Curling Canada is a sanctioning body for the sport of Curling in Canada. It is associated with more than a dozen provincial and territorial curling associations across the country, organizes Canada's national championships in the sport, it was formed in 1990 by the merger of the two previous sanctioning bodies, Curl Canada and the Canadian Ladies' Curling Association. The CCA was created in 1990 when Curl Canada and the Canadian Ladies' Curling Association amalgamated. From its creation until 2007, Dave Parkes was the General Manager and Chief Executive Officer. Greg Stemlaw was the CEO until 2015 when he took over as Head of Sports at CBC Sports On February 27, 2015, the organization rebranded as Curling Canada. Canadian Mixed Curling Championship Canadian Junior Curling Championships Canadian Visually Impaired Curling Championship Scotties Tournament of Hearts Tim Hortons Brier Canada Cup of Curling Canadian Wheelchair Curling Championship Canadian Senior Curling Championships Canadian Masters Curling Championships Curling Alberta Curl BC Curling Québec Curl Manitoba New Brunswick Curling Association Newfoundland and Labrador Curling Association Northern Ontario Curling Association Northwest Territories Curling Association Nova Scotia Curling Association Nunavut Curling Association CurlON Curl PEI CURLSASK Yukon Curling Association Canadian Team Ranking System standings Canadian Curling Hall of Fame Bonspiel!
The History of Curling in Canada at Library and Archives Canada Official website
54 Piscium is an orange dwarf star 36 light-years away in the constellation of Pisces. In 2003, an extrasolar planet was confirmed to be orbiting the star, in 2006, a brown dwarf was discovered orbiting it; the Flamsteed designation 54 Piscium originated in the star catalogue of the British astronomer John Flamsteed, first published in 1712. It has an apparent magnitude of 5.86, allowing it to be seen with the unaided eye under suitable viewing conditions. The star has a classification of K0V, with the luminosity class V indicating this is a main sequence star, generating energy at its core through the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium; the effective temperature of the photosphere is about 5,062 K, giving it the characteristic orange hue of a K-type star. It has been calculated that the star may have 76 percent of the Sun's mass and 46 percent of the luminosity; the radius has been directly determined by interferometry to be 94 percent that of the Sun's radius using the CHARA array.
The rotational period of 54 Piscium is about 40.2 days. The age of the star is about 6.4 billion years, based on chromospheric activity and isochronal analysis. There is some uncertainty in the scientific press concerning the higher ratio of elements heavier than hydrogen compared to those found in the Sun. Santos et al. report the logarithm of the abundance ratio of iron to hydrogen, to be 0.12 dex, whereas Cenarro et al. published a value of –0.15 dex. Long term observation of this star's magnetic activity levels suggests that it is entering a Maunder minimum period, which means it may undergo an extended period of low starspot numbers, it has a Sun-like activity cycle, decreasing in magnitude. As of 2010, the most recent period of peak activity was 1992–1996, which showed a lower level of activity than the previous peak in 1976–1980. In 2006, a direct image of 54 Piscium showed that there was a brown dwarf companion to 54 Piscium A. 54 Piscium B is thought to be a "methane brown dwarf" of the spectral type "T7.5V".
The luminosity of this substellar object suggests that it has a mass of 0.051 that of the Sun and 0.082 times the Sun's radius. Similar to Gliese 570 D, this brown dwarf is thought to have a surface temperature of about 810 K; when 54 Piscium B was directly imaged by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, it was shown that the brown dwarf had a projected separation of around 476 astronomical units from the primary star. 54 Piscium B was the first brown dwarf to be detected around a star with an known extrasolar planet. The star rotates at an inclination of 83+7−56 degrees relative to Earth. On January 16, 2003, a team of astronomers announced the discovery of an extrasolar planet around 54 Piscium; the planet has been estimated to have a mass of only 20 percent that of Jupiter. The planet orbits its sun at a distance of 0.28 astronomical units, which takes 62 days to complete. It has been assumed that the planet shares the star's inclination and so has real mass close to its minimum mass; the planet has a high eccentricity of about 0.65.
The elliptical orbit suggested that the gravity of an unseen object farther away from the star was pulling the planet outward. That cause was verified with the discovery of the brown dwarf within the system; the orbit of an Earth-like planet would need to be centered within 0.68 AU, which in a Keplerian system means a 240-day orbital period. In a simulation with the brown dwarf, 54 Piscium b's orbit "sweeps clean" most test particles within 0.5 AU, leaving only asteroids "in low-eccentricity orbits near the known planet’s apastron distance, near the 1:2 mean-motion resonance". Observation has ruled out Neptune-class or heavier planets with a period of one year or less. A two planet fit to the radial velocities with two circular planets in a 2:1 orbital resonance is possible however it does not signiﬁcantly improve the solution, therefore does not justify the additional complexity. 107 Piscium 109 Piscium Delta Trianguli Upsilon Andromedae "54 Piscium". SolStation. Retrieved 2008-06-27. "Notes for star HD 3651".
The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-27. "Scientists Snap Images of First Brown Dwarf in Planetary System". Penn State. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2008-06-27. "Distorted Solar System Discovered". Space.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-09