144th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 144th Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Army, Texas Army National Guard. It was served in several American wars including the present War on Terror. Only the 3rd Battalion remains, it is a part of the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the 36th Infantry Division; the 144th Infantry Regiment was created in April 1880, when six volunteer militia companies of the Texas State Guard consolidated into the 4th Texas Infantry. The six companies were the Lamar Rifles from Dallas, the Fannin Light Guards from Bonham, the Frontier Rifles from Henrietta, the Gate City Guard from Denison, the Johnson County Guard from Cleburne, the Queen City Guards from Dallas. In 1898, the 4th Texas Volunteers were mustered for federal service in the Spanish–American War, they were redesignated as the Second Infantry, Texas Volunteers, but they never deployed or saw combat. In 1903, the regiment regained its 4th Texas moniker after a state military force reorganization. In 1916, the 4th Texas mobilized for service along the Mexico–United States border during the Border War, they were responsible for the Big Bend region of Texas.
The regiment was distributed over 600 miles of patrol territory, its detachments at one time covered 22 different stations. The 4th was recognized for their meritorious performance of this patrolling duty and was commended for its work by Major General Frederick Funston, at that time in command of the Southern Department; some of the 4th Texas' stations were 90 miles from a railhead, meaning they had to travel by foot to reach their destinations. It was mustered out of Federal service in February 1917; the regiment was recalled to federal service soon after, in March 1917, was combined with elements of the 6th Texas Infantry at Camp Bowie to form the new 144th Infantry Regiment. They were going to fight in World War I, they were assigned to the 72nd Brigade of the 36th Infantry Division, alongside the 143rd Infantry Regiment. Arriving in France in July 1918, it trained in Bar-sur-Aube until September where they served as a reserve for the French Army. On 9 October 1918, the 144th relieved elements of the 2nd Infantry Division during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
By the time the Texans had reached the front, the Germans were engaging in a fighting retreat all along the front line. Enemy artillery and machine-gun, small arms fire hit the men of the regiment during their continuous advance, but they closed in on the Aisne River by 12 October; the next day, they swept south to clear out any stalwart defenders, were moved off the line. They spent the rest of the war acting as a divisional reserve, they had lost 369 men in the Great War, the second largest toll of the infantry regiments in the division. The 144th was mustered out in July 1919 back at Camp Bowie. During the Interwar period, elements of the 144th performed state duty including storm relief in Dallas and Frost, Texas, they contained riots in Dallas and Sherman, a strike in Texarkana. The regiment assisted in the recovery efforts for the New London School explosion in 1937. While Germany and Fascist Italy were in the process of conquering most of Europe in 1939 and 1940, the Empire of Japan grabbing territory in the Pacific and China in the beginning of the Second World War, the United States felt unprepared in the event war was necessary to combat the Axis Powers and began mobilizing its army in response.
The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 which allowed the government to draft US citizens, was passed, all available National Guard Divisions were inducted into Federal Service within a year. The 144th Infantry Regiment was mobilized on 25 November 1940, trained at Camp Bowie; the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, 8 December 1941, the regiment moved to Fort Lewis, Washington to guard the West Coast against possible Japanese attack under the Western Defense Command. Due to the restructuring of the US Army, the 144th was removed from the 36th Infantry Division command in February 1942 and was organized as a separate regiment; the regiment moved to Atlantic Beach, Florida 21 January 1943 for coastal patrol duty with the Eastern Defense Command. From March 1944 the regiment served as training personnel and as a replacement unit, men from the 144th served as replacements in 48 different Army divisions, it was deactivated on 19 September 1945. When the 49th Armored Division was being created, the 144th Infantry was reactivated by battalion from April to November 1947.
The 1st-4th Battalions were redesignated as Mechanized infantry in 1959. The 144th was mobilized in response to the Berlin Crisis of 1961 and deployed to Fort Polk, Louisiana before returning home in May 1962, it was returned to state service in June. The regiment was deactivated from 1968–1973, where it remained a component of the Texas National Guard. Today, the 3rd Battalion is all that remains of the regiment, it is headquartered in Wylie, Texas. In 2006, as part of the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Company B of the 3d Battalion, 144th Infantry Regiment deployed to Iraq after pre-deployment training at Fort Dix, New Jersey and were engaged in combat operations, they returned in late 2007. 5 Army Commendation Medals with Valor Devices were awarded to soldiers of 1st Platoon, Second Squad in recognition of the defeat of an ambush on a State Department convoy in central Baghdad. On 7 May 2007, 3rd Battalion, 144th Infantry Regiment mobilized as "Task Force Panther" in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
"Task Force Panther" trained at Camp Shelby, and, after validation, deployed to Kuwait, into combat operations in Iraq. The 3rd Battalion-144th Infantry deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2012 as TASK FORCE BOWIE. Under TA
Senior enlisted advisor
A Senior Enlisted Adviser in the United States Armed Forces is the most senior enlisted service member in a unit, acts as an advisor to the commanding officer. Formally, E-9 billets for the senior enlisted advisor are established at Service unit, major command, force, or fleet levels to the SEAs/CSELs of DoD Agencies and the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. SEAs are known as Command Senior Enlisted Leaders. Always a non-commissioned officer, the SEA is the main link between the commanding officer and the enlisted service members under his or her charge. Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Sergeant Major of the Army Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Senior Enlisted Advisor for the National Guard BureauIn the United States Army, the SEA for a battalion or larger-sized unit is a Command Sergeant Major. For Marine battalions and larger, Sergeant Major takes the role.
Navy ships and other commands will have a Command, Fleet, or Force Master Chief Petty Officer, while an Air Force Command Chief Master Sergeant serves at Wing, Numbered Air Force, Field Operating Agency, Major Command or at "Joint," DoD Agency levels. In the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, the senior enlisted advisor at the company or battery level is a First Sergeant. In the Air Force, the senior enlisted member of units smaller than those listed above for Command Chief Master Sergeant is a First Sergeant, it is a special duty assignment. However, in the Air Force a First Sergeant can be an E7, E8 or E9, depending on size and mission of the unit. In Australia the equivalent positions within the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force are Warrant Officer of the Navy, Regimental Sergeant Major-Army and Warrant Officer of the Air Force respectively; the Senior Enlisted advisor of the Canadian Forces is the Canadian Forces Chief Warrant Officer.
The Army and Air Force each have their own Warrant Officer acting as Senior Enlisted advisor NATO has a number of Senior Enlisted Advisors taken from NATO members for various posts, including Senior Enlisted Advisor - NATO Allied Command Transformation South Africa has a Warrant officer of the Defence Force, as well as Sergeant Majors of the Army, Air Force and Medical Services. The Navy equivalent is the Master at Arms of the Navy The Royal Navy has the Warrant Officer of the Naval Service, the British Army has the Army Sergeant Major, the Royal Air Force has the Chief of the Air Staff's Warrant Officer and the Royal Marines the Corps Regimental Sergeant Major. In 2018, the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chiefs of Staff Committee was introduced. Senior Enlisted Advisor on the Dictionary of Occupational Titles Senior Enlisted Advisor on TheFreeDictionary.com
Texas Military Forces
The Texas Military Forces is the three-branch military of the U. S. state of Texas. It is composed of the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard, the Texas State Guard. All three branches are administered by the state adjutant general, an appointee of the Texas governor, fall under the command of the governor; the Texas military was first established by Stephen F. Austin on February 18, 1823, under the authorization of the emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, who directed Austin "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility," as well as to make war on Native American tribes who were hostile to newly established Texas settlements. All of the Texan militias would come under the command of Sam Houston during the Texas War of Independence between Texas and Mexico beginning in 1835 and ending in 1836 after Texas secured its independence to become the new nation of the Republic of Texas. From 1836 to 1845, the Texas militias being a part of the Army of the Republic of Texas fell under the command of the President of the Republic of Texas.
After Texas became the 28th US state in 1845, the state military and its various branches have fallen under the command of the Texas governor. The Texas National Guard consists of the Joint Force Headquarters for Texas, the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard and the Domestic Operations Command; the Guard is administered by an appointee of the governor of Texas. The Constitution of the United States charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions; those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress; when National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-in-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed."
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Texas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." The Texas State Guard is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Texas, U. S. Code and executive order. Additionally, the U. S. Constitution grants the states the right to organize a state militia; the Texas State Guard is the state's authorized militia and is composed of retired and former active and reserve military personnel. Other members include those with no prior military service plus selected professional persons who volunteer their time and talents in further service to Texas; the current adjutant general for the Texas National Guard is Major General Tracy R. Norris, she is the 52nd Adjutant General for the State of Texas and the first female to hold that post in Texas.
Formations of the Texas Army National Guard include the 36th Infantry Division, the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 36th Combat Aviation Brigade, the 71st Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, the 36th Sustainment Brigade, the 176th Engineer Brigade, the 136th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, the 136th Expeditionary Signal Battalion, the 136th Regiment. The current Assistant Adjutant General-Army, for Texas is Major General William L. Smith; the Texas Air National Guard is composed of the 149th Fighter Wing, the 136th Airlift Wing, the 147th Attack Wing, the 254th Combat Communications Group, the 272nd Engineering Installation Squadron, the 204th Security Forces Squadron. The 149th Fighter Wing prepares pilots for combat, the 136th Airlift Wing flies C-130s in-and out of theater and the 147th Reconnaissance Wing has acquired Predators to be the eyes in the hostile sky; the 136th Airlift Wing in Fort Worth flies C-130 cargo aircraft carrying personnel and equipment around the world.
The 531st Air Force Band is co-located with the 136th Airlift Wing. The 147th Attack Wing, headquartered in Houston on the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, provides a worldwide deployable dual-role fighter/attack capability while covering the Gulf Coast from Brownsville, Texas to New Orleans, Louisiana in the Air Sovereignty Alert mission; the 111th Attack Squadron is attached to the 147th Attack Wing. The Squadron flies the MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle; the 149th Fighter Wing is headquartered in San Antonio on Lackland Air Force Base. The fighter wing is assigned to the US Air Forces Air Education and Training Command and is one of the primary "school houses" for F-16 pilots; the 182nd Fighter Squadron is attached to the 149th Fighter Wing. The Squadron flies the Block 30 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon dual-role fighter; the 204th Security Forces Squadron is located at Fort Bliss, El Paso. They are the only security forces unit in the Air National Guard. Since September 11, 2001 attacks, members of the 204th SFS have seen duty in central and southwest Asia, in Africa and onboard ship in the Persian Gulf.
They have served on installations in several states in the U. S. and taught military base defense in Latin American countries. The unit still has members serving in the Iraq area of operations as par
Texas State Guard
The Texas State Guard is the State Defense Force of Texas, is one of three branches of the Texas Military Forces. Along with the other two branches, the TXSG falls under the command of the Governor of Texas and is administered by the Texas Adjutant General, an appointee of the Governor; the other two branches of the Texas Military Forces are the Texas Army National Guard and the Texas Air National Guard. Members of the Texas State Guard are not members of the U. S. Armed Forces; the mission of the Texas State Guard is to provide mission-ready military forces to assist state and local authorities in times of state emergencies, to conduct homeland security and mission support activities under the umbrella of Defense Support to Civil Authorities, to augment the Texas Army National Guard and Texas Air National Guard as required. Headquartered at Camp Mabry in Austin, the TXSG functions as an organized state militia under the authority of Title 32 of the U. S. Code and Chapter 431 of the Texas Government Code.
The Governor of Texas has sole control over the Texas State Guard, because it is not subject to federal activation. The Texas State Guard is a state defense force that assists and augments Texas military and civil authorities in times of state emergencies, in on-going support of National Guard units and local communities, they are not part of the federal armed forces command structure, but rather operate purely as a state organized and controlled force. The Texas State Guard consists of six Civil Affairs Regiments, two Air Wings, a Medical Brigade, a Maritime Regiment. Guardsmen entry rank depends on prior federal military service and/or civilian education. Individuals with no prior military service or ROTC training must attend the Basic Orientation Training course. Texas State Guard personnel support the state in the event of catastrophic events, ongoing state military missions. Guardsmen receive duty pay when activated by the Governor and placed on paid state active duty, starting in 2008, for a limited number of mandatory training days.
The organizational structure follows the federal military component structure, with comparable positions, ranks and authorities. Guardsmen wear the Texas military uniform according to branch of service in regards to state military forces when conducting activities while on duty. TXSG personnel are eligible for the same State issued military awards and decorations as members of the Texas Army & Air National Guard. For example, deployed members of the Texas State Guard received the Governor's Unit Citation for Hurricane Katrina and Rita relief in 2005; the governor is the commander in chief of the Texas State Guard. Article 4, Section 7 of the Texas Constitution states that "He shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the State, except when they are called into actual service of the United States, he shall have power to call forth the militia to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, to repel invasions." Commanding General Major General Robert Bodisch. Graduate of the U. S. Army Basic Military Police Officer and Advanced Military Police Officer course, the Joint Task Force Commander Training Course.
He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Criminal Justice from the University of Houston and a Master of Science degree in Quality Systems Management from the National Graduate School, in Falmouth, Massachusetts. Robert Bodisch, Sr. of Round Rock has served in the Texas State Guard for over 30 years and served as the Interim Commander. He served as the Department of Public Safety Chief of Staff and Deputy Director of Texas Homeland Security, which included the Intelligence and Counter Terrorism Division and the Texas Division of Emergency Management, he started his 45-year law enforcement and criminal justice career in 1973 as a deputy sheriff with the Harris County Sheriff’s Department after serving four years on active duty with the United States Marine Corps. Among numerous other assignments, he served two tours of duty in Iraq working for the Department of Justice International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program. Bodisch holds a Master Peace Officer license and has over 6800 hours of law enforcement education and training, a Bachelor of Science in criminal justice from the University of Houston and a master’s degree in quality systems management from the National Graduate School in Falmouth, Massachusetts.
DEPUTY COMMANDING GENERAL Needs updating SENIOR ENLISTED ADVISOR Sergeant Major Becknel. Served as an Aviation Ordnanceman in the United States Marine Corps from January 1987 to July 1996. During his 9.5 years SgtMaj Becknel served in the 3rd and 4th Marine Aircraft Wings. While on active duty he completed the Marine Corps NCO Academy Career Nonresident Program, the Staff NCO Academy Advanced Nonresident Program. In May 2008, SgtMaj Becknel entered into the Texas State Guard, Texas Maritime Regiment, 1st Battalion and was the Senior Enlisted Advisor for 1st Battalion from July 2010 until October 2014. SgtMaj Becknel has a Bachelor of Science in Business Management and a Masters in Business Administration both obtained from the University of Phoenix; the Texas State Guard has its roots in Stephen F. Austin's colonial militia. On February 18, 1823, Emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, authorized Austin, the leader of the first non-Spanish efforts of Texas settlement "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility."
Austin was appointed to the rank of lieutenant colonel and allowed the colonists to elect all subordinate militia officers. Soon after, Austin’s militia was authorized to make war on Indian tribes who were hostile and molested the settl
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
50th Armored Division (United States)
The 50th Armored Division was a division of the Army National Guard from July 1946 until 1993. On 13 October 1945 the War Department published a postwar policy statement for the entire Army, calling for a 27-division Army National Guard structure with 25 infantry divisions and 2 armored divisions to accommodate the desires of all the states. Once the process of negotiation was complete, among the new formations formed, for the first time in the National Guard, were armored divisions, the 49th and 50th; the 50th Armored Division replaced the 44th Infantry Division within the New Jersey Army National Guard. New Jersey, which had supported part of the 44th Division before the war, now supported the 50th Armored Division, which became nicknamed the "Jersey Blues." Therefore, most of its elements'inherited' the history of the organic units of the old 44th, elements of the new 44th perpetuated the history and traditions of former units in Illinois. In a 1968 reorganization, the 50th, was joined by the 27th Armored Brigade from New York, the remnant of the 27th Armored Division.
At this point, the division lost its'Jersey Blues' nickname. Following efforts by Army Chief of Staff General Frederick C. Weyand to raise the readiness of the Army National Guard, the 50th Armored Division was reorganized as a bi-state division in New Jersey and Vermont. At the time, individual armor battalions in NJ and VT were issued 90-mm M48A1 and M48A3 medium tanks; the bi-state organization comprised: Headquarters, 50th Armored Division 104th Engineer Battalion HQ & HQ, Co. A, Co. B, Co. C, Co. E Teaneck NJ. Co. D, Vermont 5th Squadron, 117th Cavalry Regiment 150th Aviation Battalion 1st Brigade 2nd Brigade 86th Brigade Division Artillery Division Support CommandBetween 1975-76 Vt & NJ armor battalions started turning in their M48A3 tanks and began receiving M48A5 105mm models, which were identical to the base-model M60 medium tank with the round turret; the M48A5 had M60A3's in use by active-army. During this time, many VT tank crews competed in gunnery exercises held in West Germany and brought back awards.
Training within the 50th was rigorous during the Soviet threat peak years of the late 1970s to mid 1980s. Germany was the primary AO of the 50thAD; the Center of Military History notes that reorganizing the Army National Guard to meet the new'Division 86' structures in the mid-1980s was a challenging process, most Guard divisions expanded their recruiting areas. The 50th Armored Division did not, instead had the allotment for one of its brigades moved to the Texas Army National Guard, making the future of the division within the force structure'uncertain'. During this time, both battalions of Vermont's 172nd Armor 86th BDE began doing their annual training at Ft Hood TX, a change from their former armor deployment base of Ft Drum NY. By October 1986, Vermont's 86th Brigade left the 50th Armor Division and became part of the 26th Infantry Division. A few years the 86th went to the 42nd ID and got M60A3 medium tanks. On 1 September 1993, the 50th Armored Division was inactivated and its remaining brigades joined other divisions.
New Jersey's 50th Infantry Brigade, which took the Division's lineage, was made part of the 42nd Infantry Division. The 36th Infantry Brigade from Texas was reabsorbed into the 49th Armored Division. In the early 1990s further consolidation followed the fall of the Soviet Union, the 26th Infantry Division disbanded, causing Vermont's 86th Brigade to join the 42nd Infantry Division and soon receive M1A2 Abrams main battle tanks. While under the 50th Armor Division, Vermont's 1-172nd and 2-172nd Armored Battalions of the 86th Brigade excelled at tank gunnery and field exercises, making the 86th Brigade the only Army National Guard unit to consistently accomplish Tank Table XII, an honor it continued to earn after the 50th AD disbanded. Due to further military consolidations, the 86th Brigade turned in its Abrams tanks in 2006 and ended its Armor designation just short of 40 years. Notes Bibliography"Chapter XIII The Total Army".'Manoeuvre and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades'.
United States Army Center of Military History. 1998. CMH Pub 60-14. Archived from the original on 26 December 2012. Http://www.geocities.com/armored50th/50th_Armored.html