Animal trapping, or trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, pest control, wildlife management. Neolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine, used traps to capture their prey. An early mention in written form is a passage from the self-titled book by Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi describes Chinese methods used for trapping animals during the 4th century BC; the Zhuangzi reads, "The sleek-furred fox and the elegantly spotted leopard...can't seem to escape the disaster of nets and traps.” "Modern" steel jaw-traps were first described in western sources as early as the late 16th century. The first mention comes from Leonard Mascall's book on animal trapping, it reads, "a griping trappe made all of yrne, the lowest barre, the ring or hoope with two clickets." The mousetrap, with a strong spring device spring mounted on a wooden base, was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, Illinois, in 1894.
Native Americans trapped fur bearing animals with pits, dead falls, snares. Trapping was widespread in the early days of North American settlements, companies such as the Canadian fur brigade were established. In the 18th century blacksmiths manually built leghold traps, by the mid-19th century trap companies manufacturing traps and fur stretchers, became established; the monarchs and trading companies of Europe invested in voyages of exploration. The race was on to establish trading posts with the natives of North America, as trading posts could function as forts and legitimize territorial claims; the Hudson's Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, knives, frying pans and blankets for furs from trappers and Native Americans. Trappers and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur, they traded with Native Americans from whom they learned trapping skills. Beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats.
Beaver hats became popular in the early 19th century but the fashion changed. Towards the end of the century beaver became locally extinct in others; the decline in key species of fur-bearers, due to over-harvesting, the emergence of the first regulatory laws marked the end of the heyday of unregulated trapping. Many trappers turned to buffalo hunting, serving as scouts for the army or leading wagon trains to the American west; the trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were used by settlers heading west. Trapping is carried out for a variety of reasons, it was for food and other animal products. Trapping has since been expanded to encompass "pest control", wildlife management, the pet trade, zoological specimens. In the early days of the colonization settlement of North America, the trading of furs was common between the Dutch and Native Americans, the French and Native Americans or English and the local Native Americans. Many locations where trading took place were referred to as trading posts.
Much trading occurred along the Hudson River area in the early 1600s. In some locations in the US and in many parts of southern and western Europe, trapping generates much controversy as it is seen as a contributing factor to declining populations in some species. One such example is the Canadian Lynx. In the 1970s and 1980s, the threat to lynx from trapping reached a new height when the price for hides rose to as much as $600 each. By the early 1990s, the Canada lynx was a clear candidate for Endangered Species Act protection. In response to the lynx’s plight, more than a dozen environmental groups petitioned FWS in 1991 to list lynx in the lower 48 states. Fish and Wildlife Services (FW regional offices and field biologists supported the petition, but FWS officials in the Washington, D. C. headquarters turned it down. In March 2000, the FWS listed the lynx as threatened in the lower 48. In recent years, the prices of fur pelts have declined so low, that some trappers are considering not to trap as the cost of trapping exceeds the return on the furs sold at the end of the season.
Beaver castors are used in many perfumes as a sticky substance. Trappers are paid by the government of Ontario to harvest the castor sacs of beavers and are paid from 10–40 dollars per dry pound when sold to the Northern Ontario Fur Trappers Association. In the early 1900s, muskrat glands were used in making perfume or women just crush the glands and rub them on their body. Trapping is used for pest control of beaver, raccoon, bobcat, Virginia opossum, squirrel, rat and mole in order to limit damage to households, food supplies, farming and property. Traps are used as a method of pest control as an alternative to pesticides. Spring traps which holds the animal are used — mousetraps for mice, or the larger rat traps for larger rodents like rats and squirrel. Specific traps are designed for inverterbrates such as spiders; some mousetraps can double as an insect or universal trap, like the glue traps which catch any small animal that walks upon them. Though it is common to state that trapping is an effective means of pest control, a counter-example is found in the work of Dr. Jon Way, a biologist in Massachusetts.
Dr Way reported that the death or disappearance of a territorial male coyote can lead to double litters, postulates a possible resultant increase in coyote density. Coexistence programs that take this scientific research into account are being pursued by groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animal
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term "Apachu de Nabajo" in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Sc
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, east of Sumatra; the island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia and Brunei in the north, Indonesia to the south. 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo; the sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world; the island is known by many names. Internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei, derived from European contact with the kingdom in the 16th century during the Age of Exploration.
The name Brunei derives from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either "water" or Varuna, the Vedic god of rain. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, meaning "burning weather island". In earlier times, the island was known by other names. In 977, Chinese records began to use the term Bo-ni to refer to Borneo. In 1225, it was mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua; the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom. Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia: Java and Sulawesi, respectively. To the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world, is the largest island of Asia.
Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with an elevation of 4,095 m. Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age, Borneo was part of the mainland of Asia, with Java and Sumatra, the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina; the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating Borneo from neighbouring Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island, creating the divide known as Wallace's Line between Asian and Australia-New Guinea biological regions; the largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,000 km. Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, Rajang in Sarawak and Kinabatangan in Sabah. Borneo has significant cave systems. In Sarawak, the Clearwater Cave has one of the world's longest underground rivers while Deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep.
The Gomantong Caves in Sabah has been dubbed as the "Cockroach Cave" due to the presence of millions of cockroaches inside the cave. The Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak and Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in East Kalimantan which a karst areas contains thousands of smaller caves; the Borneo rainforest is estimated to be around 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. It is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals, the rainforest is one of the few remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan, it is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Borneo elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded leopard, the hose's palm civet and the dayak fruit bat. Peat swamp forests occupy the entire coastline of Borneo; the soil of the peat swamp are comparatively infertile, while it is known to be the home of various bird species such as the hook-billed bulbul, helmeted hornbill and rhinoceros hornbill.
There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees, 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo; the Borneo river shark is known only from the Kinabatangan River. In 2010, the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement was signed in 2007; the WWF has classified the island into seven distinct ecoregions. Most are lowland regions: Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres; the Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres elevation. The Tropical and subtropical grasslands and shrublands on South Kalimantan; the highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids. The island had extensive rainforest cover, but the area w
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history, it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta, was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen, its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt; the history of Memphis is linked to that of the country itself.
Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica; the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979; the site is open to the public as an open-air museum. Memphis has had several names during its history of four millennia, its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj. Because of its size, the city came to be known by various other names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the name of the pyramid of Teti; the city was at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt.
This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, is found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars maintain that this name was that of the western district of the city that lay between the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara, an area that contained a sacred tree. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city became known as Men-nefer, which became "Memfi" in Coptic; the name "Memphis" is the Greek adaptation of this name, the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city. However, Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony says that Memphis was a daughter of river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus, who founded the city and named it after his wife. In the Bible, Memphis is called Noph; the city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Abusir, Abu Gorab, Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis; the city was the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt..
The island of the city is today uninhabited. The closest settlement is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ between sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom. Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties during the Old Kingdom; the city reached a peak of prestige under the 6th dynasty as a centre for the worship of Ptah, the god of creation and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige; the Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of worship in the city. Memphis declined after the 18th dynasty with the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, was revived under the Persians before falling into second place following the foundation of Alexandria.
Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat in 641 CE, it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became a little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone; the legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first pharaoh to unite the Two Lands, established his capital on the banks of the Nile by diverting the river with dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding, it has been theorised that Menes was a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is u