A retractable roof is a roof system designed to roll back the roof on tracks so that the interior of the facility is open to the outdoors. Retractable roofs are sometimes referred to as operable roofs or retractable skylights; the term operable skylight, while quite similar, refers to a skylight that opens on a hinge, rather than on a track. Retractable roofs are used in residences and bars, swim centres, other facilities wishing to provide an open-air experience at the push of a button; the United States Patent and Trademark Office records show that David S. Miller, founder of Rollamatic Retractable Roofs, filed U. S. Patent 3,277,619 in August 1963 for a movable and remotely controllable roof section for houses and other types of buildings; as Rollamatic was founded five years earlier, the first installation of a motorized retractable roof must be between 1958 and 1963. While any shape is possible, common shapes are flat, hip-ridge and dome. A residence might incorporate one or more 3' by 5' retractables.
Stadium retractable roofs are used in locales where inclement weather, extreme heat, or extreme cold are prevalent during the respective sports seasons, in order to allow for playing of traditionally outdoor sports in more favorable conditions, as well as the comfort of spectators watching games played in such weather. Unlike their predecessors, the domes built during the 1960s, 1970s, early 1980s, retractable roofs allow for playing of the same traditionally outdoor sports in outdoor conditions when the weather is more favorable. Another purpose of retractable roofs is to allow for growth of natural grass playing fields in environments where extreme hot and/or cold temperatures would otherwise make installation and maintenance of such a field cost prohibitive. Installations throughout the world employ a variety of different styles; the first retractable roof sports venue was the now-demolished Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, United States. Constructed in 1961 for the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, the arena was home to minor-league and NCAA D-1 basketball and ice hockey teams before becoming the home of the NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins in 1967, as well as hosting over a dozen regular season NBA games in the 1960s and 1970s.
The arena's dome-shaped roof covered 170,000 square feet and was made up of eight equal segments constructed from close to 3,000 tons of steel, in which six segments could retract underneath the remaining two, supported by a 260-foot long exterior cantilevered arm. Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec was slated to be the first outdoor retractable roof stadium at its debut for the 1976 Summer Olympics. However, plagued by construction problems, the roof was not installed until 1987, was not retractable until 1988. Movement of the roof was impossible in high wind conditions, technical problems plagued the facility. A permanent, fixed roof was installed in 1998. By contrast, the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario had a functional retractable roof at its debut in 1989. Architecturally speaking, retractable roofs vary from stadium to stadium in shape and movement. For example, Miller Park has a fan style roof, while Toyota Stadium in Japan has an accordion-like roof. Most retractable roofs are made of metal, while some, such as the roof of State Farm Stadium, are made of water-resistant fabric.
Although each retractable roof differs in these aspects, Safeco Field's roof is unique in that it is the only one in North America that does not form a climate-controlled enclosure when in the extended position. In North American major sports leagues, specific rules exist governing the movement of retractable roofs before and during gameplay; these rules vary between the MLB, as well as from stadium to stadium. In general, if a game begins with the roof open and weather conditions become less favorable, the home team may, with the approval of the field officials and visiting team, request the roof be closed. Depending on the stadium, weather or gameplay conditions, the judgment of the officials, play may or may not continue until the roof is closed. If the game begins with the roof closed, it may be opened under some circumstances depending on the venue. If it is closed after the game begins it must remain closed for the duration of the game; some modern athletic facilities are using less-complex roof systems referred to as open roofs.
These are constructed with similar materials as retractable roofs, such as polycarbonate or tempered glass roofs. Hinged at the structure's gutters, open roofs close and open by the mechanics of a rack and pinion system or a push/pull drive system. Open roofs are seen at smaller athletic venues such as country clubs and universities, in the construction of commercial greenhouses and garden centres for climate control purposes. CBC archives. CBC Archives A clip from 1975 where the stadium architect talks about his design for the Montreal Olympic Stadium. CBC Archives A look back on the history of the Montreal Olympic Stadium. Guidelines for movement of a retractable roof
Arrowhead Stadium is an American football stadium in Kansas City, United States. It serves as the home venue of the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League, it is part of the Truman Sports Complex with adjacent Kauffman Stadium, the home of the Kansas City Royals of Major League Baseball. Arrowhead Stadium has a seating capacity of 76,416, making it the 27th largest stadium in the United States and the sixth largest NFL stadium, it is the largest sports facility by capacity in the state of Missouri. A $375 million renovation was completed in 2010; when the Dallas Texans of the American Football League relocated to Kansas City in 1963 and were renamed the Kansas City Chiefs, they played home games at Municipal Stadium, which they shared with the Kansas City Athletics of Major League Baseball. The A's left for Oakland after the 1967 season and were replaced by the expansion Kansas City Royals in 1969. Municipal Stadium, built in 1923 and rebuilt in 1955, seated 35,000 for football; as part of the AFL–NFL merger announced in 1966, NFL stadiums would be required to seat no fewer than 50,000 people.
The City of Kansas City was unable to find a suitable location for a new stadium, so Jackson County stepped in and offered a location on the eastern edge of Kansas City near the interchange of Interstate 70 and Interstate 435. Voters approved a $102 million bond issue in 1967 to build a new sports complex with two stadiums; the original design called for construction of side-by-side baseball and football stadiums with a common roof that would roll between them. The design proved to be more complicated and expensive than thought and so was scrapped in favor of the current open-air configuration; the two-stadium complex concept was the first of its kind. The Chiefs staff, led by team general manager Jack Steadman, helped develop the complex. Construction began in 1968; the original two-stadium concept was designed by Denver architect Charles Deaton and Steadman. Deaton's design was implemented by the Kansas City architectural firm of Myers. Arrowhead is considered by some to have had an influence on the design of several future NFL stadiums.
Construction of the stadium was a joint venture Sharp-Kidde-Webb construction firms. Construction on Arrowhead Stadium was completed in time for the 1972 season. On August 12, 1972, the Chiefs defeated the St. Louis Cardinals 24–14 in the first preseason game at Arrowhead Stadium. On during the 1972 regular season, the largest crowd to see a game in Arrowhead Stadium was 82,094 in a Chiefs game against the Oakland Raiders on November 5. In 1973, the stadium was the first in the NFL to include arrows on the yard markers to indicate the nearer goal line; this practice would spread to the other NFL stadiums throughout the 1970s, becoming mandatory league-wide in the 1978 season, become near-universal at the lower levels of football. On January 20, 1974, Arrowhead Stadium hosted the Pro Bowl. Due to an ice storm and brutally cold temperatures the week leading up to the game, the game's participants worked out at the facilities of the San Diego Chargers. On game day, the temperature soared to 41°, melting most of the ice and snow that accumulated during the week.
The AFC defeated the NFC, 15–13. In 1984, the Jackson County Sports Authority re-evaluated the concept of a fabric dome; the concept was disregarded as being financially impractical. Arrowhead hosted the Drum Corps International World Championships in 1988 and 1989. In 1991, two Diamond Vision screens shaped as footballs were installed. In 1994, other improvements were made and natural grass playing surface was installed, replacing the original artificial Astroturf playing field. In 2009, Arrowhead Stadium completed the installation of a multimillion-dollar integrated system from Daktronics out of Brookings, South Dakota. Two high definition video displays were retrofitted into the existing football-shaped displays in both end zones. 1,625 feet of digital ribbon board technology was installed in the stadium. In 1990 in a game against the Denver Broncos, the Chiefs were threatened with a penalty if the crowd would not quiet down. After John Elway was backed up to his own goal line and unable to run a play he spoke to the referee.
After listening to Elway the referee said "Any further crowd-noise problem will result in a charged timeout against Kansas City. Thank you for your cooperation."On October 13, 2013, in a game between the Chiefs and Oakland Raiders, the crowd at the stadium set a Guinness World Record for the loudest stadium, with 137.5 dB. That record would be broken by Seattle Seahawks fans at CenturyLink Field on December 2, 2013, at a home game against the New Orleans Saints. Seattle gained the record by reaching a noise level of 137.6 decibels. The Chiefs reclaimed the title on September 29, 2014 in a Monday Night Football game against the New England Patriots, hitting 142.2 decibels. On September 20, 2015, the Buffalo Bills attempted to break the noise record in a home game against division rival New England Patriots, but fell short of the mark, it was not released. Arrowhead Stadium has hosted five Big 12 Conference football championship games: Kansas State versus Oklahoma in 2000 and 2003, Colorado versus Oklahoma in 2004, Nebraska versus Oklahoma on December 2, 2006, Missouri versus Oklahoma in 2008.
From 2007 to 2011, Arrowhead hosted the Border Showdown between the Kansas Jayhawks and the Missouri Tigers. The 2007 game between the #2 Jayhawks and #3 Tigers, drew the second largest crowd in stadium history, at 80,537, with the Tigers winning 36-28. Kansas played Oklahoma at
New Era Field
New Era Field Rich Stadium, is a stadium in Orchard Park, New York, a suburb south of Buffalo. Opened in 1973, it is the home of the Buffalo Bills of the National Football League. New Era Cap Company holds the stadium's naming rights. An original franchise of the American Football League in 1960, the Buffalo Bills played their first thirteen seasons at War Memorial Stadium, a multi-use WPA project stadium that opened in 1938, located on Buffalo's East Side. While suitable for AFL play in the 1960s, the "Rockpile", was in disrepair and with a capacity of under 47,000, undersized for a National Football League team; the league mandate instituted after the AFL–NFL merger of 1970 dictated a minimum of 50,000 seats. In early 1971, owner Ralph Wilson was exploring options to relocate the team to Seattle, with other cities such as Memphis and Tampa soon expressing interest as well; the potential loss of the team hastened the stadium project and Rich Stadium opened in 1973. The location and construction of the stadium in Erie County were the source of years of litigation, which ended with a financial settlement for a developer who had planned to erect a domed stadium in Lancaster.
However, plans changed. The stadium was built by Frank Schoenle and his construction company. Bonds were approved by the county legislature in September 1971. Rich Products, a Buffalo-based food products company, signed a 25-year, $1.5 million deal, by which the venue would be called "Rich Stadium". By a vote of 16-4, the county legislature approved the name in November 1972, despite a matching offer from Wilson to name it "Buffalo Bills Stadium."When the Bills organization referred to the stadium without the "Rich" name, Rich Products brought a $7.5 million lawsuit against the team in 1976. After the original deal expired after a quarter century in 1998, the stadium was renamed in honor of Wilson. Rich Products balked at paying a increased rights fee, which would have brought the price up to par with other NFL stadiums. On August 13, 2016, Buffalo-based New Era Cap Company and the Buffalo Bills reached an agreement for naming rights; the Bills and New Era announced the stadium's new name of New Era Field five days on August 18, 2016.
The first NFL playoff game at the stadium came in the 1988 season, a 17–10 Bills victory over the Houston Oilers on January 1, 1989. The Bills won every ensuing playoff game at the stadium until they were defeated in 1996 by the Jacksonville Jaguars on December 28. From New Era Field's opening until the end of the 2018 NFL season, the Bills have defeated each of the 31 other teams there at least once and are unbeaten there against the following teams: Arizona Cardinals, Baltimore Ravens, Green Bay Packers, Tampa Bay Buccaneers; the stadium is open-air, with a capacity of 71,870. It has never had a natural grass surface; the first renovation occurred in 1984 when the stadium's capacity was increased to 80,290 with the addition of 16 executive suites. Eight years in 1992, 24 more executive suites were added. In 1994, major renovations were made to the stadium including the addition of the Red Zone and Goal Line clubs that are enclosed in glass and have 500 seats; these renovations added 14 executive suites.
A massive $9.1 million 41.5 by 31.5 feet Sony JumboTron video scoreboard was a major update in 1994 and was the largest in the U. S. at the time. In 1998, $57 million were spent to refit the stadium with larger seats and more luxury and club seating as a part of the Bills lease renewal with Erie County; this caused the seating capacity to be reduced to just under 74,000. In the 2003 offseason, the original style turf was replaced with a newer AstroTurf product, AstroTurf GameDay Grass; the lease agreement stipulated Erie County would continue to upgrade the stadium. Over 1,000 ft of Mitsubishi Diamond Vision LED Ribbon Boards were installed in the interior during that renovation; the total cost for the 2007 project was $5.2 million, In 2011, the Bills changed their turf to a new product, A-Turf Titan, produced by a Western New York company. As of the 2011 season, Buffalo is the only NFL stadium using the A-Turf Titan product. On December 21, 2012, the lease negotiations between the Bills, Erie County, the state of New York ended with the Bills signing a ten-year lease to stay in Buffalo until 2023.
The agreement included $130 million in improvements to New Era Field. Renovations included new larger entrance gates, larger HD sponsor boards added to each side of the video scoreboard, two new 33.6 ft by 59.84 ft high definition video boards, larger LED sponsor board added on the tunnel end of the stadium, expanded concessions, new team store, redesign of areas and lots just outside the entrance gates. Buffalo, by virtue of its position downwind of Lake Erie, is one of the nation's windiest cities, as a result, New Era Field is a difficult stadium for kickers, with swirling winds that change direction rapidly; this is exacerbated by the stadium's design. The field is 50 feet below ground level, while the top of the upper deck stands only 60 feet above ground; the open end lies parallel to the direction of the preva
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most used in arenas for sports that were or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on residential lawns and commercial applications as well; the main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to heavy use, such as in sports, requires no irrigation or trimming. Domed and covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting grass enough sunlight to stay healthy. Artificial turf does have its downside, however: limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, heightened health and safety concerns. Artificial turf first gained substantial attention 53 years ago in 1966, when it was installed in the year-old Astrodome; the specific product used was "ChemGrass", rebranded as AstroTurf. AstroTurf is no longer owned by Monsanto; the first generation turf systems of the 1960s have been replaced by the second generation and third generation turf systems.
Second generation synthetic turf systems feature longer fibers and sand infills, third generation systems, which are most used today, offer infills that are mixtures of sand and granules of recycled rubber aka "rubber crumb". David Chany, who moved to Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1960 and served as Dean of the North Carolina State University College of Textiles, headed the team of Research Triangle Park researchers who created the first notable artificial turf; that accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man "responsible for indoor major league baseball and millions of welcome mats." Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a recreation area at the Moses Brown School in Providence, Rhode Island. The material came to public prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas; the state-of-the-art indoor stadium had attempted to use natural grass during its initial season in 1965, but this failed miserably and the field conditions were grossly inadequate during the second half of the season, with the dead grass painted green.
Due to a limited supply of the new artificial grass, only the infield was installed before the Houston Astros' home opener in April 1966. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, installed in both indoor and outdoor stadiums used for baseball and football. More than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, according to the industry group the Synthetic Turf Council. Maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Teams who chose to play on artificial surfaces outdoors did so because of the reduced maintenance cost in colder climates with urban multi-purpose "cookie cutter" stadiums such as Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium, Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium and Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, replacing the grass field used when the stadium opened a year earlier.
Though the grass was bred for indoor use, the dome's semi-transparent Lucite ceiling panels, painted white to cut down on glare that bothered the players, did not pass enough sunlight to support the grass. For most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on dead grass; the solution was to install a new type of artificial grass on the field, ChemGrass, which became known as AstroTurf. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game. There was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield; the outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break. The team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, on July 19, 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed; the Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in an outdoor stadium, as they used it in the infield and adjacent foul territory at Comiskey Park from 1969 through 1975.
Artificial turf was installed in other new multi-purpose stadiums such as Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium, Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium, Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium. Early AstroTurf baseball fields used the traditional all-dirt path, but in the early 1970s, teams began using the "base cutout" layout on the diamond, with the only dirt being on the pitcher's mound, batter's circle, in a "sliding box" around each base. With this layout, a painted arc would indicate where the edge of the outfield grass would be, to assist fielders in positioning themselves properly; the last stadium in MLB to use this configuration was Rogers Centre in Toronto, when they switched to an all-dirt infield after the 2015 season. The Arizona Diamondbacks plan to convert Chase Field to artificial turf for the 2019 season; the stadium has had grass since its opening in 1998, but the difficulty of maintaining of grass in the stadium, which has a retractable roof and is located in a desert city, has been cited as the reason for the switch.
The biggest difference in play on artificial turf was that the ball bounced higher than on real grass and traveled faster, causing infielders to play farther back than they would so that
In the controlled demolition industry, building implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a matter of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. Despite its terminology, building implosion includes the controlled demolition of other structures, such as bridges, smokestacks and tunnels. Building implosion, which reduces to seconds a process which could take months or years to achieve by other methods occurs in urban areas and involves large landmark structures; the actual use of the term "implosion" to refer to the destruction of a building is a misnomer. This had been stated of the destruction of 1515 Tower in Florida. "What happens is, you use explosive materials in critical structural connections to allow gravity to bring it down." The term building implosion can be misleading to laymen: The technique is not a true implosion phenomenon. A true implosion involves a difference between internal and external pressure, or inward and outward forces, so large that the structure collapses inward into itself.
In contrast, building implosion techniques do not rely on the difference between internal and external pressure to collapse a structure. Instead, the goal is to induce a progressive collapse by weakening or removing critical supports, therefore the building can no longer withstand gravity loads and will fail under its own weightNumerous small explosives, strategically placed within the structure, are used to catalyze the collapse. Nitroglycerin, dynamite, or other explosives are used to shatter reinforced concrete supports. Linear shaped charges are used to sever steel supports; these explosives are progressively detonated on supports throughout the structure. Explosives on the lower floors initiate the controlled collapse. A simple structure like a chimney can be prepared for demolition in less than a day. Larger or more complex structures can take up to six months of preparation to remove internal walls and wrap columns with fabric and fencing before firing the explosives; as part of the demolition industry, the history of building implosion is tied to the development of explosives technology.
One of the earliest documented attempts at building implosion was the 1773 razing of Holy Trinity Cathedral in Waterford, Ireland with 150 pounds of gunpowder, a huge amount of explosives at the time. The use of low velocity explosive produced a deafening explosion that reduced the building to rubble; the late 19th Century saw the erection of — and the need to demolish — the first skyscrapers, which had more complicated structures, allowing greater heights. This led to other considerations in the explosive demolition of buildings, such as worker and spectator safety and limiting collateral damage. Benefiting from the availability of dynamite, a high-velocity explosive based on a stabilized form of nitroglycerine, borrowing from techniques used in rock-blasting, such as staggered detonation of several small charges, building demolition edged toward efficient building implosion. Following World War II, European demolition experts, faced with huge reconstruction projects in dense urban areas, gathered practical knowledge and experience for bringing down large structures without harming adjacent properties.
This led to the emergence of a demolition industry that grew and matured during the latter half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the development of more efficient high-velocity explosives, such as RDX, non-electrical firing systems combined to make this a period of time in which the building implosion technique was extensively used. Meanwhile, public interest in the spectacle of controlled building explosion grew; the October 1994 demolition of the Sears Merchandise Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania drew a cheering crowd of 50,000, as well as protesters and street vendors hawking building implosion memorabilia. Evolution in the mastery of controlled demolition led to the world record demolition of the Seattle Kingdome on March 26, 2000. In 1997, the Royal Canberra Hospital implosion in Canberra, Australia experienced disaster; the main building did not disintegrate and had to be manually demolished. Far worse, the explosion was not contained on the site and large pieces of debris were projected towards spectators 500 metres away, in a location considered safe for viewing.
A twelve-year-old girl was killed and nine others were injured. Large fragments of masonry and metal were found 650 metres from the demolition site. On October 24, 1998, the J. L. Hudson Department Store and Addition became the tallest, the largest, building imploded. On December 13, 2009, an unfinished 31-story condominium tower, known as the Ocean Tower, was imploded in South Padre Island, Texas. Construction on the new tower had begun in 2006, but it had been sinking unevenly during construction, halted in 2008, could not be saved, it is believed to be one of the tallest reinforced concrete structures imploded. Building implosion has been used at Department of Energy sites such as the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington; the SRS 185-3K or "K" Area Cooling Tower, built in 1992 to cool the water from the K Reactor, was no longer needed when the Cold War ended and was safely demolished by explosive demolition on May 25, 2010. The Hanford Site Buildings 337, 337B, the 309 Exhaust Stack, built in the early 1970s and vacated in the mid-2000s due to deteriorating physical condition, were safely razed by explosive demolition on October 9, 2010.
Controlled Demolition, Inc. List of tallest voluntarily demolished buildings Demolition Simulation Advanced structural analysis for predicting demo
SMU Mustangs football
The SMU Mustangs football program is a college football team that represents Southern Methodist University. The team competes in the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision as a member of the American Athletic Conference. In June 1915, Ray Morrison became SMU's football, baseball and track coach, in addition to being a math instructor; the football team began as a member of the Texas Intercollegiate Athletic Association, playing at Armstrong Field. The first game played by SMU's football team was a 13–2 victory over Hendrix College. After winning two games in a span of two seasons, Morrison left SMU for Fort Oglethorpe upon the United States’ entry into World War I. During this time, the football team was known as "the Parsons", due to the large number of theology students on the team. On October 17, 1917, the name "Mustangs" was selected as the school's mascot. For the 1917 season, Morrison was replaced by J. Burton Rix, who led the Mustangs to a 3–2–3 record in their final season in the TIAA; the 1918 season was the first of many seasons for the SMU Mustangs as a member of the Southwest Conference, joining Baylor University, Rice University, the University of Texas, Texas A&M University, the University of Arkansas, Oklahoma A&M University.
The Mustangs’ first season in the conference ended with a 4–2 record. J. Burton Rix continued to coach the team until the 1921 season, in which he was replaced by W. A. Cunningham and Victor Kelly, his co-coaches that season, as the team went on to lose six games. Ray Morrison returned to SMU in 1922, co-coaching the team with former Vanderbilt teammate Ewing Y. Freeland. For the 1922 and 1923 seasons, Morrison focused on the backfield and ends, while Freeland focused on the linemen; the team became known as the "Aerial Circus" by sportswriters because of Morrison's passing offense. Morrison became known as "the father of the forward pass", due to the team's use of passing on first and second downs, instead of as a play of last resort. At the time, most teams utilized the forward pass five to six times in one game, while SMU did so between 30 and 40 times. In the 1922 season, the Mustangs compiled a 6–3–1 record. Furthermore, end Gene Bedford and back Logan Stollenwerck were named first-team All-Southwest Conference, becoming the first SMU football players to receive that honor.
Bedford was the first player to play for the Rochester Jeffersons. In the 1923 season, the SMU Mustangs achieved a perfect 9–0 record, winning their first conference football title in school history. After this season, Freeland left the SMU football team becoming head coach for the Texas Technological College football team, leaving Morrison as the sole head coach for SMU. SMU played in their first bowl game in 1924, in the Dixie Classic against West Virginia Wesleyan College, but lost that game 7–9. By 1926, the team began playing their home games at Ownby Stadium. In their first game at Ownby Stadium, the Mustangs defeated North Texas State Teachers College 42–0, led by quarterback Gerald Mann; the first Homecoming game was played in 1926, resulting in a 14–13 victory over Texas Christian University. The team continued to have winning seasons until the 1932 season; the Mustangs won their second conference title in 1926, compiling an 8–0–1 record, a third conference title in 1931, compiling a 9–0–1 record.
In 1928, guard Choc Sanders became SMU's first All-American, as well the first All-American from the Southwest Conference. In 1929, tackle Marion Hammon became SMU's second All-American. After a winning 1934 season, Morrison left SMU to take over the Vanderbilt Commodores football team after the retirement of Dan McGugin. Morrison was replaced by Matty Bell in 1935. Known as a player's coach, Bell brought discipline to his team, he spent time listening and talking to his players. In his first season, Bell led the Mustangs to 12–1 record. During this season, the Mustangs were ranked number one in the nation. In order to play in the Rose Bowl against the Stanford Indians football team for the unofficial national championship, SMU faced off against the TCU Horned Frogs, who featured star quarterback Sammy Baugh; the 1935 SMU-TCU football game is considered the greatest game in SMU history, as Bobby Wilson scored two touchdowns to give SMU a 14–0 lead before Baugh rallied the Horned Frogs to a 14–14 tie.
Early in the fourth quarter, Bob Finley connected on a long pass to Wilson after the Mustangs faced a fourth down at the TCU 39. Wilson caught the ball at the five and rolled into the endzone as the Mustangs held on to win, 20–14, earned a trip to the Rose Bowl. Winning their fourth conference title, the Mustangs lost the Rose Bowl to Stanford 0–7. Despite this, the 1935 SMU Mustangs were selected by the Dickinson System as national champions, their first football national championship in school history; the Mustangs had three more winning seasons from 1936 to 1939. SMU failed to win the Southwest Conference title in 1940, despite having the same conference record as the Texas A&M Aggies. After a 5–5 season in 1941, Bell left SMU to serve in the United States Navy during World War II. With Bell in the Navy, Jimmy Stewart took his place as head coach. In his three seasons as head coach, Stewart compiled an overall record of 10–18–2. Bell returned as head coach for the 1945 season. Upon Bell's return as SMU's head coach, the team gained the talent of halfback and placekicker Doak Walker.
Walker won All-Southwest Conference honors his freshman year in 1945 and play in the East–West Shrine Game in San Francisco. Walker did not play for the 1946 season due to serving in the United States Army, yet re-enrolled at SMU and rejoined the football team for the 1947 season; the Mustangs posted a 9 -- 0 -- 2 record in 1947. In t
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he