Tewodros II was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death in 1868. He was born Kassa Hailegiorgis, his rule is placed as the beginning of modern Ethiopia, ending the decentralized Zemene Mesafint. Tewodros II's origins were in the Era of the Princes, but his ambitions were not those of the regional nobility, he sought to reform its administration and church. He sought to restore Solomonic hegemony, he considered himself the Elect of God. Tewodros II's first task was to bring Shewa under his control. During the Era of the Princes, Shewa was more than most provinces, an independent entity, its ruler styling himself Negus, a royal title denoting monarchy. In the course of subduing the Shewans, Tewodros imprisoned a Shewan prince, Menelik II, who would become emperor himself. Despite his success against Shewa, Tewodros faced constant rebellions in other provinces, he committed suicide at the Battle of Magdala, during the British Expedition to Abyssinia. In the first six years of his reign, the new ruler managed to put down these rebellions, the empire was peaceful from about 1861 to 1863, but the energy and manpower necessary to deal with regional opposition limited the scope of Tewodros's other activities.
Tewodros II never realized his dream of restoring a strong monarchy, although he took many important initial steps. He sought to establish the principle that judges must be salaried appointees, he established a professional standing army, rather than depending on local lords to provide soldiers for his expeditions. He introduced the collection of books in the form of a library, tax codes, as well as a centralized political system with respective administrative districts, he intended to reform the church but he was confronted by strong opposition when he tried to impose a tax on church lands to help finance government activities. His confiscation of these lands gained him enemies in the church and little support elsewhere. Tewodros was a talented military campaigner. Kassa Hailu was the son of a Christian nobleman of the Qwara district of the province of Dembiya named Hailegiorgis Woldegiorgis, his paternal grandfather, Dejazmatch Woldegiorgis, was a respected figure of his time. Dembiya was part of the large territory known as Ye Maru Qemas, which translates as "the taste of the honey" or "What has been tasted by Maru".
This name was given to the territory because it was the personal fief of Dejazmach Maru, a powerful warlord, relative of Kassa. When Maru died in October 1827, his fiefdom was given to Dejazmach Kenfu Hailu by the governor of the province, Empress Menen Liben Amede. Kassa was raised in Kenfu Hailu's family, Kassa was in line to take control of Ye Maru Qemas after Kenfu's death; when Kenfu died, neither his sons nor Kassa inherited control of the territory because Empress Menen Liben re-annexed it under her own control. Kassa's mother, Woizero Atitegeb Wondbewossen, was of the upper nobility, was from Sayint, her mother Woizer Tishal was a member of a noble family of Begemder, while her paternal grandfather, Ras Wodajo, was a powerful and influential figure. Tewodros II, in his reign, claimed that his father was descended from Emperor Fasilides by way of a daughter; when Kassa was young, his parents divorced and Woizero Atitegeb moved back to Gondar taking her son with her. Not long after their departure, news reached them.
Popular legend states that Kassa's paternal relatives split up the entire paternal inheritance, leaving young Kassa and his mother with nothing and in dire circumstances financially. In these hard times, his enemies came with a saying that his mother, Woizero Atitegeb, was reduced to selling "Kosso", a native herbal remedy used to purge patients of intestinal worms. There is no evidence that Woizero Atitegeb was a Kosso seller, several writers such as have stated outright that it was a false rumor spread by her detractors. Evidence indicates that Woizero Atitegeb was well to do, indeed had inherited considerable land holdings from her own illustrious relatives to lead a comfortable life. Kassa's youth was not lived lavishly, but he was far from a pauper. Kassa was sent to school between Gondar and Lake Tana. In this asylum he took refuge until it was sacked by a defeated Oromo chief named Dejazmatch Maru, who by burning and dismembering the children, took vengeance on their victorious parents.
Kassa escaped and fled to the protection of his kinsman, Dejazmatch Kenfu his uncle but believed to be his half-brother. He became familiar with the Bible and Ethiopian literature, he received instruction on the techniques of Ethiopian warfare from Kenfu. When Kenfu died, his two sons were defeated by another Dajazmach, Dajazmach Goshu of Damot and Gojjam, Kassa was forced to make another start in life, offered his services to Goshu. Kassa Hailu was born into a country rife with civil war, he defeated many regional noblemen and princes before becoming emperor during time known as the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of the Princes". During this era, regional princes, noble lords of diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds vied with each other for power and control of the Gondarine Emperor. A puppet Emperor of the Solomonic dynasty w
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat, it is the two-dimensional analog of the volume of a solid. The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to squares of a fixed size. In the International System of Units, the standard unit of area is the square metre, the area of a square whose sides are one metre long. A shape with an area of three square metres would have the same area as three such squares. In mathematics, the unit square is defined to have area one, the area of any other shape or surface is a dimensionless real number. There are several well-known formulas for the areas of simple shapes such as triangles and circles.
Using these formulas, the area of any polygon can be found by dividing the polygon into triangles. For shapes with curved boundary, calculus is required to compute the area. Indeed, the problem of determining the area of plane figures was a major motivation for the historical development of calculus. For a solid shape such as a sphere, cone, or cylinder, the area of its boundary surface is called the surface area. Formulas for the surface areas of simple shapes were computed by the ancient Greeks, but computing the surface area of a more complicated shape requires multivariable calculus. Area plays an important role in modern mathematics. In addition to its obvious importance in geometry and calculus, area is related to the definition of determinants in linear algebra, is a basic property of surfaces in differential geometry. In analysis, the area of a subset of the plane is defined using Lebesgue measure, though not every subset is measurable. In general, area in higher mathematics is seen as a special case of volume for two-dimensional regions.
Area can be defined through the use of axioms, defining it as a function of a collection of certain plane figures to the set of real numbers. It can be proved. An approach to defining what is meant by "area" is through axioms. "Area" can be defined as a function from a collection M of special kind of plane figures to the set of real numbers, which satisfies the following properties: For all S in M, a ≥ 0. If S and T are in M so are S ∪ T and S ∩ T, a = a + a − a. If S and T are in M with S ⊆ T T − S is in M and a = a − a. If a set S is in M and S is congruent to T T is in M and a = a; every rectangle R is in M. If the rectangle has length h and breadth k a = hk. Let Q be a set enclosed between two step regions S and T. A step region is formed from a finite union of adjacent rectangles resting on a common base, i.e. S ⊆ Q ⊆ T. If there is a unique number c such that a ≤ c ≤ a for all such step regions S and T a = c, it can be proved that such an area function exists. Every unit of length has a corresponding unit of area, namely the area of a square with the given side length.
Thus areas can be measured in square metres, square centimetres, square millimetres, square kilometres, square feet, square yards, square miles, so forth. Algebraically, these units can be thought of as the squares of the corresponding length units; the SI unit of area is the square metre, considered an SI derived unit. Calculation of the area of a square whose length and width are 1 metre would be: 1 metre x 1 metre = 1 m2and so, a rectangle with different sides would have an area in square units that can be calculated as: 3 metres x 2 metres = 6 m2; this is equivalent to 6 million square millimetres. Other useful conversions are: 1 square kilometre = 1,000,000 square metres 1 square metre = 10,000 square centimetres = 1,000,000 square millimetres 1 square centimetre = 100 square millimetres. In non-metric units, the conversion between two square units is the square of the conversion between the corresponding length units. 1 foot = 12 inches,the relationship between square feet and square inches is 1 square foot = 144 square inches,where 144 = 122 = 12 × 12.
Similarly: 1 square yard = 9 square feet 1 square mile = 3,097,600 square yards = 27,878,400 square feetIn addition, conversion factors include: 1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimetres 1 square foot = 0.09290304 square metres 1 square yard = 0.83612736 square metres 1 square mile = 2.589988110336 square kilometres There are several other common units for area. The are was the original unit of area in the metric system, with: 1 are = 100 square metresThough the are has fallen out of use, the hectare is still used to measure land: 1 hectare = 100 ares = 10,000 square metres = 0.01 square kilometresOther uncommon metric units of area include the tetrad, the hectad, the myriad. The acre is commonly used to measure land areas, where 1 acre = 4,840 square yards = 43,560 square feet. An acre is 40% of a hectare. On the atomic scale, area is measured in units of barns, such that: 1 barn = 10−28 square meters; the barn is used in describing the cross-sectional area of interaction in nuclear physics.
In India, 20 dhurki = 1 dhur 20 dhur = 1 khatha 20 khata = 1 bigha 32 khata = 1 acre In the 5th century BCE, Hippocrates of Chios was the first to show that the area of a disk is proportional to the square of its diameter, as part of his quadrature of the lune of
Monty Munford is an English-born tech journalist. Munford worked for several years as a motorbike dispatch-rider in London, before retraining as a journalist at the London College of Printing in 1998. From 2015-2019 Munford was a tech columnist for The Telegraph in London, he has contributed to TechCrunch, Fast Company, The Huffington Post, Wired. MIT Technology Review, The Independent, The Inquirer, The Guardian, The Observer, Financial Times, The Times of India, he has Mob76 Outlook. He has interviewed Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, John McAfee, Roger Ver. In August 2019, Munford reported that he had been defrauded of £25,000 in cryptocurrency Bitcoin and Ethereum, when his private keys were stolen from his Gmail account. Munford has written and self-published The Dust Bowls of Maturity. In 2005 Munford joined mobile media games publisher and distributor Player X having worked for mobile game testing house Babel Media. Munford left Player X to devote his time to connecting UK and Indian mobile content providers working with in Paramount and FC Liverpool, as well as to pursue acting in Bollywood.
In 2011, he returned to the UK and set up his own consultancy Mob76. Mob76 works with companies to help them raise money, raise their profile, connect with the right network and exit via acquisition. Munford has acted in two Bollywood films: as a 1930s British officer for the Ashutosh Gowariker film Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Sey, as a Russian gangster in the Rohan Sippy film Dum Maro Dum. Mob76 Outlook
Joseph James Marzilli, Jr. was a member of the Massachusetts Senate. Marzilli, a Democrat, was elected to the Senate in a special election in December 2007, representing the communities of Arlington, Burlington and Woburn partway through his ninth term in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, representing Arlington and West Medford, he was the Senate Chair of the Committee on Tourism and Cultural Development. He served on the Committees on Children and Families, Mental Health and Substance Abuse and Veterans' Affairs, he resigned from the chamber on November 2008 after charges of sexual harassment. Marzilli was educated in the Arlington Public Schools and received a bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, he is an international relief worker with experience in Iraq during the US occupation in 2008, Burma/Myanmar training students and activists in democratic governance and public finance, reforestation projects in Guatemala Previously, Marzilli was a member of the state legislature in Massachusetts.
He twice led successful fights to increase the minimum wage, giving the state the highest minimum wage in the nation. For three years he led the effort to increase the pay for the lowest paid human service workers, increasing the salary account to its highest level this year, he was given the "Self Sufficiency" award by the Massachusetts Association of Community Action Programs award in 2006 for his work on behalf of low wage workers. Marzilli wrote the law, he initiated the effort to provide tax relief to seniors living on fixed incomes who pay high property taxes, the state’s "circuit breaker" law. He led the effort to restore the capital gains tax in Massachusetts. Marzilli convened the Olmsted Group on long term care, to make sure that every person receives the care they need at an affordable price, he has been named "Legislator of the Year" three times for his work in this area, by the Massachusetts Human Services Providers Council, the Association of Developmental Disability Providers and the Alliance for Retarded Citizens.
Marzilli was named "Environmental Legislator of the Year" by the Environmental League of Massachusetts in 2001 for his work linking environmental protection and tax policy. His Green Building Tax Credit would provide tax incentives to builders who use environmentally sound building practices that reduce energy and water consumption, reduce storm water runoff and use non-toxic materials, his Clean Car Initiative would create a sliding scale sales tax based on a vehicle’s fuel efficiency. Marzilli was co-chair of the Environment Committee of the Council of State Governments, he has participated in four rounds of the Kyoto climate change treaty negotiations of the United Nations and led a delegation of state elected officials to the negotiations in Montreal. He has spoken on energy and environmental policy, climate change in Canada, Argentina, Germany, Italy and China. Marzilli was the political commentator at New England Cable News TV from 1993 to 1994, he was a frequent guest lecturer at area colleges in public policy and civic participation, most teaching "Health Care Policy and Politics" at the Boston University Graduate School of Public Health.
In October 2008, Marzilli was the highest-ranking American official to attend an international conference on global warming sponsored by the Institute for Ecological Economy Research in Berlin, Germany. He attended a follow-up conference on "New Challenges to Infrastructure Theory and Policy Markets and Planning and Sustainability", his attendance at these conferences representing the Massachusetts Senate drew criticism from the press and fellow politicians in Massachusetts where he faced charges of sexual assault. On April 8, 2008, Marzilli was accused of sexually assaulting a woman in Massachusetts. In late April, the case was referred to the District Attorney's Office for further investigation. On May 7, Marzilli wrote an email to his supporters, where he declared his innocence and thanked them for their support, but continued to refuse to discuss any details of the case. On May 14, 2008, Middlesex prosecutors dropped the case for lack of sufficient evidence. On June 3, 2008, Marzilli was involved in a second incident of alleged verbally accosting another woman, sitting on a park bench.
The alleged incident occurred in downtown Massachusetts. The Senator made lewd comments and "he tried to touch me"; when Lowell Police arrived, Marzilli gave a false name and led Police on a foot chase that ended in a nearby parking garage. After this arrest, other women came forward to claim. Boston Herald columnist Howie Carr reported that the false name given by Marzilli was Martin Walsh, the name of at least three people known by Marzilli, including a state representative from Dorchester, a former employee of the late U. S. Senator Ted Kennedy, a former employee of the U. S. Department of Justice. On July 1, the Massachusetts State Senate voted 38–0 to refer the Marzilli’s alleged misconduct to the Committee on Ethics and Rules, which will not release its findings until after his court cases are resolved. Throughout the controversy, Marzilli did end his reelection campaign in June. However, in November after a controversial trip to Germany to two environmental conferences, Marzilli resigned his office.
His seat in the state senate remained open until January 2009, when Kenneth Donnelly, who won
The Hoax is an American Christian hardcore band, they play hardcore punk. They come from California; the band started making music in 2005, their members are lead vocalist, Tyler Dunagan, lead guitarist, Ricky "Johnny Hoax" Madson, David Robledo, drummer, Daniel "Danimal" Cathers, with their former bassist, Matt "Navajo Joe" Dreer. The band have released one extended play, Fight to Be Free, with Thumper Punk Records, their first studio album, Stumbling Through, was released in 2011 by Thumper Punk Records. The Hoax is a Christian hardcore band from the cities of California, their members are lead vocalist, Tyler Dunagan, lead guitarist, Ricky "Johnny Hoax" Madson, David Robledo, drummer, Daniel "Danimal" Cathers, with their former bassist, Matt "Navajo Joe" Dreer. The band commenced as a musical entity in January 2005, with their release, Fight to Be Free, an extended play, being released by Thumper Punk Records on April 1, 2009, their first studio album, Stumbling Through, was released on May 2011, by Thumper Punk Records.
Current membersTyler Dunagan - lead vocals Ricky "Johnny Hoax" Madson - lead guitar David Robledo - bass Daniel "Danimal" Cathers - drumsPast membersMatt "Navajo Joe" Dreer - bass Studio albumsStumbling Through EPsFree to Be Free Facebook page
Tear Out The Heart is a five-piece metalcore band from St. Louis, founded in 2011; the band signed with Victory Records in 2012. and released their first full-length record, Violence, in 2013. They released their second full-length album, Everywhere, on January 27, 2015. Tear Out The Heart self-released their first EP Tear Out The Heart in 2011, their second EP Hell Is Empty in July 2012, just a month before announcing they had signed to Victory Records, their debut album Violence was released on Victory Records in March 2013 and was received with predominantly positive reviews. Violence featured guest vocals from Caleb Shomo from Attack Attack! on the track "Undead Anthem", Dan Marsala of Story Of The Year on the track "Coffin Eyes". Dory Khawand of Metal Temple, whom gave the album 8/10, stated: Well, the album is pretty unique in terms of atmosphere and overall delivery. What’s found here is some heart melting guitar drops and the refreshing voice of Caleb Shomo. Throughout their career, Tear Out The Heart have played with artists such as Palisades, Famous Last Words, The Browning.
In late 2013 the band announced. However, before the start of the tour, they made a post on their official Facebook page stating that Due to an extensive recording process, we regret to inform you all that we will no longer be a part of the Van's Warped Tour this summer. We're genuinely sorry to any of you that were planning on seeing us perform but this new album is far more important to us than anything. On September 27, 2014 Tear Out The Heart played Rob Zombie's "The Great American Nightmare" with The Devil Wears Prada. In March 2014 Tear Out The Heart announced on their Facebook Page that they were in the studio to begin recording a new album. On December 8, 2014, after a week of hinting at a large announcement via their Facebook page, the band premiered the video for their new song "Feel Real" on Revolver, along with pre-orders and the track listing for their upcoming album Dead, set to be released on January 27, 2015 This was followed by the release of parts one and two of track-by-track videos giving in depth descriptions of the song meanings from the upcoming album.
Part one premiered with Alternative Press on December 16, part two premiered with Revolver on January 12. In February 2015, they announced that they will be co-headlining a tour with Famous Last Words and For All I Am from March 13 till April 4, 2015. In October 2015, Etter & Murphy left the band due to "creative differences". TOTH is hard at work, writing their follow up to the Dead, Everywhere. Tyler Kasch - Vocals/Lyrics Josh Spohr - Guitar Alex Wilkinson - Guitar Kyle Weinmann - Bass/Vocals Matt Epstein - Drums Isaac Etter - Bass/Vocals Matt Murphy - Guitar Violence Dead, Everywhere Tear Out The Heart Hell Is Empty "Game Changer" "Infamous Last Words" "Undead Anthem" "Undead Anthem" Lyric Video "Infamous Last Words" "Coffin Eyes" "Dead By Dawn" "Feel Real" "I've Got Secrets" "The Rejected" Tear Out The Heart at Victory Records Tear Out The Heart on Facebook Tear Out The Heart on Instagram Tear Out The Heart on Twitter