The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
MTV Video Music Award for Best Rap Video
The MTV Video Music Award for Best Rap Video was first given out in 1989, it was one of the four original genre categories added at the 1989 MTV Video Music Awards. This award was last given out in 2006, as MTV did not bring it back in 2008 like it did with other genre awards. Instead and videos that were eligible for Best Rap Video are now eligible for Best Hip-Hop Video. Will Smith, Arrested Development, Dr. Dre, Jay-Z are tied as this award's biggest winners, each having won it twice. MTV Europe Music Award for Best Rap
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
A cassette single is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette. Bow Wow Wow's "C·30 C·60 C·90 Go" was the first cassette single, released in the UK in 1980, I. R. S. Records released the first cassette single in the U. S. with the Go-Go's "Vacation" in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Art of Noise and Propaganda being issued in unique versions on cassette. American record companies began releasing cassette singles on a large scale in 1987, beginning with A&M's Bryan Adams "Heat of the Night", when vinyl record album sales were declining in favor of cassette recordings; the format was used as a promotion in the 1990s, with Disney giving a "cassingle" to attendees of Hercules promotional events. Most cassette singles were released in a cardboard sleeve that slipped over the outside of the release; this was usually shrink wrapped in plastic. Some singles contained one song on each side, much as 45s had done, but others repeated the songs on both sides.
In some markets, cassette singles used the same packaging as standard cassettes, a plastic box with a paper insert. As the cassette maxi-single was released, more intricate packaging was incorporated that looked similar to the packaging of a regular cassette release; these were placed in regular plastic cassette cases with a paper/cardstock insert. Unlike a full-length cassette album, these were only one two-sided inlay instead of a fold-out. Maxi-singles contained four versions of a single song, i.e.: unique mixes & edits, but some contained versions of two different songs. Although the cassette had reached a high level of popularity by the late 1980s, due to the ubiquity of mobile devices such as the Sony Walkman, the boombox and car audio cassette players, cassette singles never rivalled gramophone records to near the same extent as cassette albums had done. In the U. S. cassette singles were phased out by the early 2000s. One reason for their lesser popularity was because they appeared to be an inefficient use of the media to consumers - a cassette single took up the same storage space as a full album.
In April 2013, psychedelic rock band MGMT released the first single from their third album as a cassette single, October 2014 saw the cassingle "Great Big Happy Green Moonface" from Polaris, the band's first release in fifteen years
Steven Howse is a rapper known for being a member of the group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony. He has gone by the names L-Burna and The #1 Assassin, he is the younger brother of fellow group member cousin of group member Wish Bone. He is a member of the rap group Bone Brothers and CEO of the record label Harmony Howse Entertainment; the group formed the band B. O. N. E. Enterpri$e and recorded an album entitled Faces Of Death in the studio of their mentor, Kermit Henderson on his indie label Stoney Burke in 1993. After this Layzie and the rest of the Bone Family boarded a Greyhound Bus to Los Angeles where they worked with notable producer and rapper Eazy-E and his Ruthless/Relativity Records label. Diego Blak, a marketer and promoter and co-executive producer of Faces Of Death introduced them to Eazy-E at a concert he promoted in Cleveland, Ohio where they auditioned for him in his dressing room and traveled back to Los Angeles, California after the show to seal the deal. At this point Eazy named them Thugs-n-Harmony but they wanted to keep the Bone name so they were called Bone Thugs-N-Harmony.
Layzie has promoted the indie label Mo Thugs Records which he and the rest of Bone originated. He released his first solo album Thug By Nature on March 20, 2001 the same day Bizzy Bone released his second solo album The Gift, he has collaborative albums with Young Noble from The Outlawz and A. K. of Do or Die, solo albums out such as It's Not A Game, The New Revolution, Startin' from Scratch: How A Thug Was Born, the upcoming solo album to be announced Ruthless. He has had a series of albums with Bizzy Bone. In the fall of 2010, Layzie established Harmony Howse Entertainment; as of 2011, he and Fredro Starr of the Onyx group are planning to release a collaborative EP entitled FireSquad, set to be released late 2011. By the middle of 2013, Layzie has announced on Twitter that he is taking a step aside from performing and appearing with Bone Thugs-n-Harmony to focus on his solo-career. He's the uncle of Dizzy Wright. Layzie is working on his latest album Perfect Timing, scheduled to be released on April 20, 2016 now TBD, Layzie releases Cleveland is The City Featuring Aaron "D-Boyy" Dissell.
The song was used by Fox News during the 2015 NBA Finals as the Cleveland Cavaliers theme song. After back and fourth fued between the rap group Migos. Led Layzie to record new songs for his new album "Annihilation". Which is available for pre order. Thug by Nature The New Revolution Cleveland Startin' from Scratch: How a Thug Was Born Thugz Nation The Definition The Meaning Bone Brothers with Bone Brothers Thug Brothers with Young Noble Bone Brothers 2 with Bone Brothers Bone Brothers III with Bone Brothers Still Creepin on Ah Come Up with Bone Brothers Finally with A. K. Thug Twinz with Big Sloan Layzie Bone Layzie Bone on IMDb Layzie Bone at AllMusic
Mainstream Top 40
The Mainstream Top 40 is a 40-song music chart published weekly by Billboard Magazine which ranks the most popular songs being played on a panel of Top 40 radio stations in the United States. The rankings are based on radio airplay detections as measured by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, a subsidiary of the U. S.' Leading marketing research company. Consumer researchers, Nielsen Audio, refers to the format as contemporary hit radio; the chart debuted in Billboard Magazine in its issued date October 3, 1992, with the introduction of two Top 40 airplay charts and Rhythm-Crossover. Both Top 40 charts measured "actual monitored airplay" from data compiled by Broadcast Data Systems; the Top 40/Mainstream chart was compiled from airplay on radio stations playing a wide variety of music, while the Top 40/Rhythm-Crossover chart was made up from airplay on stations playing more dance and R&B music. Both charts were "born of then-new BDS electronic monitoring technology" as a more objective and precise way of measuring airplay on radio stations.
This data was used as the airplay component for Hot 100 tabulations. Top 40/Mainstream was published in the print edition of Billboard from its debut in October 1992 through May 1995, when both Top 40 charts were moved to Airplay Monitor, a secondary chart publication by Billboard, they returned to the print edition in the August 2003, issue. Songs on the chart are ranked by the total number of spins detected per week. Songs which gain plays or remain flat from the previous week will receive a bullet. A song will receive a bullet if its percentage loss in plays does not exceed the percentage of monitored station downtime for the format. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. There are forty positions on this chart and it is based on radio airplay. A number of Top 40 Mainstream radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked by a calculation of the total number of spins per week with its "audience impression", based upon exact times of airplay and each station's Arbitron listener data.
Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections doesn't exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections. A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher. Since the introduction of the chart until 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. In the chart week of December 3, 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Since the issue dated December 4, 2010, songs older than 20 weeks on the chart are moved to recurrent after they drop below No. 15.
Whereas the Top 40 Mainstream and Pop 100 Airplay charts both measured the airplay of songs played on Mainstream stations playing pop-oriented music, the Pop 100 Airplay measured airplay based on statistical impressions, while the Top 40 Mainstream chart used the number of total detections. On October 19, 2017, the Mainstream Top 40 co-hosts, Gary Trust and Trevor Anderson, gave hints as to what the number 1 all-time Mainstream Top 40 song was going to be on the charts; that day, the top 100 all-time songs and the top 50-all time artists were released, with the number 1 all-time song being revealed as "Another Night" by Real McCoy. Shown below are the top 10 artists from each chart. Source: Source: Source: The year indicates. Katy Perry Mariah Carey Maroon 5 P!nk, Rihanna Ace of Base, Taylor Swift Bruno Mars Justin Timberlake Christina Aguilera Boyz II Men, Beyoncé Source: Rihanna Nicki Minaj Britney Spears Chris Brown Pitbull Mariah Carey Lil Wayne Source: Mariah Carey: December 9, 1995"One Sweet Day" "Fantasy"OutKast: January 31 - February 7, 2004"Hey Ya!"
"The Way You Move" Pharrell Williams: July 27 - August 3, 2013"Blurred Lines" "Get Lucky" Iggy Azalea: June 28 - July 12, 2014"Fancy" "Problem" Halsey: February 23 - March 9, 2019"Without Me" "Eastside" Source: Mariah Carey — "Fantasy" → "One Sweet Day" OutKast — "Hey Ya!" → "The Way You Move" Iggy Azalea — "Fancy" → "Problem" † Halsey — "Without Me" → "Eastside" † Iggy Azalea is the only act in Mainstream Top 40 history to replace herself at number one with her first two chart entries. Source: Lady Gaga is the only artist to have her first six singles reach No. 1. Britney Spears holds the record for the longest span between No. 1s at 12 years, seven months and four days between her first No.1 and her latest. JoJo at age 13, became the youngest solo artist to have a numbe