Texas State Capitol

The Texas State Capitol is the capitol building and seat of government of the American state of Texas. Located in downtown Austin, the structure houses the offices and chambers of the Texas Legislature and of the Governor of Texas. Designed in 1881 by architect Elijah E. Myers, it was constructed from 1882 to 1888 under the direction of civil engineer Reuben Lindsay Walker. A $75 million underground extension was completed in 1993; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and recognized as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. The Texas State Capitol is 302.64 feet tall, making it the sixth-tallest state capitol and one of several taller than the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C; the capitol was ranked 92nd in the 2007 "America's Favorite Architecture" poll commissioned by the American Institute of Architects. The current Texas State Capitol is the third building to serve that purpose; the second Texas capitol was built on the same site as the present capitol in Austin.

Construction of the Italian Renaissance Revival–style capitol was funded by an article of the state constitution, adopted on February 15, 1876, which authorized the sale of public lands for the purpose. In one of the largest barter transactions of recorded history, the builders of the capitol, known as the Capitol Syndicate, were paid with more than three million acres of public land in the Texas Panhandle; the value of the land, combined with expenses, added to a total cost of $3.7 million for the original building. It was constructed by convicts or migrant workers, as many as a thousand at a time; the building has been renovated several times, with central air conditioning installed in 1955 and the most recent refurbishments completed in 1997. The designers planned for the building to be clad with hill country limestone quarried in Oatmanville, about 10 miles to the southwest. However, the high iron content of the limestone led it to discolor with rust stains when exposed to the elements. Learning of the problem, the owners of Granite Mountain near Marble Falls offered to donate to the state, free of charge, the necessary amount of sunset red granite as an alternative.

To transport the red granite, the Austin and Northwestern Railroad was extended 2.3 miles to accommodate the transportation from Granite Mountain. Due to a bend in the tracks, trains would derail, accidentally dumping some of the pink granite. Many of the fallen rocks are a local point of interest. While the building is built of the Oak Hill limestone, most of this is hidden behind the walls and on the foundations. Red granite was subsequently used for many state government buildings in the Austin area; the project's 900 workers included 86 granite cutters brought from Scotland. The cornerstone for the building was laid on March 2, 1885, Texas Independence Day, the building was opened to the public on April 21, 1888, San Jacinto Day, before its completion; the building was dedicated by Texas State Senator Temple Houston on May 18, 1888. The dedication ceremony was marked by a weeklong celebration from May 14–19, 1888, that attracted nearly 20,000 visitors and included events such as military drill demonstrations, cattle roping, baseball games, German choral singing, fireworks.

Guests were able to purchase souvenirs such as pieces of red granite and copies of a song written by composer and pianist Leonora Rives-Diaz called the "State Capitol Grand Waltz". In 1931, the City of Austin enacted a local ordinance limiting the height of new buildings to a maximum of 200 feet, aiming to preserve the visual preeminence of the capitol. From that time until the early 1960s, only the University of Texas Main Building Tower was built higher than the limit, but in 1962, developers announced a new 261-foot high-rise residential building to be built adjacent to the capitol, called the Westgate Tower. Governor Price Daniel voiced his opposition to the proposed tower, State Representative Henry Grover of Houston introducing a bill to condemn the property, defeated in the Texas House of Representatives by only two votes; the Westgate was completed in 1966, but the controversy over the preservation of the capitol's visual presence that dogged its construction continued to grow. The Westgate was followed by taller structures: first the Dobie Center, a series of larger downtown bank towers, culminating in the 395-foot One American Center.

In early 1983, inspired by the Westgate and these other structures, State Senator Lloyd Doggett and State Representative Gerald Hill advanced a bill proposing a list of protected "Capitol View Corridors" along which construction would not be permitted, so as to protect the capitol's visibility from a series of points around Austin. The bill was signed into law on May 3, 1983, defining 30 state-protected viewing corridors and prohibiting any construction that would intersect one of them; the City of Austin has adopted similar rules, so that the majority of the corridors are protected under municipal zoning code, as well as under state law. On February 6, 1983, a fire began in the apartment of William P. Hobby Jr. the state lieutenant governor. A guest of Hobby's was killed, four firemen and a policeman were injured by the subsequent blaze; the capitol was crowded with accumulated archives, the fire was intense and came dangerously close to destroying the structure. I

List of members of the 15th Congress of the Philippines

These are the members of the 15th Congress of the Philippines. The 15th Congress convened on July 26, 2010 and will adjourn around June 2013. Senators elected on the 2007 Senate election and senators elected on the 2010 Senate election comprise the Senate while representatives elected on the 2010 House of Representatives election comprise the House of Representatives. *Senators are voted on a nationwide at-large basis. The term of office of the members of the House of Representatives will be from June 30, 2010 to June 30, 2013; the political party stated is the one that the member is a member of, which may be different from the one where the member ran under during the elections, or from the one stated on the ballot. ^1 Switched to Liberal Party after the elections. ^2 Proclaimed, but his proclamation was nullified on July 23, 2010 because he was disqualified for running for Congress by the COMELEC Second Division on May 8, 2011 since he was not a natural-born Filipino citizen. For the time being, he is still seated as a representative, as he is appealing to avoid being replaced by Reno Lim. ^3 Died on December 25, 2012 ^4 Died on July 22, 2010.

^5 Assumed office after winning a special election. ^6 The creation of the Dinagat Islands was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on February 11, 2010, the province was reverted to Surigao del Norte. However, the Supreme Court reversed its decision on April 13, 2011, restored the Dinagat Islands as a province, along with its own representative. ^ 7 Ordered dropped from the rolls. ^8 Resigned due to a personal scandal. ^9 Assumed office after winning a special election. ^10 Died on January 26, 2012. ^11 Assumed office after winning a special election. ^12 Died on August 3, 2011. ^13 Died on August 13, 2012. ^ 14 Replaced Homer Mercado on October 2012 after his resignation. ^ 15 Replaced Solaiman Pangandaman on July 2011 after his resignation. ^16 Died on April 24, 2013. These are the changes in membership after the proclamation of winners: A vacant seat can only be filled up on a special election held on the day of the next regular election. For representatives elected via legislative districts, a special election will be called to determine the successor unless the vacancy occurred a year before the next regular election.

For sectoral representatives, the next person on the list will take office. These are the vacant seats in Congress: Senate: The seat of Benigno Aquino III who gave it up after being elected president in 2010, it will remain vacant the term expires, as special elections for vacated Senate seats can only be scheduled on the next regular election. House of Representatives: The seat for 2nd district of Bohol after Erico B. Aumentado died. No special election was held; the seat for 1st district of Cavite after Joseph Emilio Abaya was sworn in Secretary of Transportation and Communications. No special election was held; the seat for lone district of Dinagat Islands after Ruben Ecleo was removed from the rolls. No special election was held; the seat for 1st district of Sorsogon after Salvador Escudero died. No special election was held; the seat for lone district of Camiguin after Pedro Romualdo died. No special election was held. One seat of the Coalition of Associations of Senior Citizens in the Philippines, Inc. after David Kho resigned.

The Commission on Elections forbade the party from calling up the 4th person from the list after the 3rd person from the list, ejected from the party and that Kho revealed it was a part of a term-sharing agreement, in which the commission has prohibited

Budget of the Government of Puerto Rico

The Budget of the Government of Puerto Rico is the proposal by the Governor of Puerto Rico to the Legislative Assembly which recommends funding levels for the next fiscal year, beginning on July 1 and ending on June 30 of the following year. This proposal is established by Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico and is presented in two forms: the General Budget, which includes the budget proposed for all the executive departments of the government of Puerto Rico, the Consolidated Budget, which includes: the budget proposed for the General Budget, the Public Improvements Fund, the Special State Funds, the revenue expected from the expected subsidies to be received from the federal government of the United States, the budget proposed for Puerto Rico's government-owned corporations, the revenue expected from loans expected to be taken in the upcoming fiscal year and the sale of government bonds expected to undergo in the upcoming fiscal year, other funds. For practical reasons the budget is divided into two aspects: a "general budget" which comprises the assignments funded by the Department of Treasury of Puerto Rico, the "consolidated budget" which comprises the assignments funded by the general budget, by Puerto Rico's government-owned corporations, by revenue expected from loans, by the sale of government bonds, by subsidies extended by the federal government of the United States, by other funds.

Both budgets contrast each other drastically, with the consolidated budget being thrice the size of the general budget. One out of every four dollars in the consolidated budget comes from U. S. federal subsidies while government-owned corporations compose more than 31% of the consolidated budget. The critical aspects come from the sale of bonds. In particular, the government-owned corporations add a heavy burden to the overall budget and public debt as not a single one is self-sufficient, all of them carrying inefficient operations. For example, in FY2011 the government-owned corporations reported aggregated losses of more than $1.3B with the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority reporting losses of $409M, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority reporting losses of $272M, while the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority reported losses of $112M. All these losses were defrayed through the issuance of bonds compounding more than 40% of Puerto Rico's entire public debt today. Holistically, from FY2000–FY2010 Puerto Rico's debt grew at a compound annual growth rate of 9% while GDP remained stagnant.

In terms of protocol, the governor, together with the Puerto Rico Office of Management and Budget, formulates the budget he believes is required to operate all government branches for the ensuing fiscal year. He submits this formulation as a budget request to the Puerto Rican legislature before July 1, the date established by law as the beginning of Puerto Rico's fiscal year. While the constitution establishes that the request must be submitted "at the beginning of each regular session", the request is submitted during the first week of May as the regular sessions of the legislature begin in January and it would be unpractical to submit a request so far ahead. Once submitted the budget is approved by the legislature with amendments, through a joint resolution and referred back to the governor for his approval; the governor either approves it or vetoes it. If vetoed the legislature can either refer it back with amendments for the governor's approval, or approve it without the governor's consent by two-thirds of the bodies of each chamber.

Once approved the Department of Treasury disburses funds to the Office of Management and Budget which in turn disburses the funds to the respective agencies, all while the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank manages all related banking affairs including those related to the government-owned corporations. Puerto Rico Consolidated Fund Puerto Rico General Fund Puerto Rico Chapter 9 Uniformity Act of 2015