click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Thai script

The Thai script is the abugida used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many other languages spoken in Thailand. The Thai alphabet itself has 44 consonant symbols, 16 vowel symbols that combine into at least 32 vowel forms, four tone diacritics to create characters representing syllables. Although referred to as the "Thai alphabet", the script is in fact not a true alphabet but an abugida, a writing system in which the full characters represent consonants with diacritical marks for vowels. Consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged above, below, to the left, or to the right of the corresponding consonant, or in a combination of positions. Thai has its own set of Thai numerals that are a form of the Indic numeral system, but the western Arabic numerals are used for most purposes. Major uses for the local set are in government documents, license plates of military vehicles, hiding prices for Thais from tourists; the Thai alphabet is derived from the Old Khmer script, a southern Brahmic style of writing derived from the south Indian Pallava alphabet.

Thai is considered to be the first script in the world that invented tone markers to indicate distinctive tones, which are lacking in the Mon-Khmer and Indo-Aryan languages from which its script is derived. Although Chinese and other Sino-Tibetan languages have distinctive tones in their phonological system, no tone marker is found in their orthographies. Thus, tone markers are an innovation in the Thai language that influenced other related Tai languages and some Tibeto-Burman languages on the Southeast Asian mainland. Thai lacks conjunct consonants and independent vowels, while both designs are common among Brahmic scripts. In scripts with conjunct consonants, each consonant has two forms: base and conjoined. Consonant clusters are represented with the two styles of consonants; the two styles may form typographical ligatures, as in Devanagari. Independent vowels are used. Thai tradition attributes the creation of the script to King Ramkhamhaeng the Great in 1283, though this has been challenged.

There is a complex relationship between spelling and sound. There are various issues: For many consonant sounds, there are two different letters that both represent the same sound, but which cause a different tone to be associated; this stems from a major change that occurred in the phonology of the Thai language. At the time the Thai script was created, the language had three tones and a full set of contrasts between voiced and unvoiced consonants at the beginning of a syllable. At a time, the voicing distinction disappeared, but in the process, each of the three original tones split in two, with an voiced consonant producing a lower-variant tone, an unvoiced consonant producing a higher-variant tone. Thai borrowed a large number of words from Sanskrit and Pali, the Thai alphabet was created so that the original spelling of these words could be preserved as much as possible; this means that the Thai alphabet has a number of "duplicate" letters that represent separate sounds in Sanskrit and Pali but which never represented distinct sounds in the Thai language.

These are or used in Sanskrit and Pali borrowings. The desire to preserve original Sanskrit and Pali spellings produces a large number of duplicate ways of spelling sounds at the end of a syllable, as well as a number of silent letters. Moreover, many consonants from Sanskrit and Pali loanwords are silent; the spelling of the words resembles Sanskrit or Pali orthography: Thai สามารถ "to be able" Thai จันทร์ "moon" Thai letters do not have small and capital forms like the Roman alphabet. Spaces between words are not used, except in certain linguistically motivated cases. Minor pauses in sentences may be marked by a comma, major pauses by a period, but most are marked by a blank space. A bird's eye ๏ indicated paragraphs, but is now obsolete. A kho mut can be used to mark the end of a document. Thai writing uses quotation marks and parentheses, but not square brackets or braces. There are 44 consonant letters representing 21 distinct consonant sounds. Duplicate consonants either correspond to sounds that existed in Old Thai at the time the alphabet was created but no longer exist, or different Sanskrit and Pali consonants pronounced identicall

Mike Bradbury

Michael Downs Bradbury is the current head coach of the New Mexico Lobos women's basketball team. Bradbury served as an assistant coach at Xavier from 2002 until 2007, Cincinnati from 1996 until 2002, VCU from 1995 until 1996 after beginning his career as an assistant coach at ETSU from 1994 until 1995, he spent the 1991-92 and 1992-93 seasons as a student assistant coach at Chattanooga before his first full-time assistant coaching assignment. From 2007 to 2010, Bradbury led Morehead State to a 50–44 record over the course of three seasons, including a 22-11 record and a bid to the WBI in his final season as head coach; the 22-win mark set the school's NCAA-era record for victories in a season, the 14-4 conference mark in the same year set the school's single season conference wins record and was the highest conference winning percentage in a season in school history. At Wright State from 2010 to 2016, Bradbury had five seasons with 20 or more wins and led the school to its first NCAA Tournament appearance in 2014, in addition to WBI appearances in 2011 and 2012 and WNIT appearances in 2015 and 2016.

On March 31, 2016, New Mexico hired Bradbury as head women's basketball coach. In Bradbury's first season in 2016–17, New Mexico went 15–15, including 10–8 in Mountain West Conference games. Bradbury followed with two consecutive seasons with 20 or more wins and appearances in the Women's National Invitation Tournament as New Mexico went 25–11 in 2017–18 and 24–7 in 2018–19 and qualified for the third round of the 2018 WNIT and first round of the 2019 WNIT. New Mexico freshman guard Jayla Everett won MW Freshman of the Year honors in 2019; the 2019–20 season began with high expectations, as the MW coaches' preseason poll picked New Mexico to finish second in the conference standings. Despite a 9–4 start to the season, New Mexico finished with a losing 15–17 record and tied for ninth in the conference standings with a 6–12 conference record. In mid-January 2020, Everett announced her intention to transfer. Shortly after Everett left the team, two former players went on the record with television station KRQE with allegations that Bradbury was verbally abusive.

However, eleven other former players responded by posting an open letter on Twitter stating in part: "There was no mental or emotional abuse. We unequivocally deny these claims and support Mike Bradbury and the whole staff." Bradbury was born in Tennessee. He is married and has one son, a daughter, Sena Nicole. Sena was adopted from Ethiopia in April 2010, shortly after Bradbury accepted the head coaching position at Wright State. Sources

Coyoles Central

Coyoles Central is a village in the municipality of Olanchito in Honduras. It is located in the department of Yoro, in the central part of Honduras, 160 km north of the capital Tegucigalpa. Coyoles Central served as a company town for workers of Standard Fruit Company, was one of the principle settings in the book Prisión Verde, by Ramón Amaya Amador. Coyoles Central is 199 meters above sea level and the population is 1144; the terrain around Coyoles Central is varied. The highest point nearby is 1253 meters above sea level, 6.6 km south of Coyoles Central. Around Coyoles Central, the terrain is quite sparsely populated, with 22 inhabitants per square kilometer; the closest major community is Olanchito, 13.4 km northeast of Coyoles Central. The surroundings around Coyoles Central are a mosaic of natural vegetation; the region is characterized by a Savanna climate. Average annual temperature is 22 °C; the warmest month is May, when the average temperature is 24 °C, the coldest is November, with 20 °C.

Average annual precipitation is 1599 millimeters. The rainiest month is September, with an average 213 mm precipitation, the driest is February, with an average 38 mm precipitation. Moisés Canelo distinguished himself; this provided the initial basis for his career as songwriter. Olanchito Municipal website

November 2015 Sinjar offensive

The November Sinjar offensive was a combination of operations of Kurdish Peshmerga, PKK, People's Protection Units forces in November 2015, to recapture the city of Sinjar from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. It resulted in a decisive victory for the Kurdish forces, who expelled the ISIL militants from Sinjar and regained control of Highway 47, which until had served as the major supply route between the ISIL strongholds of Raqqa and Mosul; the offensive was code-named "The Fury of Melek Taus", in reference to Melek Taus, a figure from Yezidi religion. In August 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant launched an offensive in Northern Iraq and pushed into Kurdish held areas of Nineveh Governorate, capturing the city of Sinjar, among others. In what is known as the Sinjar massacre, 2,000–5,000 Yazidis were killed in and around Sinjar, while 200,000 civilians fled. Amongst these, some 50,000 Yazidis fled to the Sinjar Mountains, located to the city's north, where they were facing starvation and dehydration.

By the end of August, the majority of these 50,000 Yazidis were able to leave the mountains through a corridor opened by Kurdish forces, although several thousands stayed there. While ISIL held onto Sinjar city and the southern entrance of the Sinjar Mountains, they seized further terrain north of the mountains on 21 October 2014, thereby cutting the area's escape route to Kurdish areas. Yazidi militias who were securing the holy Sherfedîn shrine, had to withdraw into the Sinjar Mountains; the number of Yazidi civilian refugees was estimated at 2,000–7,000. An American source called this new situation a partial ISIL "siege" of the mountain range. In the course of a first, six-day-long offensive in December 2014, Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga took control over a part of the city of Sinjar and parts of the mountains, expanded their offensive on to Tal Afar. In early 2015, Kurdish forces pushed closer to the City of Mosul in the Mosul offensive. On 12 November 2015, over 7,500 Kurdish fighters, backed by the US-led coalition, began their offensive to retake Sinjar.

Kurdish sources reported that they captured the village of Gabara and had cut the highway between Sinjar and Syria. According to a Peshmerga official, U. S. and British special forces were participating in the offensive. According to the same sources, 16 ISIL suicide attacks were thwarted, it was reported that K forces had cut the Sinjar-Baiji and Sinjar-Tal Afar highways besieging ISIL in Sinjar. A Peshmerga commander hinted. ISIL counter-attacked in the western part of Sinjar, while hundreds of Peshmerga were waiting to be deployed in battle. Kurdish forces had secured the wheat silo, cement factory and several other public buildings in the northern part of the city, with reports that ISIL had fled Sinjar prior to the offensive. However, a Peshmerga official expressed his concern about possible suicide bombers remaining within the city. Kurdish forces secured 150 square kilometres of territory around Sinjar from ISIL. At least 30 airstrikes by American warplanes, intended to soften up ISIL's military positions and uproot its fighters, were reported to have occurred on Thursday before the ground attack.

On the morning of 13 November 2015, the operation's second day, a Kurdish force including Syrian Kurdish YPG forces and Gerila forces of the HPG advanced to the city center from the west. There they were joined by Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga forces advancing from the east, including the Iraqi Kurdish Zeravani led by Major General Aziz Waisi and independent Yazidi forces led by Heydar Shesho. Subsequently, a stream of armed personnel carriers, Humvees, SUVs and light trucks were moved into the city. With a U. S. A-10 aircraft circling over the city, they took control of the city. Filmmaker Carsten Stormer, embedded with the western frontline, reported they didn't face any fighting from the side of the Islamic State: "There was no resistance — I mean zero." He confirmed the PKK-affiliated troops arrived first in this section, only to be joined by the Peshmerga. According to The Economist, "IS forces pulled out of the town after two days of intense fighting, allowing the Peshmerga to walk in unopposed on November 12th."

The next day, YBŞ and PKK units captured a number of strategically important villages west and south of Sinjar, most Emdiban near the border to Syria. In course of these clashes, both ISIL as well as coalition forces suffered casualties. During the whole week, Coalition aircraft had conducted over 250 airstrikes. Apart from U. S. aircraft, British Tornado GR4 and MQ-9 Reaper aircraft, operating from the Royal Air Force's Akrotiri base targeted ISIL positions near Sinjar and Tall Afar. CF-18 Hornet aircraft from the Royal Canadian Air Force were reported to having contributed to the preparatory mission. Iraqi Security Force helicopters provided aerial MedEvac support conducting five casualty evacuations. Though the presence of PKK, YPG and the Yezidi militias participating in the Sinjar Alliance has been covered by Iraqi Kurdish TV broadcaster Rûdaw, both Iraqi Kurdish prime minister Nechirvan Barzani and president Massoud Barzani claimed the capture of Sinjar for the KRG's Peshmerga forces. Haydar Shesho, commander of the Protection Force of Sinjar, who before had been allied with the KRG peshmerga, warned of a "war over flags" and referred to the next battle being "the abolition of the one-party dictatorship".

Following the recapture, in Solagh, east of Sinjar city, Kurdish forces found a mass grave with the remains of at least 78 Yazidi women believed to be executed by ISIL militants. On 15 November 2015, yet another mas

Yaaruda Mahesh

Yaaruda Mahesh is a 2013 Tamil adult comedy film directed by R. Madhan Kumar, starring Sundeep Kishan and Dimple Chopade; the film was shot around Kerala. It was produced by Colour Frames, its soundtrack and background score were composed by Gopi Sunder, while Raana handled the cinematography. The film released on 26 April to below average reviews, it did average business at the box office. It was dubbed in Telugu with the name Mahesh; the film opens with the protagonist Shiva going to college for an exam, where his pen runs out of ink. He receives a new one from the girl next to Sindhya, he falls for her and starts following her. He attends an educational tour with Sindhya and Priya. Sindhya too falls for Shiva, he finds out that she got the top rank in the test and a scholarship to the US. Before she leaves, Sindhya invites Shiva to breakfast at her house. At her house, Shiva strips her, the two end up having sex. Sindhya goes to the US, she comes back three months saying that she has some private information to tell him.

When she gets back, she announces to Shiva that she is pregnant, thinking that no one else is in the house. However, Shiva's parents overhear this, they scold the two for having sex; the film skips ahead a few years to show Shiva and Sindhya and wife, having a child. Sindhya is working, looking after the child at home. Sindhya's brother Randy, a psychiatrist, tries to help by setting up a trick for Shiva to discover his interests, he sets up a plot in which Shiva overhears Sindhya talking to a person named Mahesh, Randy, making Shiva think that the child is not his, but someone else's. Sindhya and Randy want Shiva to overhear them talking. Shiva gets suspicious about who Mahesh is and starts getting data from the library, helped by Vasanth; the climax is in the people he meets and he figures who it is. He tries to kill the child, his family and Randy explain what happened. He rewrites the test and passes; the movie ends with Shiva getting Randy still on his case on whether he is back to normal. The satellite rights of the film were sold to Sun TV.

The film was given an "A" certificate by the Indian Censor Board. The film released in 72 screens on 26 April 2013 with Naan Rajavaga Pogiren. Box officeThe film opened with 90 shows on its first weekend in the Chennai box office, it was removed after one week. The film's final gross was more than ₹8 crore worldwide; the film was declared an average grosser. The film was flop. Critical receptionThe film received below average reviews from critics; the Times of India wrote, "If double-meaning, adult jokes are your cup of tea, you will enjoy this movie." Indianexpress wrote, "With a wafer-thin plot, the debutant director weaves together a string of incidents. At times, it seems more like a theater of the absurd, with quirky characters and scenes added on just for its bizarre humor quotient, rather than for its relevance to the plot." Behindwoods wrote, "To sum it up, Yaaruda Mahesh is a unidirectional product that targets youth with liberal dose of adult humor but is not powerful enough to sustain the interests through the entire length of the film."

The soundtrack was composed by Gopi Sundar. Yaaruda Andha Mahesh — Gopi Sundar, Anna Katherina Pudhu Paarvai — Haricharan, Priya Himesh Vayadhai Keduthu — Anna Katherina, Suchith Suresan Odum Unakkithu — Anna Katherina, Suchith Suresan Yemaathita — Mukesh, Gopi Sundar Uyire Uyiril — Gopi Sundar Yaaruda Mahesh on IMDb Official website

Stephen B. Whatley

Stephen Beckett Whatley is an English painter. He specialises in expressionistic oil paintings, his subjects include city scapes, architecture, still life and Christian works. Since 1992, Whatley has been honoring the anniversaries of architectural landmarks in London by painting them in their centenary years, he paints them on location. Landmarks he has painted include Bush House - former home of the BBC World Service, Broadcasting House, BBC Television Centre and the Tate Gallery, Tate Britain, Tate Modern, Tower Bridge. Since the year 2000, Whatley's Christian faith has inspired him to paint numerous tributes to Catholic devotions. In December 2008 TIME magazine editors selected his portrait tribute of Barack Obama from 100,000 images on the photography site Flickr.com for publication. It was published in TIME magazine's'Person of The Year' issue 2008/2009; the portrait is now in the private collection of an American property developer living in London. Whatley studied at the Ipswich School of Art from 1981 to 1983, the Norwich School of Art from 1983 to 1986, where he qualified with a BA in Fine Art – Painting.

Whatley studied at the University of London from 1986 to 1987, qualifying with a PGCE in art and design. From 1990 to 2000, Whatley was a part-time Lecturer of Portraiture at Kensington & Chelsea College, in London. In 1999, London Transport commissioned Whatley to paint an interior -'The Grand Staircase' – which he did on location inside Buckingham Palace; this painting was displayed all over the London Underground. In 1999, the Royal Collection commissioned him to paint an exterior view of Buckingham Palace, which he did on location from the edge of Green Park; this was reproduced in advertisements promoting the Annual Summer Opening of the State Rooms in 1999 and 2000. In 2000 Whatley was commissioned by Historic Royal Palaces and the Pool of London Partnership, to undertake a series of 30 paintings for HM Tower of London. Many of the works were painted on location around the Tower. Others were inspired by various historical images. In the spring of 2001 the paintings were reproduced on steel vitreous enamel panels lining the walls of the Tower Hill pedestrian underpass, connecting Tower Hill Underground station to the Tower of London.

In 2001, BBC Heritage commissioned Stephen to paint a view of the Radio Theatre inside Broadcasting House and to paint a view of the Top of the Pops Studio, at BBC Television Centre, during rehearsals and recording of the program. Whatley has exhibited in numerous exhibitions since 1983 - including shows at the ICA, the Lloyd's Building and London's Olympia Exhibition Arena, he has had solo exhibitions since 1988 - highlights being his May 1993 exhibition, Hollywood Gold at London's National Theatre & his 2007 exhibition in Cork Street, London. In 2012, his Diamond Jubilee portrait tribute of Queen Elizabeth II was exhibited at the Olympia International Art & Antiques Fair, London. Whatley has painted the portraits of many public figures, they include actors Dame Judi Dench, Susan Hampshire OBE, Alec McCowen CBE, Sir Ian McKellen, Barbara Windsor MBE, Frances Barber, Prunella Scales CBE, Julie Walters OBE, Alison Steadman OBE, actor and singer Helen Reddy, Sian Phillips CBE. TV presenter Sarah Greene.

Whatley's work has been the subject of features in magazines including The Guardian. In 2002, Whatley's painting of Buckingham Palace, in the Royal Collection, was reproduced on the programs for HM Queen's two Golden Jubilee concerts, held in the gardens of Buckingham Palace. In 2006, one of Whatley's tributes to Marilyn Monroe was published in a new book, Marilyn In Art by Roger G Taylor, to coincide with the 80th anniversary of the Hollywood star's birth. In 2007, Whatley's work promoted London's Tower Music Festival at the Tower Of London, his exhibition'Hollywood Icons to Royal Gems' opened at the Arndean Gallery in London's Cork Street. In 2004, Whatley was invited to the ceremonial re-opening of Tower Hill, he was presented to the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Tower of London