Bhujimol is the most ancient form of Nepal script. It is one of the most common varieties of the Nepal alphabet. Bhujimol has been used to write Nepal Sanskrit; the term Bhujinmol means "fly-headed", from the Nepal Bhasa words "bhujin", meaning "housefly", "mol", meaning "head". The "head" is the horizontal line, put above each letter, Bhujimol refers to its rounded shape. In 2003, a brick was discovered in Chabahil, in the course of reconstruction of the Chabahil Stupa or Dhando Chaitya, bearing inscriptions in both Brahmi and Bhujimol: The upper face is inscribed with Cha Ru Wa Ti in Brahmi, with Cha Ru Wa Ti Dhande / He Tu Pra Bha in Bhujimol script. There are Swastika marks at the two ends of the upper face with a Chakra mark in between; the brick weighs 8.6 kg. The brick may date to as early as the 3rd century BC; the earliest known inscription in the Kathmandu Valley dates from the 6th century and is installed at Changu Narayan. The inscription is interpreted to refer to Charumati, a daughter of emperor Ashoka
The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India, a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. The Gupta script gave rise to the Nāgarī, Sharada and Siddham scripts; these scripts in turn gave rise to many of the most important scripts of India, including Devanagari, the Gurmukhi script for Punjabi Language, the Bengali script, the Tibetan script. The Gupta Script was descended from the Ashokan Brahmi script, is a crucial link between Brahmi and most other scripts in the Brahmic family of Scripts, a family of alphasyllabaries or abugidas; this means that while only consonantal phonemes have distinct symbols, vowels are marked by diacritics, with /a/ being the implied pronunciation when the diacritic is not present. In fact, the Gupta script works in the same manner as its predecessor and successors, only the shapes and forms of the graphemes and diacritics are different. Through the 4th century, letters began to take more cursive and symmetric forms, as a result of the desire to write more and aesthetically.
This meant that the script became more differentiated throughout the Empire, with regional variations which have been broadly classified into three, four or five categories. In this sense, the term Gupta script should be taken to mean any form of writing derived from the Gupta period though there may be a lack of uniformity in the scripts; the surviving inscriptions of the Gupta script are found on iron or stone pillars, on gold coins from the Gupta Dynasty. One of the most important was the Allahabad Prasasti. Composed by Harishena, the court poet and minister of Samudragupta, it describes Samudragupta’s reign, beginning from his accession to the throne as the second king of the Gupta Dynasty and including his conquest of other kings; the study of Gupta coins began with the discovery of a hoard of gold coins in 1783. Many other such hoards have since been discovered, the most important being the Bayana hoard, discovered in 1946, which contained more than 2000 gold coins issued by the Gupta Kings.
Many of the Gupta Empire’s coins bear inscriptions of legends or mark historic events. In fact, it was one of the first Indian Empires to do so as a result of its unprecedented prosperity; every Gupta king issued coins, beginning with its first king, Chandragupta I. The scripts on the coin are of a different nature compared to scripts on pillars, due to conservatism regarding the coins that were to be accepted as currency, which would have prevented regional variations in the script from manifesting on the coinage. Moreover, space was more limited on their silver coins, thus many of the symbols are truncated or stunted. An example is the symbol for /ta/ and /na/, which were simplified to vertical strokes. Brahmic scripts Lipi – writing scripts in Buddhist and Jaina textsSimilar scriptsBhattiprolu script Kadamba script Telugu-Kannada script Pallava script Carl Faulmann, Das Buch der Schrift, Druck und Verlag der Kaiserlichen Hof-und Staatsdruckerei, 1880 The Gupta Alphabet AncientScripts.com entry on the Gupta Script An eastern variety of the post-Gupta script: Akṣara List of theManuscripts of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā and Buddhapālita's Commentary, c. the 550-650, Collection of Sanskrit Mss.
Preserved in the China Ethnic Library
Gurmukhī is a Sikh script modified and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad. Gurmukhi is used in the state of Punjab as the official script of the Punjabi language, a language, written in Perso-Arabic Shahmukhi script; the primary scripture of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib is written in Gurmukhī, in various dialects subsumed under the generic title Sant Bhasha. Modern Gurmukhī has thirty-five original consonants plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritics, two diacritics for nasal sounds, one diacritic that geminates consonants, three subscript characters; the Gurmukhī script has roots in the Brahmi script, which developed further into the Northwestern group, the Central group and the Eastern group, as well as several prominent writing systems of Southeast Asia and Sinhala in Sri Lanka, in addition to scripts used in Central Asia for extinct languages like Saka and Tocharian. Gurmukhi is derived from Sharada in the Northwestern group, of, the only major surviving member, with full modern currency.
Notable features: It is an abugida in which all consonants have an inherent vowel, /ə/. Diacritics, which can appear above, before or after the consonant they are applied to, are used to change the inherent vowel; when they appear at the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. To form consonant clusters, Gurmukhi uniquely affixes subscript letters at the bottom of standard characters, rather than using the true conjunct symbols used by other scripts, which merge parts of each letter into a distinct character of its own. Punjabi is a tonal language with three tones; these are indicated in writing using the voiced aspirated consonants and the intervocalic h. Gurmukhi evolved in cultural and historical circumstances notably different to other scripts, for the purpose of recording scriptures of Sikhism, a far less Sanskritized cultural tradition than others of the subcontinent; this independence from the Sanskritic model allowed it the freedom to evolve unique orthographical features.
These include: Three basic carrier vowels, integrated into the traditional Gurmukhi character set, using the vowel markers to write independent vowels, instead of distinctly separate characters for each of these vowels as in other scripts. Tarlochan Singh Bedi writes that the Gurmukhī script developed in the 10-14th centuries from the Devasesha stage of the Śāradā script, the intermediate phase being Siddha Matrika, before the final evolution into Gurmukhī, his argument is that from the 10th century, regional differences started to appear between the Śāradā script used in Punjab, the Hill States and Kashmir. The regional Śāradā script evolved from this stage until the 14th century, when it starts to appear in the form of Gurmukhī. Indian epigraphists call this stage Devasesha, while Bedi prefers the name Pritham Gurmukhī or Proto-Gurmukhī; the Sikh gurus adopted proto-Gurmukhī to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs. Other contemporary scripts used in the Punjab were the Laṇḍā scripts.
The Takri alphabet developed through the Devasesha stage of the Śāradā script and is found in the Hill States such as Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, where it is called Chambyali, in Jammu Division, where it is known as Dogri. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari. Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Laṇḍā scripts were not used for literary purposes. Landa means alphabet "without tail". In Punjab, there were at least ten different scripts classified as Laṇḍā, Mahajani being the most popular; the Laṇḍā scripts were used for trade purposes. Compared to the Laṇḍā, Sikh Gurus favored the use of Proto-Gurmukhī, because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs; the usage of Gurmukhī letters in Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules.
In the following epochs, Gurmukhī became the prime script applied for literary writings of the Sikhs. In the 20th century, after the struggle of the Punjabi Suba movement, from the founding of modern India in the 1940s to the 1960s, the s
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu spelled Vattezhutthu was an abugida writing system in southern India and Sri Lanka in the latter half of the first millennium AD. Vatteluttu was the common script for writing various forms of the Tamil language in the region of the Pandyas and Cheras until the 9th century, after which it came to be replaced by the present-day Tamil script everywhere except in Kerala, it is known that the Tamil Script became current in the Chola and Pandya kingdoms by the 10th century. Southern Grantha script - used writing Sanskrit in south India - evolved into modern Malayalam script in Kerala. Derived from the Tamil-Brahmi script, the Vatteluttu was developed in southern India and was extensively used for writing various forms of Tamil and Malayalam; the early cave inscriptions discovered from southern India, in Tamil-Brahmi script, have supplied some of the connecting links between Brahmi script and Vatteluttu. Vatteluttu is attested from the 6th century AD. Vatteluttu was adopted by their successor-states in Kerala.
Kodungallur Chera epigraphs in Old Malayalam are composed in Vatteluttu. After the Kodungallur Chera period the Vatteluttu went on evolving and developed into "Kolezhuttu" in Kerala. Use of Vatteluttu - albeit in a decadent form - continued among certain classes in Kerala Muslims and Christians up to the 19th century Inhabitants of Kuccaveli, located north of Trincomalee, used the Vatteluttu between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, attested to on rock inscriptions found there; the following image shows the divergent evolution of the Vatteluttu script. The Vatteluttu script is shown on the left, the Tamil script is shown on the right. Here are the characters used in Vatteluttu: Tamil copper-plate inscriptions Indian copper plate inscriptions Laguna Copperplate Inscription Pallava script Tamil script Sivaramamurti, C, Indian Epigraphy and South Indian Scripts. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum. Chennai 1999
Sylheti Nagari is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti. It is related to Kaithi, has some Bengali influences. Although it has in recent times lost much ground to Bengali, the script is beginning to be reintroduced; the script has been known as Jalalabad Nagari, Fūl Nagari, Muslim Nagari, Muhammad Nagari. All of its names are suffixed with Nagari, which implies the script's connection to the Nāgarī script; the specific origin of Sylheti Nagari is debated. The general hypothesis is the Muslims of Sylhet. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, however, is of the opinion that Shah Jalal brought the script with him when he arrived in the area in the thirteenth or fourteenth century; the bulk of text written in Sylheti Nagari being influenced by Sufism seems to support this hypothesis. On the other hand, according to Ahmad Hasan Dani it was the Afghans living in Sylhet during the Afghan rule who invented the script, since some of Sylheti Nagari's letters resemble the symbols on Afghan coins, there were a large number of Afghans living in Sylhet at that time.
Other less-supported hypotheses are: Since the people of Sylhet were familiar with the Devanagari script, they fashioned Sylheti Nagari after it. During the British colonial period, a Sylheti student by the name of Moulvi Abdul Karim studying in London, after completing his education, spent several years in London and learned the printing trade. After returning home, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagari and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet in about 1870. Other Sylheti presses were established in Sunamganj and Kolkata; these presses fell out of use during the early 1970s during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Sylheti Nagari is characterized with fewer letters than Bengali. In addition, Sylheti Nagari didn't have any ligatures; the total number of letters is 32. The accepted number of vowels is 5, although some texts show additional vowels. For example, the diphthong ôi has sometimes been regarded as an additional vowel, it is to be noted. The vowels have their own respective diacritics known as "horkot".
There are 27 consonants. Sylheti Nagari has its own numerals but uses the Bengali numerals; the Nagri numerals are influenced by Bengali, Eastern Arabic and English numerals. Due to the numerals not being supported by Unicode, the following Sylheti numerals have been compared to other symbols in different languages which match the numbers; as noted before, Sylheti Nagari has been used outside of Sylhet. The script spread to such extents as Calcutta, Shillong, it has been asserted from scholarly writings. But from various sources it has been seen that the script was in use in areas apart from the region of Sylhet such as Barisal, Noakhali etc. From the description of Shreepadmanath Debsharma: The script is thought to have spread to Chittagong and Barisal via river. A large number of immigrants in the United Kingdom from Sylhet have introduced the script there. Born out of a religious need, Sylheti Nagari has been used in the daily lives of the inhabitants of Sylhet apart from using in religious literature.
Letters and official records has been written using this script. Apart from renowned literary works such as Haltunnobi, Mhobbotnama, Noor Noshihot, Talib Huson etc. it has been used to write medicine and magical manuscripts, as well as Poems of the Second World War. The script, never having been a part of any formal education, reached the common people with seeming ease. A reproduction of a traditional ballad written in Sylheti Nagari script is available at this source: https://www.amazon.co.uk/False-Paradise-Tale-King-Shaddad/dp/1512151513. The simplistic nature of the script inspired a lot of poets, the bulk of Nagari literature was born; the Srihatta's Islamia Press, Sarada Press and Calcutta's General Printing Press used to print in Sylheti Nagari. The manuscripts were of prosaic quality, but poetry was abundant; the "New Surma" is a proprietary font. Noto fonts provides an open source font for Sylheti Nagari. There is an android keyboard on google play store. Syloti Nagri Keyboard is the first android keyboard on Nagri letter.
Developed by Sabbir Ahmed and Md Nurul Islam. They are from Sylhet; the following is a sample text in Sylheti, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations: Sylheti in Sylheti Nagari script ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠁꠘꠔꠣꠁꠘꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠅꠔꠣꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ।Sylheti in phonetic Romanization Dara ex: Hoxol manuṣ ṣadínbábe homan ijjot ar hox loia foeda óe. Taintainor bibex ar axol asé. Otar lagi hoxlor exzone aroxzonor loge biradorir mon loia asoron xora usit. Sylheti in IPA /d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manuʃ ʃad̪ínbábɛ ɦɔman id͡ʑd͡ʑɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɪnt̪aɪnɔɾ bibex aɾ axɔl asé ‖ ɔt̪aɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ ɛxzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔgɛ birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa usit̪ ‖/Gloss Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do, their reason and intelligence exist.
Mahajani is a Laṇḍā mercantile script, used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records in Marwari and Punjabi. It is written left-to-right. Mahajani refers to the Hindi word for'bankers' known as'sarrafi' or'kothival'. Mahajani has been used as a primary accounting script for Marwari traders and for the use of Hindi and Punjabi in a wide region across northwest India and eastern Pakistan, it was taught in merchant schools as part of the education system. A vast majority of documents in which it is found are financial documents, in addition to primers, its use has been reported by bookkeepers in Haryana as the Langdi script, although its relationship with Langdi is uncertain. Mahajani descended from Landa scripts in the greater Punjab region in historic times and was well known as a merchant's script throughout north India, it may have been influenced by Kaithi and Devanagari. It has fewer vowels than most North Indian scripts, the use of them is optional; the vowels i and u can represent both their short and long forms in addition to diphthongs and related vowels.
Since vowels are optional, they must be interpreted in context for most Mahajani texts. There are no special conjunct consonant forms, there are no viramas to indicate them. Nasalization, if indicated, is represented by'na', it has various fraction marks, accounting marks, textual organization marks, to indicate paragraph and word spacing, abbreviation and space marks. As many Mahajani texts are accounting books, accounting symbols have been found, but they are undergoing further research for proper encoding, it uses a Devanagari-like baseline only to mark title headings on texts, not like in Devanagari where the baseline is an integral part of the characters. Some characters have glyphic variants, which can be found in greater detail in the Unicode Proposal. Mahajani script was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode block for Mahajani is U+11150–U+1117F
The expression Nepalese Scripts refers to alphabetic writing systems employed in Nepala Mandala by the indigenous Newars for writing Nepalbhasa and for transcribing Sanskrit. There are some claims they have been used to write the Parbatiya language but all Pahari languages were traditionally written with the Takri alphabet and now Devanagari; the older alphabets, known as Nepal Lipi or Nepal script, were in widespread use from the 10th to the early 20th-century A. C. E, but have since been supplanted by the modern script known as Devanagari. Of the older scripts, about 50,000 manuscripts written in Nepal Lipi have been archived. Outside of Nepal, Brahmi scripts have been used to write Sanskrit, Maithili and Braj Bhasha languages, they have been used to inscribe mantras on funerary markers as distant as Japan as well. Nepal or Nepalese script appeared in the 10th century; the earliest instance is a manuscript entitled Lankavatara Sutra dated Nepal Era 28. Another early specimen is a palm-leaf manuscript of a Buddhist text the Prajnaparamita, dated Nepal Era 40.
One of the oldest manuscript of Ramayana, preserved till date, was written in Nepal Script in 1041. The script has been used on stone and copper plate inscriptions, palm-leaf documents and Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts. Among the different scripts based on Nepal script, Ranjana and Prachalit are the most common. Ranjana is the most ornate among the scripts, it is most used to write Buddhist texts and inscribe mantras on prayer wheels, shrines and monasteries. The popular Buddhist mantra Om mani padme hum (meaning is written in Ranjana. Besides the Kathmandu Valley and the Himalayan region in Nepal, the Ranjana script is used for sacred purposes in Tibet, Japan, Mongolia, Bhutan and Ladakh; the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, Tibet is ornamented with mantras embossed in Ranjana script, the panels under the eaves are numbered using Nepal Lipi. Among the famed historical texts written in Nepal Lipi are Gopalarajavamsavali, a history of Nepal, which appeared in 1389 AD, the Nepal-Tibet treaty of Nepal Era 895 and a letter dated Nepal Era 535 sent by Chinese Emperor Tai Ming to Shakti-simha-rama, a feudatory of Banepa.
The different scripts derived from Nepal script are as follows: Ranjana script Nepal script Bhujimol typeface Litumol typeface Kunmol script Kwenmol script Golmol script Pachumol script Hinmol script Prachalit Nepal script Nepalese scripts saw a widespread use for a thousand years in Nepal. In 1906, the Rana regime banned Nepal Bhasa, Nepal Era and Nepal Lipi from official use as part of its policy to subdue them, the script fell into decline. Authors were encouraged to switch to Devanagari to write Nepal Bhasa because of the availability of moveable type for printing, Nepal Lipi was pushed further into the background. However, the script continued to be used for ceremonial purposes till the 1950s. After the Rana dynasty was overthrown and democracy established in 1951, restrictions on Nepal Bhasa were lifted. Attempts were made to study and revive the old scripts, alphabet books were published. Hemraj Shakyavamsha published an alphabet book of 15 types of Nepalese alphabets including Ranjana and Pachumol.
In 1952, a pressman Pushpa Ratna Sagar of Kathmandu had moveable type of Nepal script made in India. The metal type was used to print the titles of the articles in Thaunkanhe monthly. In 1989, the first book to be printed using a computer typeface of Nepal script, Prasiddha Bajracharyapinigu Sanchhipta Bibaran by Badri Ratna Bajracharya, was published. Today, Nepal Lipi has gone out of general usage, but it is sometimes used in signage and greeting cards, book and CD covers, product labels and the mastheads of newspapers. A number of private organizations are engaged in its promotion. Nepal Lipi was approved for inclusion in Unicode 9.0.] Nepal Bhasa literature Nepal Bhasa renaissance