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Texas Declaration of Independence

The Texas Declaration of Independence was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution. It was adopted at the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 2, 1836, was formally signed the next day after mistakes were noted in the text. In October 1835, settlers in Mexican Texas launched the Texas Revolution. However, within Austin, many struggled with understanding what the ultimate goal of the Revolution was; some believed that the goal should be total independence from Mexico, while others sought the reimplementation of the Mexican Constitution of 1824. To settle the issue, a convention was called for March 1836; this convention differed from the previous Texas councils of 1832, 1833, the 1835 Consultation. Many of the delegates to the 1836 convention were young men who had only arrived in Texas from the United States, in violation of Mexico's immigration ban of April, 1830, although many of them had participated in one of the battles in 1835.

The only two known native Texans to sign are Jose Antonio Navarro. Most of the delegates were members of the War Party and were adamant that Texas must declare its independence from Mexico. Forty-one delegates arrived in Washington-on-the-Brazos on February 28; the convention was convened on March 1 with Richard Ellis as president. The delegates selected a committee of five to draft a declaration of independence; the committee submitted its draft within a mere 24 hours, leading historians to speculate that Childress had written much of it before his arrival at the Convention. The declaration was approved on March 2 with no debate. Based on the writings of John Locke and Thomas Jefferson, the declaration proclaimed that the Mexican government "ceased to protect the lives and property of the people, from whom its legitimate powers are derived" and complained about "arbitrary acts of oppression and tyranny". Throughout the declaration are numerous references to the United States laws and customs.

Omitted from the declaration was the fact that the author and many of the signatories were citizens of the United States, occupying Texas illegally, therefore had no legal rights in the government of Mexico. The declaration makes clear that the men were accustomed to the laws and privileges of the United States, were unfamiliar with the language and traditions of the nation that they were rebelling against; the declaration established the Republic of Texas, although it was not recognized at that time by any government other than itself. The Mexican Republic still considered the delegates to be invaders. Among others, the declaration mentions the following reasons for the separation: The 1824 Constitution of Mexico establishing a federal republic had been overturned and changed into a centralist military dictatorship by Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna; the Mexican government had invited settlers to Texas and promised them constitutional liberty and republican government, but reneged on these guarantees.

Texas was in union with the Mexican state of Coahuila as Coahuila y Tejas, with the capital in distant Saltillo, thus the affairs of Texas were decided at a great distance from the province and in the Spanish language, which the immigrants called "an unknown tongue". Political rights to which the settlers had been accustomed in the United States, such as the right to keep and bear arms and the right to trial by jury, were denied; the right to keep slaves was endangered by the 1824 Constitution of Mexico. No system of public education had been established. Attempts by the Mexican government to enforce import tariffs were called "piratical attacks" by "foreign desperadoes"; the settlers were not allowed freedom of religion. All legal settlers were required to convert to Catholicism. Based upon the United States Declaration of Independence, the Texas Declaration contains many memorable expressions of American political principles: "the right of trial by jury, that palladium of civil liberty, only safe guarantee for the life and property of the citizen."

"our arms... are essential to our defence, the rightful property of freemen, formidable only to tyrannical governments." Sixty men signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. Three of them were born in Mexico. Fifty-seven of the sixty moved to Texas from the United States. Ten of them had lived in Texas for more than six years, while one-quarter of them had been in the province for less than a year; this is significant, because it indicates that the majority of signatories had moved to Texas after the Law of April 6, 1830, banning immigration, had taken effect, meaning that the majority were citizens of the United States, occupying Texas illegally. Fifty-nine of these men were delegates to the Convention, one was the Convention Secretary, Herbert S. Kimble, not a delegate. Texas Independence Day Timeline of the Republic of Texas Declaration of Independence Davis, Joe Tom. Legendary Texians. 1. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. ISBN 0-89015-336-1. Roberts, Randy. A Line in the Sand: The Alamo in B

The Vietnamese Gulag

The Vietnamese Gulag is the autobiography of the Vietnamese pro-democracy activist Doan Van Toai. The book focuses on his arrest and imprisonment by the Communist Vietnamese government, events which precipitated a change in his political belief from lukewarm communist to advocate of democracy. Writing in The New York Times, Robert Shaplan said that the book "is reminiscent, at its best, of E. E. Cummings's Enormous Room and Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon." Shaplan notes that the book's "value derives from having been one of the first Vietnamese to write of his experience, to describe what he calls'the method of the betrayal' of his revolutionary hopes and ideals." John P Roche, who reviewed the book for the Los Angeles Times, called the narrative "moving" and "written with a striking lack of self-pity". The Vietnamese Gulag was written in French and published in 1979. A German translation followed in 1980; the English translation was published in 1986 and met with critical approval. Xinjiang reeducation camps

Dorothy Stoneman

Dorothy Stoneman is the founder and former CEO of YouthBuild USA, Inc. and former chairman of the YouthBuild Coalition, with over 1,000 member organizations in 45 states, Washington, D. C. and the Virgin Islands. She has been recognized for her contributions to the civil rights movements, poverty elimination efforts, the emergence of the youth development field in the United States. Among the numerous awards she has received, Stoneman was awarded a MacArthur "genius" Fellowship, the Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. Stoneman was raised in Belmont, Massachusetts, she graduated from Belmont High School in 1959. She received her B. A. in history and science from Harvard University in 1963. The following year she moved to New York City and joined the civil rights movement through the Harlem Action Group. Stoneman lived and worked in Harlem for the next 24 years, receiving her M. A. in early childhood education from Bank Street College of Education in 1972. She received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Bank Street College of Education in 1994.

Stoneman began her work in Harlem in 1964 by organizing summer preschool programs for children who were entering first grade with no early education. She began her teaching career at PS 92 as a second-grade teacher. In 1965, Stoneman became a Head Start teacher at the East Harlem Block Schools and, in 1969, was promoted by parents who made up the board of directors, to executive director. In 1978, Stoneman founded the Youth Action Program, under the aegis of the East Harlem Block Schools, when she organized groups of local teenagers to undertake a variety of community improvement projects of their own design. One of these was a project to rebuild an abandoned building in East Harlem. Stoneman created the Youth Action Program to "mobilize teenagers to become a positive force for change."In 1984, she led the city-wide expansion of the housing construction program, in 1988 she began a national replication of the program model that had by been named YouthBuild. In 1990, she established YouthBuild USA as an independent nonprofit to continue to spread the YouthBuild program nationwide.

By 1992, Stoneman was overseeing 20 YouthBuild programs across 11 states. Stoneman worked with then-Massachusetts Senator John Kerry to develop legislation which would authorize YouthBuild as a federal program; the bill was passed in 1992, signed into law by President George H. W. Bush, funded within the US Department of Housing and Urban Development; as a result of its ongoing success under Stoneman's leadership, the federalYouthBuild program has received bipartisan support through five administrations, resulting in over 250 YouthBuild programs in the United States, the distribution to local nonprofit and public sponsoring organizations of over $1.4 billion of federal funds and the production of over 28,000 units of affordable housing by over 130,000 YouthBuild students. In 2001, Stoneman oversaw the beginning of YouthBuild's international expansion in South Africa, which spread to 21 counties by 2016. YouthBuild programs enable young low-income people to “rebuild their communities and their lives, breaking the cycle of poverty with a commitment to work, education and community."

The YouthBuild program has five core components: Construction, personal counseling, leadership development and graduate opportunity. Students spend every other week on a job site, learning the construction trade by building affordable homes for their own communities, while working toward earning a GED or high school diploma. 93 percent of students have left high school without a diploma prior to YouthBuild, about one-third have been court-involved. The program, provides both housing for low-income residents and gives students the opportunity to gain experience utilizing marketable job skills, while completing their high school education and preparing for college, it addresses in one intervention the key issues facing low-income communities: Education, violence, leadership development, affordable housing. YouthBuild programs are now funded by the US Department of Labor, which provides funding directly to local community-based organizations through an annual competitive process. YouthBuild USA provides training and technical assistance to these federal grantees under contract with the US Department of Labor, leads a national affiliated network of YouthBuild programs that choose to contribute to the YouthBuild movement whether or not they are funded by the federal government in any particular year.

In 2012, Stoneman orchestrated the founding and development of the National Council of Young Leaders, which in 2015 launched a national grassroots movement of low-income young adults called Opportunity Youth United. When Stoneman retired from her role as CEO of YouthBuild USA in 2017 she was she was succeeded by John Valverde. Stoneman now directs her full-time attention to her role as senior advisor to Opportunity Youth United. 2017, received the US Green Building Council’s Leadership Award 2017, received the America’s Promise award from America’s Promise 2013, invited to speak at the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 2012, named a Champion of Change by the White House 2012, received Harvard Call to Service award 2008, identified by Nonprofit Times as one of the 50 most influential nonprofit leaders 2008, selected by Ashoka as a senior fellow 2007, awarded the international Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship 2000, awarded the Independent Sector’s John Gardner Leadership Award 1996, awarded a MacArthur “Genius” Fellowship As of February 2018, Stoneman serves on the board of directors of Public Allies, Inc..

National Register of Historic Places listings in Decatur County, Indiana

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Decatur County, Indiana. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Decatur County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 10 districts listed on the National Register in the county. Properties and districts located in incorporated areas display the name of the municipality, while properties and districts in unincorporated areas display the name of their civil township. Properties and districts split between multiple jurisdictions display the names of all jurisdictions; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. List of National Historic Landmarks in Indiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Indiana List of Indiana state historical markers in Decatur County


K2-229b is an hot, iron-rich exoplanet in a close orbit around the active K-dwarf K2-229 in the constellation Virgo, 335 light years away from Earth. K2-229b is a Earth-sized planet, first identified using the transit method, where a planet passes in front of its host star and blocks a tiny fraction of its light; when the planet was first discovered, only its radius was known. It was determined to be about 16.5 % larger than Earth. A planet of this size is most rocky with a solid surface, like Earth itself. However, radial velocity measurements using the HARPS spectrograph revealed that K2-229b was far denser and more massive than expected; the planet has a mass of 2.59 M⊕ and an high density of about 8.9 g/cm3, giving it about 91% more surface gravity than Earth. The unusually high mass and density of K2-229b indicates a Mercury-like composition dominated by an iron core taking up about 70% of the planet's mass. | mass = 0.837 +0.019−0.025Due to its tight orbit, K2-229b is one of the hottest planets yet found.

It has an equilibrium temperature of 1,960 K, hot enough to melt iron. The day side has an higher temperature in excess of 2,330 K. K2-229b has one of the shortest orbital periods known, with one full orbit taking just 0.584 days to complete. The planet orbits its host star at a distance of 0.012888 AU, nearly 100 times closer in than Earth. For comparison, our Solar System's innermost planet, takes 88 days to orbit at 0.39 AU. K2-229b has an orbital eccentricity of 0 and is most tidally locked with its host star. K2-229b orbits the orange dwarf star K2-229, about 79% the radius and 84% the mass of the Sun, with a temperature of 5185 K and an age of about 5.4 billion years. For comparison, the Sun is 4.5 billion years old. K2-229 has a visual magnitude of 10.985, too faint to be seen without a telescope. It is noted for being active; the discovery of the high mass and density of K2-229b was unexpected. "When we saw this planet, Earth-sized, we thought it would have an Earth-like composition. But it turns out it's more like Mercury", astrophysicist Jessie Christiansen, not part of the team which discovered K2-229b, told Newsweek.

The unusual Mercury-like composition of K2-229b is believed to offer insight into how it and other high-density, Mercury-like planets could have formed. There are multiple hypotheses on how K2-229b became so dense, with one stating that much of the planet's atmosphere was eroded away by stellar radiation from its nearby, active star. Another hypothesis suggests that K2-229b was formed when two planets in the system collided, much like the theory on how the Moon was created from a collision between Earth and another planet; as of March 2018, all these theories are still in play, there is not enough evidence to either prove or refute them. Researchers noted K2-229b's position in its planetary system. "Interestingly K2-229b is the innermost planet in a system of at least 3 planets, though all three orbit much closer to their star than Mercury. More discoveries like this will help us shed light on the formation of these unusual planets, as well as Mercury itself", commented Dr. David Armstrong, one of the members of the team from the University of Warwick's Astronomy and Astrophysics Group which discovered the planet.

K2-229b is noted for being quite similar to Mercury, with about the same core-mass fraction of 68 +17−25%. However, the former is far closer to its host star and is more susceptible to mantle evaporation than the latter. With a day side temperature of over 2,330 K, K2-229 is expected to have at least a thin atmosphere of silicate vapor created from the high temperatures on the star-facing side of the planet. Despite the high activity of K2-229, the planet is not expected to lose this atmosphere. If K2-229b has a magnetic field it can resist atmospheric erosion, meaning that mantle evaporation is unlikely to have resulted in the planet's iron-rich composition. That, K2-229b is estimated to only lose 1.3×10−5 M⊕ per year, too little to remove any more than a few percent of its total mass over its lifetime. Iron planet K2-141b, another high-density rocky planet taking less than 1 day to orbit its star Kepler-10b COROT-7b Kepler-78b

Jude Kuring

Judith Kuring known as Jude Kuring is an Australian actress who appeared in film and television during the late 1970s and early 80s. She remains best known for her role as petty criminal Noeline Bourke in the soap opera Prisoner, her film roles include The Singer and the Dancer, Journey Among Women, The Journalist... Maybe This Time and Prisoner Queen. Kuring joined the Australian Performing Group in Melbourne during the early 1970s and starred alongside Max Gillies, Graeme Blundell, Bruce Spence and others in a number of plays, variety shows and other stage productions written by David Williamson and Jack Hibberd, she continued performing with the APG and, in 1972, she became involved in an oppositional subgroup of the APG which included, among others, Micky Allen, Claire Dobbin, Kerry Dwyer, Laurel Frank, Evelyn Krape and Yvonne Marini. The group held its first show, Betty Can Jump that year. Although making her first appearance on the police drama Homicide in 1971, Kuring would not begin television acting for another four years until being cast in a minor role in the 1975 television movie They Don't Clap Losers.

During the next few years, she was seen on the television series Alvin Purple as well as playing various characters on comedy shows including Wollongong the Brave. In 1977, Kuring made her film debut in The Singer and the Dancer as Mrs Herbert, the nagging daughter of Mrs Bilson; that year, she appeared in her breakout role as Grace in the cult film Journey Among Women. She had supporting roles in Newsfront and The Journalist before being cast as Noeline Bourke in the soap opera Prisoner. Portrayed as a lower class thief and the head of a small family of petty thieves, Noeline Bourke was introduced to the series as an inmate emerging to fight Monica Ferguson for position of "top dog" while Bea Smith is recovering in hospital. One of the subplots during the first and second seasons of the series focused on her criminal family, in one episode, her brother Col is killed by police during a hostage situation, her character was released shortly after, however she was again caught breaking into a warehouse with her daughter Leanne and returned to Wentworth where she served another brief stint.

Taking time off from the series, Kuring appeared in the 1980 film Maybe This Time for which she was nominated for Best Actress in a Supporting Role by the Australian Film Institute. Kuring reappeared on the series, her character being reintroduced shortly after the death of her daughter Leanne, killed during a protest at the prison. After being accepted into the prison's work release program, she is coerced to help one of the employees, Kay White, by using her family to steal fabric from the factory, she is set up by White however and, with the work release canceled, she is transferred to Barnhurst for her own protection. In 1981, she and Chris Westwood formed a women's subgroup in the APG; the two had been discussing the lack of women's roles in Australian theater relegated to the stereotypical "hooker with a heart of gold", or as a mother, began organizing members at Nimrod Theatre. They were given a $110,000 Limited Life Project grant from the Theatre Board of the Australian Council, which they used for a variety of projects including two sets of play readings, a series of acting workshops and included hosting a seminar on women and music.

After guest appearing on Waterloo Station in 1983, Kuring subsequently moved away from acting. However, she once more returned to her former career to play a prominent role in the movie Prisoner Queen, which centered on an obsessed fan of the Prisoner television series. Jude Kuring on IMDb Jude Kuring at