Henry Ross Perot is an American business magnate and former politician. As the founder of the successful Electronic Data Systems corporation, he became a billionaire, he ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in U. S. history. Born in Texarkana, Texas, he became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot became involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During President George H. W. Bush's tenure, Perot became active in politics and opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots, he chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 CPD debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot did not win any electoral votes, he won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, he won 8.4 % of the popular vote against Republican nominee Bob Dole. Perot did not seek public office again after 1996 and did not enter the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries, he endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012.
In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States in 2016. Perot was born in Texarkana, the son of Lula May Perot and Gabriel Ross Perot, a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts, his patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to French Louisiana in the 1740s. He attended, he graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947. One of Perot's childhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, who became the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent lawyer in Texarkana, Arkansas. Perot made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program, he is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College entered the U. S. Naval helped establish its honor system. Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator. Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.
After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He became a top employee and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who ignored him, he left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems in Dallas and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U. S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story. In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion. In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970. Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot sponsored their rescue; the rescue team was led by retired U.
S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract the two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners; the two prisoners connected with the rescue team, the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 mini-series, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna. In 1984, Perot bought a early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom, it was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D. C. where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families." The document sold for US$21.3 million on Dec. 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, is kept on display at the National Archives.
After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple an
Concordia University Texas
Concordia University Texas is a private, coeducational institution of liberal arts and sciences located in northwest Austin, in the U. S. state of Texas. The university offers undergraduate and online degrees as well as an Adult Degree Program for part-time and returning students. Concordia University Texas is affiliated with the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and is a member of the Concordia University System, the nine-member association of LCMS colleges and universities; as a Lutheran university, Concordia's stated mission is to develop Christian leaders. Concordia was founded in 1926 as Lutheran Concordia College of Texas, a four-year high school that prepared young men for careers in ministry and teaching; the school opened with 26 students on its original site along East Avenue on the northern outskirts of Austin, Texas. In 1929, a two-story classroom building called the Music Building, still known as College Central, was built. Concordia was founded by members of Texas's Wendish immigrant community.
The original main building, Kilian Hall, is named for the Wend John Kilian, founder of the first Texas Lutheran church associated with the LCMS and leader of a large group of Wends who settled in the Serbin area. Today, between 10 and 15 percent of Concordia's faculty and students are of Wendish heritage. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s many buildings were added to the campus, such as Hirschi Memorial Library in 1949 and Kramer Hall, the college's first air-conditioned classroom building, in 1950, but dedicated on February 25, 1951. In 1951, Concordia started using a two-year junior college curriculum. Building developments on campus continued throughout the 1960s; the campus built its chapel, named Birkmann Memorial Chapel, in 1952. Texas Hall, which housed dining services and faculty offices was dedicated in 1953. Studtmann Hall, an all-girl's dormitory opened in 1955; the first Beto Hall on the Concordia campus was housed science labs. In the early 21st century, this building was converted into the school's mail services facility.
In 1955 Concordia admitted women as students for the first time and the institution changed its name to Concordia Lutheran College in 1965. In 1969, the four-year high school program was disbanded and Concordia’s curriculum expanded to four years after receiving permission to award Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1980. Concordia joined the Concordia University System in 1993; the CUS represents the ten colleges and universities run by the LCMS. In 1995, under the leadership of President Rev. Dr. David Zersen, the name of the institution was changed to Concordia University at Austin; the Accelerated Degree Program, with sites in Austin, Ft. Worth and San Antonio, within the College of Adult Education, was launched in 1995 to offer working adults the opportunity to earn a degree. Harms Hall, a dormitory, opened in January 2000 more than doubling campus resident capacity; the first Graduate program was developed during this period. In 2002, Dr. Thomas E. Cedel, a former fighter pilot and Colonel in the United States Air Force was named President of the university.
In 2007, Concordia University at Austin changed its name to Concordia University Texas. In August 2008, Concordia University relocated its primary campus, moving onto more than 389 acres in Northwest Austin; the city of Austin allowed the demolition of the former campus. A developer bought the space with plans to construct a mixed-use development; the new campus was dedicated on October 26, 2008. In 2005, the Board of Regents approved the relocation of the Concordia University Texas campus. Since its founding the school had occupied a 23-acre campus near downtown Austin; the new campus is located in northwest Austin on 384 acres of land. Construction began in the spring of 2007, the new campus opened in September 2008; the site for Concordia's new campus is the former Schlumberger Austin Systems Center. The site an R&D facility, had six buildings connected by covered walkways and encircled by a nature trail; the six buildings, named by letter A-F, while extensively renovated, retained their basic design and features, including solid oak trim, large windows, sky lights and atria.
Three new structures were built prior to occupation of the new Concordia campus: student housing, a fieldhouse and a front entry/guard house. In addition to the new structures, 600 additional parking spaces and new roads were built to handle the increased traffic on the campus. In 2014, Concordia broke ground on a state-of-the-art softball field, completed in 2016; the campus includes a 250-acre nature preserve that has springs and wetlands, dense trees and wildlife. A 10-A federal permit is required and only one other higher education institution carries one; the inclusion of the nature preserve allows Concordia to devote time to urban environmentalism in the Austin community. The Concordia University Nature Preserve is part of the Balcones Canyonlands Preserve, a system of preserves in western Travis County that provides habitat for a number of rare and endangered plant and animal species such the Golden-cheeked warbler and Black-capped vireo, two rare species of songbirds that breed in Central Texas.
In 2013, Dr. Thomas E. Cedel, announced his retirement from Concordia University Texas. In 2014 Former Dean of the College of Business, Dr. Don Christian was named Chief Executive Officer. Student Body, Fall 2017 Total Enrollment: 2619 Undergraduate: 1722 Graduate: 897 Concordia University Texas has majors and programs of study within four colleges: Business & Communication, Nursing and Arts & Sciences. Co
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major
Dick Cheney hunting accident
On February 11, 2006, United States vice president Dick Cheney accidentally shot Harry Whittington, a 78-year-old Texas attorney, with a shotgun while participating in a quail hunt on a ranch in Riviera, Texas. Both Cheney and Whittington called the incident an accident; the incident was reported to the Corpus Christi Caller-Times on February 12, 2006, by ranch owner Katherine Armstrong. The Bush administration disclosed the shooting incident to the public the afternoon of February 12. Local authorities released a report on the shooting on February 16, 2006, witness statements on February 22. On February 14, 2006, Whittington suffered a non-fatal heart attack and atrial fibrillation due to at least one lead-shot pellet lodged in or near his heart, he had a collapsed lung. Cheney did not speak publicly about the incident until February 15 in an interview with Fox News. Early reports indicated that the injuries were minor. Whittington clarified that he and Cheney were not close friends but acquaintances.
The shooting was reported to have taken place on Saturday, February 11, 2006, based on the public statements of Katherine Armstrong, owner of the 50,000-acre Armstrong Ranch. However, in her written statement to the Sheriff, she said that the shooting happened on February 12. Harry Whittington said shortly after the incident, "Accidents do and will happen – and that's what happened last Friday." Mary Matalin stated on Meet the Press that "Somebody had talked to some ranch hand". Neither the Sheriff's report nor witness statements identify; the Secret Service said. Kenedy County Sheriff Ramone Salinas III states he first heard of the shooting at about 5:30 pm from Captain Charles Kirk, Salinas implies that he received'official' notice from the Secret Service at about 5:40 pm; the time of the shooting was not stated by Cheney. Cheney had a televised interview about the shooting on February 15. On February 22, the Sheriff's office released statements from Katherine Armstrong, Sarita Hixon, Pamela Pitzer Willeford, Oscar Medellin, Gerardo Medellin and Andrew Hubert.
Cheney's statement and all six of the other hunting party members' statements specify that Cheney and Willeford had first shot birds together in a covey. While Whittington was searching for a downed bird, Willeford and a guide walked towards another covey about 100 yards away. Whittington approached to within 30 or 40 yards of the shooters, at which point a single bird flew up, around and behind Cheney in the direction of Whittington. Cheney hit Whittington. Armstrong, the ranch owner, claimed that all in the hunting party were wearing blaze-orange safety gear and none had been drinking, that at lunch they drank beer, which contradicts her statement that "there may a beer or two in, but remember not everyone in the party was shooting." Cheney has acknowledged that he had one beer five hours prior to the shooting. Armstrong said she never saw Cheney or Whittington drink until at the house where Cheney had a few cocktails. Armstrong did not see the incident happen, believing that the reason Cheney's security detail was running was that Cheney had a heart problem, but Cheney described her as an eyewitness in his Fox interview.
Secret Service agents and medical aides, who were traveling with Cheney, came to Whittington's assistance and treated his birdshot wounds to his right cheek and chest. An ambulance standing nearby for the Vice President took Whittington to nearby Kingsville before he was flown by helicopter to Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital in Corpus Christi. At the scene: Dick Cheney Harry Whittington Pamela Pitzer Willeford Oscar Medellin "Secret Service personnel" were reported to be with the two shooters and Oscar MedellinIn a car at an unstated distance away from the shooting: Katherine Armstrong, owner of the ranch Sarita Storey Armstrong Hixon, Armstrong's sister On February 13, 2006, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department issued an incident report. According to the report, Cheney "was swinging on game", i.e. turning to track it with his shotgun. The summary of the incident given was: Whittington downed a bird and went to retrieve it. While he was out of the hunting line, another covey was flushed and Cheney swung on a bird and fired, striking Whittington in the face and chest.
The report cited sunny weather at the time of the shooting. Whittington was injured in the face and upper torso. Whittington was reported to be in stable condition at Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital and had been moved from intensive care to a "step-down unit" on Monday. Doctors decided to leave about 30 birdshot pellets lodged in his body rather than try to remove them. One of these pellets still affects his voice today; each pellet is less than a tenth of an inch in diameter. On February 14, 2006, at 6:30 a.m. Whittington suffered a minor heart attack and atrial fibrillation due to the shot pellets lodged in or near his heart, as well as a collapsed lung, he was moved back to the intensive care unit. At about 9 a.m. Whittingon underwent a cardiac catheterization test to detect leaky arteries. From the test, doctors found a single lead pellet. Hospital officials said Whittington was alert and stable and that he did not experience chest pain or other symptoms of a heart attack. Doctors reported signs of inflammation, Whittington was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.
Whittington was subsequently discharged from the hospital on Febru