Texas Rangers (baseball)

The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington, located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division. In 2020, they will move to the new Globe Life Field after having played at Globe Life Park in Arlington from 1994 to 2019; the team's name is borrowed from the famous law enforcement agency of the same name. The franchise was established in 1961 as the Washington Senators, an expansion team awarded to Washington, D. C. after the city's first AL ballclub, the second Washington Senators, moved to Minnesota and became the Twins. After the 1971 season, the new Senators moved to Arlington, debuted as the Rangers the following spring; the Rangers have made eight appearances in the MLB postseason, seven following division championships in 1996, 1998, 1999, 2010, 2011, 2015, 2016 and as a wild card team in 2012. In 2010, the Rangers advanced past the Division Series for the first time, defeating the Tampa Bay Rays.

The team brought home their first American League pennant after beating the New York Yankees in six games. In the 2010 World Series, the franchise's first, the Rangers fell to the San Francisco Giants in five games, they repeated as American League champions the following year lost the 2011 World Series to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games; when the Washington Senators moved to Minnesota in 1960 to become the Twins, Major League Baseball decided to expand a year earlier than planned to stave off the twin threats of competition from the proposed Continental League and loss of its exemption from the Sherman Antitrust Act. As part of the expansion, the American League added two new teams for the 1961 season–the Los Angeles Angels and a new Washington Senators team. However, the new Senators were considered an expansion team since the Twins retained the old Senators' records and history; the Senators and Angels began to fill their rosters with American League players in an expansion draft. The team played the 1961 season at old Griffith Stadium before moving to the new District of Columbia Stadium under a 10-year lease.

For most of their existence, the new Senators were the definition of futility, losing an average of 90 games a season. The team's struggles led to a twist on a joke about the old Senators: "Washington: first in war, first in peace and still last in the American League." Their only winning season was in 1969 when Hall of Famer Ted Williams managed the club to an 86–76 record, placing fourth in the AL East. Frank Howard, an outfielder/first baseman from 1965 to 1972 known for his towering home runs, was the team's most accomplished player, winning two home run titles; the concurrent rise of the Baltimore Orioles to regular championship contenders did not help the Senators' cause either. Ownership changed hands several times during the franchise's stay in Washington and was plagued by poor decision-making and planning. Following their brief success in 1969, owner Bob Short was forced to make many questionable trades to lower the debt he had incurred to pay for the team. By the end of the 1970 campaign, Short had issued an ultimatum: unless someone was willing to buy the Senators for $12 million, he would not renew the stadium lease and would move the team elsewhere.

Short was receptive to an offer brought up by Arlington, mayor Tom Vandergriff, trying to obtain a major league sports team to play in the Metroplex for over a decade. Years earlier, Charles O. Finley, the owner of the Kansas City Athletics, sought to relocate his baseball team to Dallas, but the idea was rebuffed and declined by the other AL team owners. Arlington's hole card was Turnpike Stadium, a 10,000-seat park, built in 1965 to house the Double-A Dallas-Fort Worth Spurs of the Texas League. However, it had been built to MLB specifications, only minor excavations would be necessary to expand the park to accommodate major league crowds. Vandergriff's offer of a multimillion-dollar down payment prompted Short to make the move to Arlington. On September 21, 1971, by a vote of 10 to 2, American League owners granted approval to move the franchise to Arlington for the 1972 season. Senators fans were livid. Enmity came to a head at the club's last game in Washington. Thousands of fans walked in without paying after the security guards left early, swelling the paid attendance of 14,460 to around 25,000, while fans unfurled a banner reading "SHORT STINKS".

With the Senators leading 7–5 and two outs in the top of the ninth inning, several hundred youths stormed the field, raiding it for souvenirs. One man ran off with it. With no security in sight and only three bases, umpire crew chief Jim Honochick forfeited the game to the New York Yankees; the nation's capital went without Major League Baseball for 33 years until the relocation of the National League's Montreal Expos who became the Washington Nationals. Prior to the 1972 season, improvements were made to Turnpike Stadium, which reopened as Arlington Stadium, in preparation for the inaugural season of the Texas Rangers; the team played its first game on April 15, 1972, a 1–0 loss at the hands of the California Angels, their 1961 expansion cousins. The next day, the Rangers defeated 5 -- 1, for the club's first victory. In 1974, the Rangers experienced their first winning season after finishing last in both 1972 and 1973. Under the ownership of Brad Corbett, they finished second in the American League West with an 84–76 record, behind the eventual World Series champion Oakland Athletics

National Awakening Party

The National Awakening Party abbreviated to PKB, is an Islam-based political party in Indonesia. The party was founded in 1999, by the traditionalist strand of Muslim society in Indonesia, which overlaps with the membership of Nahdlatul Ulama; the party is described as nationalist Muslim party, which promotes inclusive and nationalist principles and upholds Pancasila doctrine. In 2014, the party obtained the popular vote by 9.04 percent, an increase from 4.95 percent in 2009 but lower than 10.57 percent in 2004. The party is led by Muhaimin Iskandar; the PKB was established on 11 May 1998. The Kyai, held a meeting at Pesantren Langitan to discuss several problems facing Indonesia deemed as critical, they developed an official statement, which Kyai members Muchid Muzadi of Jember and Gus Yusuf Muhammad, were sent to deliver to Soeharto, the. Before they were able to deliver the statement, Soeharto resigned on 23 May 1998. On 30 May 1998, the Kyai held a grand Istighosah in the office of the East Java Nahdlatul Ulama.

The meeting resulted in KH Cholil Bisri being urged to form a party based on the NU's political aspirations. After resisting their request, due to his desire to continue his work with boarding schools, Bisri relented and accepted the leadership role. A week on 6 June, Bisri met the Kyai in order to discuss the formation of the new party. Invitations had been sent via telephone, more than 200 Kyai attended the meeting, held in Bisri's home in Leteh, Central Java; this meeting resulted in the formation of the "Standing Committee", consisting of 11 people, with Bisri as chairman and Gus Yus as secretary. In turn, this committee worked in a marathon session, preparing a platform and party components, including the logos which would become the party's symbol; the logos were created by KH A. Mustofa Bisri; the Standing Committee and representatives of the NU held a major conference in Bandung, on 4 July 1998, attended by 27 regional representatives. In a discussion regarding the name of the organization, the proposed names were the "National Awakening Party", the "Party Kebangkitan Nahdlatul Ummah" and the "Ummah Party".

The name chosen was "Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa" meaning "National Awakening Party". The party's declaratory was 72 people, representing the age of the NU organization, consisting of the Standing Committee Team, the Lajnah Assistance Team, Team NU, the NU Assistance Team, two Representatives from each of the 27 regions; the 72 founders signed its components. Subsequent to this, the PBNU decided that only five people could become the party’s declaratory; those five were Kyai Munasir Ali, Kyai Ilyas Ruchiyat, Kyai Muchid Muzadi, KH A. Mustofa Bisri and KH Abddurahman Wahid, the chairman of the PBNU; the 72 names of the party’s original declaratory were erased by the PBNU. The party's base of support is strongest in Java Island and draws from the constituency that supported the conservative Muslim organization NU; the PKB differs from Nahdlatul Ulama in that while it supports a role for Islam in government, it does not share the older organization's support for an explicitly Islamic republic. The National Awakening Party stood in the 1999 elections.

In the 2004 elections, the party gained 10.57% of votes and 52 seats in the People's Representative Council. However, the party won only 4.9 percent of the votes in the 2009 legislative election, 27 seats in the legislature. According to the party website, the party's policies are to: Strengthen democracy to increase the prosperity of people living in villages Strengthen the protection of farmers and fishermen Accelerate the development of disadvantaged regions Make labourers prosperous Increase the involvement of women in strategic sectorsFor the 2014 elections, the party plans to focus more intensively on its policies related to villages, in particular such as village representation, the allocation of funding for villages and the development of education and health facilities

John Hopkinson

John Hopkinson, FRS, was a British physicist, electrical engineer, Fellow of the Royal Society and President of the IEE twice in 1890 and 1896. He invented the three-wire system for the distribution of electrical power, for which he was granted a patent in 1882, he worked in many areas of electromagnetism and electrostatics, in 1890 was appointed professor of electrical engineering at King's College London, where he was director of the Siemens Laboratory. Hopkinson's law, the magnetic counterpart to Ohm's law, is named after him. John Hopkinson was born in the eldest of 5 children, his father called John, was a mechanical engineer. He was educated at Queenwood School in Owens College in Manchester, he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1867 and graduated in 1871 as Senior Wrangler, having placed first in the demanding Cambridge Mathematical Tripos examination. During this time he studied for and passed the examination for a BSc from the University of London. Hopkinson could have followed a purely academic career but instead chose engineering as his vocation.

He was a Cambridge Apostle. After working first in his father's engineering works, Hopkinson took a position in 1872 as an engineering manager in the lighthouse engineering department of Chance Brothers and Company in Smethwick. In 1877 Hopkinson was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in recognition of his application of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism to problems of electrostatic capacity and residual charge. In 1878 he moved to London to work as a consulting engineer, focusing on developing his ideas about how to improve the design and efficiency of dynamos. Hopkinson's most important contribution was his three-wire distribution system, patented in 1882. In 1883 Hopkinson showed mathematically that it was possible to connect two alternating current dynamos in parallel-—a problem that had long bedevilled electrical engineers, he studied magnetic permeability at high temperature, discovered what was called the Hopkinson peak effect. The series-parallel method of electric motor control, for which Hopkinson was granted a British patent in 1881, would prove to be an important advance in the development of electric railways.

He applied for a US patent in 1892, triggering an interference proceeding against American inventor Rudolph M Hunter, granted a US patent for the method in 1888. The US Patent Office affirmed Hopkinson's claim to priority of invention, but his British patent expired before the case was resolved, rendering him ineligible for a US patent. Hopkinson twice held the office of President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. During his second term, Hopkinson proposed that the Institution should make available the technical knowledge of electrical engineers for the defence of the country. In 1897 the Volunteer Corps of Electrical Engineers was formed and Hopkinson became major in command of the corps. On 27 August 1898, Hopkinson and three of his six children, John Gustave and Lina Evelyn, were killed in a mountaineering accident on the Petite Dent de Veisivi, Val d'Hérens, in the Pennine Alps, Switzerland; as a memorial to John Hopkinson and his son, the 1899 extension to the Engineering Laboratory in the New Museums Site of the University of Cambridge was named after him.

A plaque commemorating this is fixed to the wall in Free School Lane. The Hopkinson and Imperial Chemical Industries Professorship of Applied Thermodynamics is named in his honour. There is a memorial sundial to Alice Hopkinson in the gardens of Newnham College, Cambridge from which she had graduated. At the Victoria University of Manchester the Electro-technical Laboratory in Coupland Street was named after him, his sons Bertram and Cecil, wife Evelyn and daughter Ellen are buried in the Ascension Parish Burial Ground, Cambridge. Electric motor Three-phase electric power Polyphase system Bertram Hopkinson, his son Alfred Hopkinson and Edward Hopkinson, his younger brothers Austin Hopkinson, his nephew Hopkinson, Mary & Ewing, Lady John and Alice Hopkinson 1824-1910. London: Farmer & Sons, printers Works by or about John Hopkinson at Internet Archive John Hopkinson John Hopkinson Biography