A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft. Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial dogfighting. A fighter pilot with at least five air-to-air kills becomes known as an ace. Fighter pilots are one of the most regarded and desirable positions of any air force. Selection processes only accept the elite out of all the potential candidates. An individual who possesses an exceptional academic record, physical fitness, healthy well-being, a strong mental drive will have a higher chance of being selected for pilot training. Candidates are expected to exhibit strong leadership and teamwork abilities; as such, in nearly all air forces, fighter pilots, as are pilots of most other aircraft, are commissioned officers. Fighter pilots must be in optimal health to handle the physical demands of modern aerial warfare. Excellent heart condition is required, as the increased "G's" a pilot experiences in a turn can cause stress on the cardiovascular system.
One "G" is equal to the force of gravity experienced under normal conditions, two "G"s would be twice the force of normal gravity. Some fighter aircraft accelerate to up to 9 Gs. Fighter pilots require strong muscle tissue along the extremities and abdomen, for performing an anti-G straining maneuver when performing tight turns and other accelerated maneuvers. Better-than-average visual acuity is a desirable and valuable trait. Modern medium and long range active radar homing and semi-active radar homing missiles can be fired at targets outside or beyond visual range. However, when a pilot is dogfighting at short-range, his position relative to the opponent is decidedly important. Outperformance of another pilot and that pilot's aircraft is critical to maintain the upper-hand. A common saying for dogfighting is "lose sight, lose fight". If one pilot had a greater missile range than the other, he would choose to fire his missile first, before being in range of the enemy's missile; the facts of an enemy's weapon payload is unknown, are revealed as the fight progresses.
Some air combat maneuvers form the basis for the sport of aerobatics: Basic Split S Immelmann turn Thach Weave The Scissors Chandelle Complex Pugachev's Cobra Herbst maneuver Pilots are trained to employ specific tactics and maneuvers when they are under attack. Attacks from missiles are countered with electronic countermeasures and chaff. Missiles like the AIM-120 AMRAAM, can home in on jamming signals. Dogfighting at 1 to 4 miles is considered "close". Pilots perform stressful maneuvers to gain advantage in the dogfight. Pilots need to be in good shape. A pilot flexes his legs and torso to keep blood from draining out of the head; this is known as the AGSM or the M1 or, sometimes, as the "grunt". Many early air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles had simple infrared homing guidance systems with a narrow field of view; these missiles could be avoided by turning which caused the missile to lose sight of the target aircraft. Another tactic was to exploit a missile's limited range by performing evasive maneuvers until the missiles had run out of fuel.
Modern infrared. Supercooled infrared detectors help the missile find a possible exhaust source, software assists the missile in flying towards its target. Pilots drop flares to confuse or decoy these missiles. Radar homing missiles could sometimes be confused by surface objects or geographical features causing clutter for the guidance system of either the missile or ground station guiding it. Chaff is another option in the case that the aircraft is too high up to use geographical obstructions. Pilots have to be aware of the potential threats and learn to distinguish between the two where possible, they use the RWR to discern the types of signals hitting their aircraft. When maneuvering fiercely during engagements, pilots are subjected to high g-force. G-Forces express the magnitude of gravity, with 1G being equivalent to Earth's normal pull of gravity; because modern jet aircraft are agile and have the capacity to make sharp turns, the pilot's physical body is pushed to the limit. When executing a "positive G" maneuver like turning upwards the force pushes the pilot down.
The most serious consequence of this is that the blood in the pilot's body is pulled down and into their extremities. If the forces are great enough and over a sufficient period of time this can lead to blackouts, because not enough blood is reaching the pilot's brain. To counteract this effect pilots are trained to tense their legs and abdominal muscles to restrict the "downward" flow of blood; this is known as the "grunt" or the "Hick maneuver", both names allude to the sounds the pilot makes, is the primary method of resisting G-LOCs. Modern flight suits, called g-suits, are worn by pilots to contract around the extremities exerting pressure, providing about 1G of extra tolerance. Notable fighter pilots include: Gregory "Pappy" Boyington Medal of Honor Adolf Galland Adolph Malan Adolphe Pégoud Alexander Pokryshkin Alexandru Șerbănescu Antonio Bautista Billy Bishop Buzz Aldrin Charles Nungesser Chuck Yeager Constantin Cantacuzino Douglas Bader Erich Hartmann Ernst Udet
The Scissors is an aerial dog fighting maneuver used by military fighter pilots. It is a defensive maneuver, used by an aircraft, under attack, it consists of a series of short turns towards the attacking aircraft, slowing with each turn, in the hopes of forcing the attacker to overshoot. Performed properly, it can cause the attacking aircraft to move far enough in front to allow the defender to turn the tables and attack; the scissors is a close-maneuvering technique, as such, is only useful when defending against guns or low-performance missiles. It is much less common today; the introduction of high-angle missiles makes it much less effective, as the attacker can shoot when the defender is not in front of them. Modern aircraft make it difficult to use this technique as they maintain energy much better than earlier designs and the maneuvering limits are the pilot's physical limitations, not the aircraft. In fact, for many years now fighter pilots flying aircraft with a reasonable thrust-to-weight ratio and average wing loading are well advised to avoid engaging in a scissors maneuver, since any turning, rolling or slow-speed disadvantage the pilot's aircraft might have with respect to his opponent will become evident in the scissors, lead to his defeat in short order.
Basic fighter maneuvering theory recognizes two different types of scissors maneuvers. The flat scissors is the simpler of the two to explain; the flat scissors maneuver results when two fighters of similar capability encounter each other at similar speeds and in the same plane of motion, the fighter approaches the defending "bandit" from the bandit's rear hemisphere, has failed to press an initial positional and angular advantage into a kill, has "overshot", or passed behind the bandit. As such, an attacking pilot who finds himself in a flat scissors has transitioned from an offensive to a neutral engagement, has lost his offensive advantage, as it represents a failure to press an initial attack into a kill, the scissors can be difficult to disengage from without being exposed to the weapons of the bandit at close range; the bandit pilot is surprised by what was an unobserved attack from the rear, while he has survived a defensive situation that has become a somewhat neutral encounter after the overshoot, the bandit pilot must still react quickly.
After the co-planar overshoot, if the bandit chooses to remain engaged with a nose-to-nose turn to either gain the advantage, or maintain the neutral situation, the flat scissors is a common result. Once initiated by the bandit, it is difficult for the bandit to disengage from a flat scissors without being exposed to danger from the weapons of the other aircraft. An experienced and patient bandit might be able to turn the scissors to his advantage, however; the bandit possessing superior turning capability may initiate a flat scissors offensively, although this is a dangerous gambit, but one that may be forced upon the bandit by the attacking fighter's superior engine power or speed: after becoming aware of a more or less co-planar attack from his rear hemisphere, the bandit uses co-planar energy techniques without moving out of the initial plane of the attack. By remaining in the same plane of the attack, the bandit might be able to deceive the attacker about the two airplanes' rate of closure placing the attacker into a position in which a successful attack cannot be made due to close proximity, too much angle-off-tail, or both.
In any case, if both pilots' reaction to a co-planar overshoot with only a minor air-speed differential is a co-planar nose-to-nose turn a flat scissors will result. The goal of the flat scissors is to get into a successful firing position; the resulting flight path looks like scissors in the sense that both fighters approach each other, cross over, separate again and over while the scissors continues. The maneuver results when both fighters bank about 90 degrees toward the opponent and turn (In the theory of fighter combat turning is called "pulling", due to the pilots' efforts to tighten their turns by pulling back on the control stick - the banked attitude would cause the aircraft to turn in any case in a sustained "1 G" turn, but pulling back on the stick serves to "tighten" the turn. All level turns result in a loss of speed and energy, the tighter
A wingman is a pilot who supports another in a dangerous flying environment. Wingman was the plane flying beside and behind the lead plane in an aircraft formation. According to the U. S. Air Force, The traditional military definition of a "Wingman" refers to the pattern in which fighter jets fly. There is always another which flies off the right wing of and behind the lead; this second pilot is called the "Wingman" because he or she protects the lead by "watching his back." The wingman's role is to add an element of mutual support to aerial combat. The presence of a wingman makes the flight both offensively and defensively more capable by increasing firepower and situational awareness, permitting the attack of enemies, increasing the ability to employ more dynamic tactics; the concept of a wingman is nearly as old as fighter aviation. On 9 August 1915, Oswald Boelcke was acting in the role when he shot down a French airplane pursuing Max Immelmann. Colonel Robert Smith provides an extensive description of the work and role of wingmen during the Korean War.
Among the wingman's primary responsibilities are remaining close to the leader of the aerial formation and warning the leader of any immediate threats at the cost of losing mutual protection. Smith describes the responsibilities as mutually exclusive; the wingman needs to protect the leader and react according to his surroundings and movements. Smith describes the difficulties of flying under poor visibility and the trying effects on human perception under such conditions considering the danger of being separated from the leader of the formation. According to Smith, wingmen are expected to remain with the leader at the cost of scoring an easy kill; the term appeared in 1986 American action drama film Top Gun. Finger-four Vee formation Werner, Johannes. Boelcke der Mensch, der Flieger, der Führer der deutschen Jagdfliegerei. Leipzig: K. F. Koehler Verlag, 1932. Havertown, PA: Casemate 2009, first edition 1985. ISBN 978-1-935149-11-8. I am a wingman What makes a wingman
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force,or United States Army Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and after World War II, successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, the Army Air Forces; each of these forces had a commanding general. The AAF administered all parts of military aviation distributed among the Air Corps, General Headquarters Air Force, the ground forces' corps area commanders, thus became the first air organization of the U. S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel; the peak size of the AAF during the Second World War was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft by 1944, 783 domestic bases in December 1943.
By "V-E Day", the Army Air Forces had 1.25 million men stationed overseas and operated from more than 1,600 airfields worldwide. The Army Air Forces was created in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater autonomy in which to expand more efficiently, to provide a structure for the additional command echelons required by a vastly increased force, to end an divisive administrative battle within the Army over control of aviation doctrine and organization, ongoing since the creation of an aviation section within the U. S. Army Signal Corps in 1914; the AAF succeeded both the Air Corps, the statutory military aviation branch since 1926, the GHQ Air Force, activated in 1935 to quiet the demands of airmen for an independent Air Force similar to the Royal Air Force, established in the United Kingdom / Great Britain. Although other nations had separate air forces independent of their army or navy, the AAF remained a part of the Army until a defense reorganization in the post-war period resulted in the passage by the United States Congress of the National Security Act of 1947 with the creation of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947.
In its expansion and conduct of the war, the AAF became more than just an arm of the greater organization. By the end of World War II, the Army Air Forces had become an independent service. By regulation and executive order, it was a subordinate agency of the United States Department of War tasked only with organizing and equipping combat units, limited in responsibility to the continental United States. In reality, Headquarters AAF controlled the conduct of all aspects of the air war in every part of the world, determining air policy and issuing orders without transmitting them through the Army Chief of Staff; this "contrast between theory and fact is...fundamental to an understanding of the AAF." The roots of the Army Air Forces arose in the formulation of theories of strategic bombing at the Air Corps Tactical School that gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force, beginning with those espoused by Brig. Gen. Billy Mitchell that led to his court-martial. Despite a perception of resistance and obstruction by the bureaucracy in the War Department General Staff, much of, attributable to lack of funds, the Air Corps made great strides in the 1930s, both organizationally and in doctrine.
A strategy stressing precision bombing of industrial targets by armed, long-range bombers emerged, formulated by the men who would become its leaders. A major step toward a separate air force came in March 1935, when command of all combat air units within the Continental United States was centralized under a single organization called the "General Headquarters Air Force". Since 1920, control of aviation units had resided with commanders of the corps areas, following the model established by commanding General John J. Pershing during World War I. In 1924, the General Staff planned for a wartime activation of an Army general headquarters, similar to the American Expeditionary Forces model of World War I, with a GHQ Air Force as a subordinate component. Both were created in 1933 when a small conflict with Cuba seemed possible following a coup d'état, but were not activated. Activation of GHQ Air Force represented a compromise between strategic airpower advocates and ground force commanders who demanded that the Air Corps mission remain tied to that of the land forces.
Airpower advocates achieved a centralized control of air units under an air commander, while the WDGS divided authority within the air arm and assured a continuing policy of support of ground operations as its primary role. GHQ Air Force organized combat groups administratively into a strike force of three wings deployed to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but was small in comparison to European air forces. Lines of authority were difficult, at best, since GHQ Air Force controlled only operations of its combat units while the Air Corps was still responsible for doctrine, acquisition of aircraft, training. Corps area commanders continued to exercise control over airfields and administration of personnel, in the overseas departments, operational control of units as well. Between March 1935 and September 1938, the commanders of GHQ Air Force and the Air Corps, Major Generals Frank M. Andrews and Oscar Westover clash
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
James H. Flatley
Vice Admiral James Henry "Jimmy" Flatley Jr. was a World War II naval aviator and tactician for the United States Navy. Flatley was born in Green Bay and graduated from St. Norbert College, he was a 1929 United States Naval Academy graduate who earned his wings in 1931. An early squadron assignment found him with Patrol Squadron 4, flying Douglas PD and Consolidated P2Y flying boats. In December 1941 he was with Fighter Squadron 2 flying the Brewster F2A Buffalo, the Navy’s first monoplane fighter. Flatley was an aerial-gunnery expert and World War II air group commander; as executive officer of Fighter Squadron 42, he was one of the key participants in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942—the first carrier-vs.-carrier duel. A few days before, Flatley had been ordered back to the United States to form a new fighter squadron, but he managed to get permission to stay for the coming battle. Flatley was awarded the Navy Cross for "extraordinary heroism and conspicuous courage" during the Battle of the Coral Sea.
After Coral Sea, he returned to the United States flying F4F Wildcats. The squadron was nicknamed the "Grim Reapers," and as commanding officer Flatley became a "Reaper Leader." There were successes at Guadalcanal, but several losses which left him frustrated. Following his tour as Commander Air Group Five on board USS Enterprise, during which he helped introduce Grumman’s F6F Hellcat to combat in August 1943, Flatley at the age of 36 never flew combat again, he received a Navy Cross for Coral Sea. Flatley—with John S. Thach and Butch O'Hare—was instrumental in communicating tactical advice throughout naval aviation and changing the perception that the F4F Wildcat fighter was inferior to the Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Zero. Flatley's belief was. Flatley said of the Wildcat: "Let us not be too critical of our equipment, it shoots the enemy down in flames and brings most of us home." He was not overly impressed by the Zero, but attributed the Japanese fighter's success to the high quality of Japanese pilots.
His writeup on enemy capabilities received favorable notice at senior levels of the U. S. Navy; the expression "Thach Weave" did not come into the lexicon until Flatley named it in his after action report for the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. He recounted how Lieutenant Commander John S. Thach’s "beam defense tactic" had allowed him to escape certain destruction during the battle. Flatley wrote: "... the four-plane division is the only thing that will work, I am calling it the Thach Weave." Flatley received a commendation for his bravery in retrieving wounded personnel after the carrier USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes on May 11, 1945. Flatley remained in the Navy after the war and became a key figure with the Navy's postwar air-training program. After commanding the escort aircraft carrier USS Block Island for a year, Flatley became involved with assessing naval aviation's disastrous safety record and helped develop the Naval Aviation Safety Center, today's Naval Safety Center. After the war he was training director of the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Corpus Christi, Texas Air Station.
He held various staff positions. He retired from the Navy on June 2, 1958 and was promoted to vice admiral concurrent with his retirement, he died a month after his retirement at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, on July 9, 1958. USS Flatley Admiral Flatley Park in Green Bay; the Admiral Flatley Memorial Award for aviation safety is awarded each year to one aircraft carrier and amphibious ship, along with their embarked air wing and Marine expeditionary unit. United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps VADM James H. Flatley Jr. Division, Green Bay, Wisconsin His son, James H. Flatley III, became a naval aviator and test pilot achieving the rank of Rear Admiral His grandsons, James H. Flatley IV and Joseph F. Flatley, became naval officers and aviators Ewing, Steve. "Reaper Leader: The Life of Jimmy Flatley". Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2002. Lundstrom, John B. "The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway". Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1984.
ISBN 0-87021-189-7 USNSCC VADM James H. Flaley Jr. Div. Green Bay Wisconsin James H. Flatley biography by Naval History Command
Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province, on the island of New Britain, in the country of Papua New Guinea. It lies about 60 kilometres to the east of the island of New Guinea. Rabaul was the provincial capital and most important settlement in the province until it was destroyed in 1994 by falling ash of a volcanic eruption in its harbor. During the eruption, ash was sent thousands of metres into the air and the subsequent rain of ash caused 80% of the buildings in Rabaul to collapse. After the eruption the capital was moved to Kokopo, about 20 kilometres away. Rabaul is continually threatened by volcanic activity because it is on the edge of Rabaul caldera, a flooded caldera of a large pyroclastic shield. Rabaul was planned and built around the harbor area known as Simpsonhafen during the German New Guinea administration which controlled the region between 1884 and formally through 1919. From 1910 Rabaul was the headquarters of German New Guinea until captured by the British Empire during the early days of World War I.
It became the capital of the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea until 1937 when it was first destroyed by a volcano. During World War II it was captured by Japan in 1942, became its main base of military and naval activity in the South Pacific. Settlements and military installations around the edge of the caldera are collectively called Rabaul, although the old town of Rabaul was reduced to practical insignificance by the volcanic eruption in 1937; as a tourist destination, Rabaul is popular for its volcanoes, scuba diving and for snorkeling sites, spectacular harbour and other scenery, World War II history and fauna, the cultural life of the Tolai people. Before the 1994 eruption, Rabaul was a popular commercial and recreational boating destination. Tourism is a major industry in East New Britain generally. Rabaul's proximity to its volcanoes has always been a source of concern. In 1878 before it was established as a town, an eruption formed a volcano in the harbour. For older eruptions, see Rabaul caldera.
In 1910 the German colonial government during the administration of Governor Albert Hahl moved offices, the district court, a hospital and customs and postal facilities from Herbertshöhe to Simpsonhafen. That settlement was thus enlarged with official buildings and housing and renamed Rabaul, meaning mangrove in Kuanua as the new town was built on a reclaimed mangrove swamp. At the outset of World War I, at the behest of Great Britain, Australia — as one of the Dominions of the British Empire — defeated the German military garrison in Rabaul and occupied the territory with the volunteer Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force. Following Germany's defeat at the end of the war, the occupied territory was delegated in 1920 to Australia as a League of Nations Mandate. Rabaul became the capital of the Territory of New Guinea. Visits to and stays in Rabaul during this period were amply described in books by many authors, including Margaret Mead. Gunantambu, the famous house of “Queen” Emma Forsayth and her husband, contained furniture owned by Robert Louis Stevenson and left to her family in Samoa.
Destroyed in the 1937 volcano eruption, its remains became a tourist attraction after World War II and remained so until the 1994 further volcanic destruction of Rabaul. "Rabaul volcano is one of the most active and most dangerous volcanoes in Papua New Guinea." Having erupted and destroyed Rabaul in 1937, five years before the occupation by Japan, "Rabaul exploded violently in 1994 and devastated the.... Since the young cone Tavurvur located inside the caldera has been the site of near persistent activity in form of strombolian to vulcanian ash eruptions; the caldera has an elliptical form and is surrounded by a steep volcanic ridge several hundred meters high."Under the Australian administration, Rabaul developed into a regional base. In 1937, catastrophic volcanic eruptions destroyed the town after the two volcanoes and Vulcan, exploded. 507 people were killed, there was widespread damage. Following this, the Australian administration for the Territory of New Guinea decided to move the territorial headquarters to the safer location of Lae.
All long-term steps to re-establish the territorial headquarters at Rabaul were forestalled during World War II. By the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. So, by December 1941, women and children were evacuated. In January 1942 Rabaul was bombed, on 23 January the Battle of Rabaul began and Rabaul was captured shortly thereafter by thousands of Japanese naval landing forces. During their occupation the Japanese developed Rabaul into a much more powerful base than the Australians had planned after the 1937 volcanic eruptions, with long term consequences for the town in the post-war period; the Japanese army dug many kilometres of tunnels as shelter from Allied air attacks, such as the bombing of Rabaul. They expanded the facilities by constructing army barracks and support structures. By 1943 there were about 110,000 Japanese troops based in Rabaul. On 18 April 1943, the United States executed Operation Vengeance, in which Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the architect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, was shot down and killed by a United States P-38 Lightning over south Bougainville.
Yamamoto had taken off from Rabaul on an inspection tour, United States Navy cryptographers had intercepted and decrypted Japanese communications giving h