Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census, it is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area. Huntsville is 70 miles north of Houston in the East Texas Piney Woods on Interstate 45, which runs between Houston and Dallas, it is home to Sam Houston State University, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Huntsville State Park, HEARTS Veterans Museum of Texas. The city served as the residence of Sam Houston, recognized in Huntsville by the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and a statue on Interstate 45; the city had its beginning about 1836, when Pleasant and Ephraim Gray opened a trading post on the site. Ephraim Gray became first postmaster in 1837, naming it after his hometown, Alabama. Huntsville became the home of Sam Houston, who served as President of the Republic of Texas, Governor of the State of Texas, Governor of Tennessee, U. S. Senator, Tennessee congressman. Houston led the Texas Army in the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive victory of the Texas Revolution.
He has been noted for his life among the Cherokees of Tennessee, – near the end of his life – for his opposition to the American Civil War, a unpopular position in his day. Huntsville has two of Houston's homes, his grave, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum. Houston's life in Huntsville is commemorated by his namesake Sam Houston State University, by a 70 ft statue. Huntsville was the home of Samuel Walker Houston, a prominent African-American pioneer in the field of education, he was born into slavery on February 12, 1864 to a slave owned by Sam Houston. Samuel W. Houston founded the Galilee Community School in 1907, which became known as the Houstonian Normal and Industrial Institute, in Walker County, Texas. In 1995, on the grounds of the old Samuel W. Houston Elementary School, the Huntsville Independent School District, along with the Huntsville Arts Commission and the high school's Ex-Students Association, commissioned the creation of The Dreamers, a monument to underscore the black community's contributions to the growth and development of Huntsville and Walker County.
As of the census of 2010, there were 35,078 people, 10,266 households, 7,471 families residing in the city. The population density was 1438.3/km sq. There were 11,508 housing units at an average density of 1143.8/km sq. The racial makeup of the city was 65.78% White, 26.14% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.91% from Race other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.22% of the population. There were 10,266 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.1% under the age of 18, 29.3% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 152.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 163.8 males. The prison population is included in the city's population, which results in a skewed sex ratio; the median income for a household in the city was $27,075, the median income for a family was $40,562. Males had a median income of $27,386 versus $22,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,576. About 13.1% of families and 23.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville is located at 30°42′41″N 95°32′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a land area of 35.86 square miles in 2010. At the area code level, land area covers 559.661 sq. mi. and water area 7.786 sq. mi. Huntsville is about 70 miles north of Houston, it is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Huntsville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of 2005 the largest employer in Huntsville is the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, with 6,744 employees. In 1996 the TDCJ had 5,219 employees in Huntsville. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly described Huntsville as the "company town" of the TDCJ; as of 1996 the TDCJ employed over twice the number of people employed by Sam Houston State University, the city's second-largest employer. As of 2005 Sam Houston State remained the second-largest employer in Huntsville, with 2,458 employees; the university has a strong role in the study of criminology. The third-largest employer is the Huntsville Independent School District, with 974 employees; the fourth-largest employer, Huntsville Memorial Hospital, has 540 employees. 517 employees work for Wal-Mart. As of 2007 Huntsville's average income was lower than Texas's average income. Huntsville has the headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Tex
Angleton is a city in and the county seat of Brazoria County, United States, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. Angleton lies at the intersection of State Highway 288, State Highway 35, the Union Pacific Railroad; the population was 18,862 at the 2010 census. Angleton is in the 14th congressional district, is represented by Republican Congressman Randy Weber. Angleton was founded in 1890 near the center of Brazoria County and named for the wife of the general manager of the Velasco Terminal Railway. A bitter rivalry emerged between nearby Brazoria for the location of the county seat; the town was incorporated on November 12, 1912. As the county seat, Angleton hosts the Brazoria County Fair every October. Angleton is located near the center of Brazoria County at 29°9′59″N 95°25′41″W. Texas State Highway 288, a four-lane freeway, runs along the western edge of the city, with access from five exits. Highway 288 leads north 43 miles to downtown Houston and south 18 miles to Freeport near the Gulf of Mexico.
Texas State Highway 35 crosses Highway 288 and passes through the center of Angleton, leading northeast 21 miles to Alvin and west 37 miles to Bay City. According to the United States Census Bureau, Angleton has a total area of 11.3 square miles, of which 0.019 sq mi, or 0.17%, is covered by water. As of the census of 2000, 18,130 people, 6,508 households, 4,894 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,716.3 people per square mile. There were 7,220 housing units at an average density of 683.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 63.21% White, 23.19% Hispanic or Latino, 11.38% African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 9.63% from other races, 2.15% from two or more races. Of the 6,508 households, 41.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were not families. About 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.19. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.8% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,184, for a family was $50,019. Males had a median income of $39,711 versus $23,508 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,915. About 8.9% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Angleton District Parole Office in Angleton. In addition, the TDCJ Wayne Scott Unit is located in an unincorporated area near Angleton; the United States Postal Service operates the Angleton Post Office. Angleton is home to nine parks.
Bates Park Brushy Bayou Park Welch Park Dickey Park Freedom Park Masterson Park B. G. Peck Soccer Complex and Park Veterans Park The city is served by the following for emergency services: Angleton Police Department Angleton Area Emergency Medical Corps Angleton Volunteer Fire Department The public schools in the city are operated by Angleton Independent School District. High schoolsAngleton High School Junior high schoolsAngleton Junior High School Elementary schoolsCentral Elementary Frontier Elementary Northside Elementary Rancho Isabella Elementary Southside Elementary Westside Elementary Angleton High School - ACE Brazoria County Juvenile Detention Brazoria County Alternative Education Center Student Alternative Center Angleton Christian School The Angleton Library and the Brazoria County Historical Museum Library are a part of the Brazoria County Library System. Benchmark Electronics is based in Angleton. Country Hearth Inn known as Homeplace, opened its first location in Angleton in 1983.
Greyhound Bus Lines operates the Angleton Station at 530 E Mulberry St, located in the city. Texas Gulf Coast Regional Airport serves Angleton. Southern Brazoria County Transit provides bus service options for Angleton, along with Clute, Lake Jackson, Freeport. Lakareber Abe, All-American golf player for the Alabama Crimson Tide Dennis Bonnen, Republican member of Texas House of Representatives from District 25 since 1997. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Angleton has a humid subtropical
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Athens is a city in Henderson County, Texas, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,710, it is the county seat of Henderson County. The city has called itself the "Black-Eyed Pea Capital of the World." Athens was selected as one of the first "Certified Retirement Communities" in Texas. It was named after Alabama, by one of the early residents who came from there. Athens is located in central Henderson County at 32°12′10″N 95°50′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 16.8 square miles are land and 2.4 square miles, or 12.32%, are covered by water. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,710 people, 4,110 households, 2,807 families residing in the city; the population density was 772.8 people per square mile. There were 4,549 housing units at an average density of 311.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.14% White, 19.23% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 6.17% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 17.37% of the population. There were 4,110 households out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% are classified as non-families by the United States Census Bureau. Of 4,110 households, 131 are unmarried partner households: 106 heterosexual, 14 same-sex male, 11 same-sex female households. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,372, the median income for a family was $35,359.
Males had a median income of $27,388 versus $19,375 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,561. About 14.7% of families and 18.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $8.0 million in revenues, $8.6 million in expenditures, $4.2 million in total assets, $0.7 million in total liabilities, $0.7 million in cash and investments. The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Athens District Parole Office in Athens; the United States Postal Service operates the Athens Post Office. The city of Athens is served by the Athens Independent School District and is home to the Athens High School Hornets. A small portion in the eastern outskirts of Athens is within the Brownsboro Independent School District; the main campus of Trinity Valley Community College is located in Athens.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Athens has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. Fred Agnich, Texas businessman, state legislator from Dallas. Spencer, former member of Texas House of Representatives, 1939–1941, 1947–1949 Henderson county judge Stuart Spitzer, surgeon in Kaufman and former Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, born in Athens in 1967 Barron Tanner, former NFL defensive lineman Fred LaRue, former aide to President Richard Nixon. Served four and a half months in prison after pleading guilty to obstruction of justice for his actions pertaining to the Watergate break-in and the following scandal. City of Athens official website Athens Chamber of Commerce Athens Economic Development Corp. Athens, TX from the Handbook of Texas Online Bill HCR-15 of the Texas State Legislature designating Athens as the "Original Home of the Hamburger"
Interstate 45 is an interstate highway located within the U. S. state of Texas. While most interstate routes ending in five are cross-country north-south routes, I-45 is comparatively short, with the entire route located in Texas, it connects the cities of Dallas and Houston, continuing southeast from Houston to Galveston over the Galveston Causeway to the Gulf of Mexico. I-45 replaced US 75 over its entire length, although portions of US 75 remained parallel to I-45 until its elimination south of downtown Dallas in 1987. At the south end of I-45, State Highway 87 continues into downtown Galveston; the north end is at Interstate 30 in downtown Dallas. A short continuation, known by traffic reporters as the I-45 overhead, signed as part of US 75, Interstate 345, continues north to the merge with the current end of US 75. Traffic can use Spur 366 to connect to Interstate 35E at the north end of I-345; the portion of I-45 between downtown Houston and Galveston is known to Houston residents as the Gulf Freeway.
The short elevated section of I-45 which forms the southern boundary of downtown Houston is known as the Pierce Elevated, after the surface street next to which the freeway runs, while north of Interstate 10 it is known as the North Freeway. I-45 and I-345 in the Dallas area, north of the interchanges with Interstate 20 and State Highway 310, is the Julius Schepps Freeway; the Gulf Freeway and North Freeway both include reversible high-occupancy vehicle lanes for buses and other high-occupancy vehicles to and from downtown Houston. In addition to the official control cities of Galveston and Dallas, I-45 serves a number of other communities, including La Marque, League City, The Woodlands, Willis, Madisonville, Buffalo, Fairfield and Ennis. U. S. Highway 190 joins I-45 for 26 miles from Huntsville, Texas to Texas. U. S. Highway 287 joins I-45 for 18 miles from Corsicana, Texas to Texas. US 287 signs are only posted from the northern end of Business Loop 45 in Corsicana to the Ellis County line.
Interstate 45 gained notoriety during Hurricane Rita in 2005. Thousands of Houston area evacuees jammed the roadway trying to leave; as a result, the freeway became a parking lot. Gas stations ran dry and hundreds of people's cars ran empty, their occupants having to spend the night along the shoulder. Four-hour drives became 24-hour drives. Though the Texas Department of Transportation started contraflow lane reversal at FM 1488, it did not alleviate the traffic jam deep into the city, as that starting point was north of The Woodlands, close to Conroe, the northern terminus of the greater Houston area. At just 284.913 miles, I-45 is the shortest of the primary interstates, the only primary interstate to be inside of one state. The stretch of I-45 connecting Galveston with Houston is known as the Gulf Freeway, it was the first freeway built in Texas—opened in stages beginning on October 1, 1948, up to a full completion to Galveston in 1952, as part of U. S. Highway 75. At the north end, it connects to the North Freeway via the short Pierce Elevated, completed in 1967.
The section north of the curve near Monroe Road/State Highway 3 in southeastern Houston was built on the right-of-way of the former Galveston-Houston Electric Railway, which entered downtown on Pierce Street. From January 1974 until December 1995, the speed limit was 55 mph for the entire route of the Gulf Freeway Houston-GalvestonAfter several interchanges, I-45 crosses the Galveston Causeway and passes Tiki Island. Old U. S. Highway 75 south of this junction was upgraded on the spot; the Gulf Freeway parallels State Highway 3 about 1 mile to the west, bypassing La Marque and South Houston. It includes interchanges with several other freeways: the Emmett F. Lowry Expressway, NASA Road 1 Bypass and the Sam Houston Tollway, meeting the north end of State Highway 3 in southeastern Houston. A center reversible HOV lane begins just south of the Sam Houston Tollway. In Houston, I-45 meets Interstate Highway State Highway 35 at a complicated interchange. At the merge with Spur 5, a short freeway spur to the University of Houston, elevated collector/distributor roads begin.
The C/D roads and the HOV lane end at the original end of the Gulf Freeway. Just past Emancipation Avenue is an interchange with Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 and State Highway 288, after which I-45 technically becomes the North Freeway as it runs along the northwest half of the block between Pierce Street and Gray Street as the Pierce Elevated; the reversible high-occupancy vehicle lane begins in downtown Houston at the intersection of St. Joseph Parkway and Emancipation Avenue, with easy access inbound to St. Joseph Parkway and outbound from Pierce Street, it runs down the median of the Gulf Freeway at the same level as the main lanes. Ramps are provided for access to and from the following roads: Eastwood Transit Center — full access Interstate Highway 610 north frontage road — full access Monroe Road and Monroe Park & Ride — full access Fuqua Park & Ride and South Point Park & Ride — full access Frontage roads north of Dixie Farm Road - towards downtown, with a ramp stub for continuation The Interstate 45 North Freeway HOV begins in downtown Houston near the University of Houston–Downtown, with easy access inbound on Milam Street and outbound on Travis Street.
Ramps and ent
Walker County, Texas
Walker County is a county located in the east central section of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 67,861, its county seat is Huntsville. Walker County was named for Robert J. Walker, a legislator from Mississippi who introduced into the United States Congress the resolution to annex Texas. Walker supported the Union during the Civil War and earned some enmity. In order to keep the county's name, the state renamed it for Samuel H. Walker, a Texas Ranger and soldier in the United States Army. Walker County is part of the Huntsville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area. Americans James Mitchell and his wife, the former Calpernia Franklin, immigrated to the future Walker County in 1833 and were awarded a Mexican land grant. Mitchell, who became one of the first county commissioners, established the Mitchell House and Inn on the Old San Antonio Road known as El Camino Real. During the 1840s, the house was a stop for hungry stagecoach travelers.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 802 square miles, of which 784 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Interstate 45 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 19 State Highway 30 State Highway 75 Houston County Trinity County San Jacinto County Montgomery County Grimes County Madison County Sam Houston National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 61,758 people, 18,303 households, 11,384 families residing in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 21,099 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.12% White, 23.88% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.42% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 14.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,303 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.80% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.00% under the age of 18, 23.00% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 151.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 161.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,468, the median income for a family was $42,589. Males had a median income of $27,634 versus $22,579 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,508. About 10.60% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Sam Houston State University is located in Huntsville. School districts serving portions of the county include: Huntsville Independent School District New Waverly Independent School District Richards Independent School District Trinity Independent School District The Gulf Coast Trades Center, a charter school, is in an unincorporated area of the county.
The headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Texas agency that operates adult state correctional facilities, are in Huntsville. Walker County has the highest number of state jails of all of the counties in Texas. Several TDCJ prisons for men, including the Byrd Unit, the Goree Unit, the Huntsville Unit, the Wynne Unit, are in the Huntsville city limits; the Holliday Unit, a transfer unit, is in Huntsville. In addition the Ellis Unit and the Estelle Unit are in unincorporated areas of Walker County; the Huntsville Unit houses the State of Texas execution chamber. Huntsville New Waverly Riverside Dodge Eugene C. Barker Marilyn McAdams Sibley Walker County Jane Doe, an unidentified teenager or young woman found murdered on November 1, 1980 National Register of Historic Places listings in Walker County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Walker County John N. Raney Kate Borcherding Walker County government's website Walker County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Texas state highway system
Texas state highways are a network of highways owned and maintained by the U. S. state of Texas. The Texas Department of Transportation is the state agency responsible for the day-to-day operations and maintenance of the system. Texas has the largest state highway system, followed by North Carolina's state highway system. In addition to the nationally numbered Interstate Highways and U. S. Highways, the highway system consists of a main network of state highways, loops and beltways that provide local access to the other highways; the system includes a large network of farm to market roads that connect rural areas of the state with urban areas and the rest of the state highway system. The state owns and maintains some park and recreational roads located near and within state and national parks, as well as recreational areas. All state highways, regardless of classification, are paved roads; the Old San Antonio Road known as the El Camino Real, is the oldest highway in the United States, first being blazed in 1691.
The length of the highways varies from US 83's 893.4 miles inside the state borders to Spur 200 at just 0.05 miles long. The Texas State Highway System can trace its roots to the establishment of the Texas Highway Department on April 4, 1917. Administrative control of the department was given to a three-member commission appointed by the governor for two-year terms. On June 21, 1917, the commission conducted its first public hearing to solicit input on potential highway routes; the committee divided the state into six divisions to be headquartered in Amarillo, Fort Worth, San Angelo, San Antonio. That year, the commission designated 26 state highways covering 8,865 miles which were to be accessible to 89% of the state's population. In 1921, Congress amended the Federal Aid to Roads Act of 1916 to require the states to take control of road design and maintenance of state highways by 1925; as a result, on January 1, 1924, the Texas Highway Department took full control of maintaining the state highways from the counties within which they resided.
In 1925, the state legislature granted the highway department the responsibility of surveying and building highways, the authorization to acquire new highway rights-of-way by purchasing, or condemning through eminent domain, land required for highway construction. By 1927, the highway system covered 17,960 miles, of which 96 miles were concrete, 1,060 miles were asphalt, 5,000 miles were gravel, shell or stone, 10,000 miles were clay or soil. In 1951, a 50-mile section of the Gulf Freeway opened. In 1957, the state began receiving federal funding for the construction of the Interstate Highway System; the first section of Interstate Highway from county line to county line to open in the state was a 43-mile section of I-35 in Bexar County. By 1967, the highway system controlled 66,000 miles of highway. In 1984, US 66 was replaced by I-40 and the US 66 designation was removed from the state highway system the following year. In 1992, the 3,200 miles of Interstate Highway System in Texas was completed with the opening of a six-mile section of I-27.
In 1997, the Texas Turnpike Authority was merged with TxDOT and independently, the North Texas Turnpike Authority became responsible for toll projects in Collin, Dallas and Tarrant counties. The Interstate Highway System in Texas covers 3,233.4 miles and consists of ten primary highways, seven auxiliary highways, the splitting of both Interstate 35 and Interstate 69 into multiple letter-suffixed branches. The Interstate Highway with the longest segment in Texas is I-10 at 880.6 miles. The shortest in the state is I-110 at 0.9 miles. The construction of the Interstate Highway System in Texas began well before these routes were designated as Interstate Highways. A 50-mile stretch of the Gulf Freeway between Galveston and Houston was opened in 1951, eight years before it was designated I-45, it was the first urban expressway in Texas. In 1962, 43 miles of I-35 opened in Bexar County, the first section of Interstate Highway to open from county line to county line in a large metropolitan area. Portions of I-10 west of San Antonio took much longer to complete due to the vast open spaces and lack of nearby labor.
The majority of the construction of this section of I-10 occurred in the 1970s and 1980s and was complete by the early 1990s. The section east of San Antonio was completed 20 years earlier in 1972; the opening of a 6-mile section of I-27 in 1992 completed the Interstate Highway System in Texas. Construction is ongoing for an extension of I-69 southward from its original terminus in Indiana through Texas to the Mexican border; when built, I-69 will extend about 650 miles across Texas, from the Louisiana state line in the Texarkana–Shreveport area to South Texas. Similar to I-35, I-69 splits into three letter-suffixed branches, I-69E, I-69C, I-69W; the United States Numbered Highways are a nationwide grid of highways, but unlike the Interstate Highway System, there is no minimum design standard for these highways. This is evident as some stretches of the U. S. Highways in Texas are nothing more than a two-lane rural road. Although the U. S. Highways have been replaced for the most part by Interstate Highways for through traffic, the U.
S. Highways still serve as important regional connectors. Several notable examples of U. S. Highways that are built to freeway standards include US 75 and US 80 in Dallas, US 59 and US 290 in Houston, US 90 and US 281 in