prathap has been part of more than 140+ Kannada feature films and has featured on a popular Kannada prank show, telecast on Udaya TV channel, called Kuri Bond, which made him popular as "Kuri Prathap", he appeared in the first season of Comedy Kiladigalu aired on Zee Kannada pairing as a partner with the Kannada actor Chikkanna. Prathap is popular for his character "Kadle Puri"in Colors Kannada's sketch comedy show, Majaa Talkies, he finished as runner-up. Prathap has appeared in the following Kannada films: List of people from Karnataka Cinema of Karnataka List of Indian film actors Cinema of India Kuri Prathap on IMDb

Plant stress measurement

Plant stress measurement is the quantification of environmental effects on plant health. When plants are subjected to less than ideal growing conditions, they are considered to be under stress. Stress factors can affect growth and crop yields. Plant stress research looks at the response of plants to limitations and excesses of the main abiotic factors, of other stress factors that are important in particular situations. Plant stress measurement focuses on taking measurements from living plants, it can involve visual assessments of plant vitality, more the focus has moved to the use of instruments and protocols that reveal the response of particular processes within the plant Determining the optimal conditions for plant growth, e.g. optimising water use in an agricultural system Determining the climatic range of different species or subspecies Determining which species or subspecies are resistant to a particular stress factor Measurements can be made from living plants using specialised equipment.

Among the most used instruments are those that measure parameters related to photosynthesis or water use. In addition to these general purpose instruments, researchers design or adapt other instruments tailored to the specific stress response they are studying. Photosynthesis systems use infrared gas analyzers for measuring photosynthesis. CO2 concentration changes in leaf chambers are measured to provide carbon assimilation values for leaves or whole plants. Research has shown that the rate of photosynthesis is directly related to the amount of carbon assimilated by the plant. Measuring CO2 in the air, before it enters the leaf chamber, comparing it to air measured for CO2 after it leaves the leaf chamber, provides this value using proven equations; these systems use IRGAs, or solid state humidity sensors, for measuring H2O changes in leaf chambers. This is done to measure leaf transpiration, to correct CO2 measurements; the light absorption spectrum for CO2 and H2O overlap somewhat, therefore, a correction is necessary for reliable CO2 measuring results.

The critical measurement for most plant stress measurements is designated by "A" or carbon assimilation rate. When a plant is under stress, less carbon is assimilated. CO2 IRGAs are capable of measuring to +/- 1 μmol or 1ppm of CO2; because these systems are effective in measuring carbon assimilation and transpiration at low rates, as found in stressed plants, they are used as the standard to compare to other types of instruments. Photosynthesis instruments come in field laboratory versions, they are designed to measure ambient environmental conditions, some systems offer variable microclimate control of the measuring chamber. Microclimate control systems allow adjustment of the measuring chamber temperature, CO2 level, light level, humidity level for more detailed investigation; the combination of these systems with fluorometers, can be effective for some types of stress, can be diagnostic, e.g. in the study of cold stress and drought stress. Chlorophyll fluorescence emitted from plant leaves gives an insight into the health of the photosynthetic systems within the leaf.

Chlorophyll fluorometers are designed to measure variable fluorescence of photosystem II. This variable fluorescence can be used to measure the level of plant stress; the most used protocols include those aimed at measuring the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II, both in the light and in a dark-adapted state. Chlorophyll fluorometers are, for the most part, less expensive tools than photosynthesis systems, they have a faster measurement time and tend to be more portable. For these reasons they have become one of the most important tools for field measurements of plant stress. Fv/Fm tests. Fv/Fm is the most used chlorophyll fluorescence measuring parameter in the world. "The majority of fluorescence measurements are now made using modulated fluorometers with the leaf poised in a known state." Light, absorbed by a leaf follows three competitive pathways. It may be used in photochemistry to produce ATP and NADPH used in photosynthesis, it can be re-emitted as fluorescence, or dissipated as heat.

The Fv/Fm test is designed to allow the maximum amount of the light energy to take the fluorescence pathway. It compares the dark-adapted leaf pre-photosynthetic fluorescent state, called minimum fluorescence, or Fo, to maximum fluorescence called Fm. In maximum fluorescence, the maximum number of reaction centers have been reduced or closed by a saturating light source. In general, the greater the plant stress, the fewer open reaction centers available, the Fv/Fm ratio is lowered. Fv/Fm is a measuring protocol. In Fv/Fm measurements, after dark adaption, minimum fluorescence is measured, using a modulated light source; this is a measurement of antennae fluorescence using a modulated light intensity, too low to drive photosynthesis. Next, an intense light flash, or saturation pulse, of a limited duration, is used, to expose the sample, close all available reaction centers. With all available reaction centers closed, or chemically reduced, maximum fluorescence is measured; the difference between maximum fluorescence and minimum fluorescence is Fv, or variable fluorescence.

Fv/Fm is a normalize ratio created by dividing variable fluorescence by maximum fluorescence. It is a measurement ratio that represents the ma

Selkirk transmitting station

The Selkirk transmitting station is a telecommunications facility located next to Lindean Loch, near Selkirk in the Scottish Borders. It includes a 229.1 metres high guyed steel lattice mast, surmounted by a UHF television transmitting antenna array, which brings the overall height of the structure to 238.8 metres. It is operated by Arqiva, it is the main television broadcasting station for the Borders area, is the first high power main station in the United Kingdom to be upgraded as part of digital switchover. This upgrade was completed on 20 November 2008, when the analogue signal was turned off and replaced by high power digital television signals. Selkirk broadcasts a number of radio services, including local commercial station Radio Borders, national station Classic FM, DAB multiplexes from the BBC and Digital One. Selkirk was built by the Independent Television Authority in 1961 in order to bring ITV to south east Scotland, using the 405 line monochrome system on VHF channel 13. 405 line television was discontinued in the UK in 1985.

625 line UHF television was introduced at Selkirk in 1972, carrying BBC1, BBC2 and ITV. Channel 4 was added on channel 65 when it launched in November 1982, Channel 5 was added on channel 52 in March 1997. Radio Borders started from Selkirk in January 1990, with Classic FM following in November 1996; the Digital One and BBC DAB services both commenced in October 2007. BBC national FM services are transmitted from neighbouring Ashkirk transmitting station. List of masts List of tallest buildings and structures in Great Britain List of radio stations in the United Kingdom Entry for Selkirk transmitting station at The Transmission Gallery Selkirk Transmitter at thebigtower.com

London Boots Ichi-gō Ni-gō

London Boots Ichi-gō Ni-gō are a Japanese comedy duo that performed manzai-style stand-up, but now are known for their TV appearances and as hosts of a handful of off-the-wall variety shows. The two members are Atsushi Tamura and Ryō Tamura, though they have the same surname, there is no relation and they in fact come from different backgrounds. Atsushi is from the Yamaguchi Prefecture, speaks with the standard accent of someone from Tokyo. Ryō, on the other hand, is from Takatsuki and speaks in a sometimes faltering Osaka dialect. Atsushi Tamura Born December 4, 1973 in Hikoshima, Yamaguchi. Plays the boke; the #2 of London Boots #1 #2, he is known for his style of talking out of context and leading others off-topic to create comedic effects. Atsushi appears more as the talkative one of the duo, acts as the MC for numerous television programs. Ryō Tamura Born January 1972 in Takatsuki, Osaka. Plays the tsukkomi; the #1 of London Boots #1 #2, He is known for his docile personality and style of tsukkomi.

The two met through independent comedy groups in Tokyo, coupled and began performing on the populated streets of Shibuya. They auditioned to enter Yoshimoto Kogyo in 1994 at the same time as Penalty and DonDokoDon and were accepted by the company. After appearing on U-tchan Nan-chan's "UN Factory Kabosuke", they found fame as they were recognized as two talented manzai-shi. Though Ryō was most passionate about creating new manzai neta and arranging manzai acts, the much louder Atsushi began to see the potential of TV and his own ability to adapt to it. By the late 90's, London Boots, or Lonboo as they are called in Japan, had landed a spot as the hosts of their own show. Ryo and Atsushi take different approaches to their humor. Ryō tends to speak with a mixed Osaka and Tokyo dialect, which only serves to accentuate his efforts at being polite; the irony of this situation is that Atsushi is supposed to be the boke and Ryō the tsukkomi, which suggests a reversal of their comedic roles. Lonboo official homepage

2015–16 Ball State Cardinals women's basketball team

The 2015–16 Ball State Cardinals women's basketball team represented Ball State University during the 2015–16 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Cardinals, led by fourth year head coach Brady Sallee, played their home games at Worthen Arena as members of the West Division of the Mid-American Conference, they finished the season 22–10, 13–5 in MAC play and finished the season in second place in the West Division. They lost in the quarterfinals of the MAC Women's Tournament to Eastern Michigan, they were invited to the Women's National Invitation Tournament where defeated Iowa in the first round before losing in the second round to Saint Louis. Source: 2015–16 Ball State Cardinals men's basketball team Ball State Media Guide Ball State Record Book