Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
The Tideway is the part of the River Thames in England, subject to tides. This stretch of water is downstream from Teddington Lock and in its widest definition is just under 160 kilometres long; the Tideway includes the Thames Gateway and the Pool of London. Depending on the time of year, the river tide rises and falls twice a day by up to 7 m and, due to the need to overcome the outflow of fresh water from the Thames Basin, it takes longer to subside than it does to flow in. London Bridge is used as the basis for published tide tables giving the times of high tide. High tide reaches Putney about 30 minutes later. Low-lying banks of London have been defended against natural vulnerability to flooding by storm surges; the threat has increased due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level, caused by the slow'tilting' of Britain due to post-glacial rebound and the gradual rise in sea levels due to climate change. The Thames Barrier was constructed across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat.
The Tideway is managed by the Port of London Authority and is referred to as the Port of London. The upstream limit of its authority is marked by an obelisk just short of Teddington Lock; the PLA is responsible for one lock on the Thames: Richmond Lock. In London, the Thames is policed by the Thames Division, the river police arm of London’s Metropolitan Police. Essex Police and Kent Police have responsibilities for the rest of the Tideway. 21st century criminal investigations have included the Roberto Torso in the Thames cases. The London Fire Brigade has a fire boat on the river; as a result of the Marchioness disaster in 1989 when 51 people died, the Government asked the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, the Port of London Authority and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution to work together to set up a dedicated Search and Rescue service for the tidal River Thames. As a result, there are four lifeboat stations on the Thames, at: Teddington, Chiswick Pier, Tower Pier and Gravesend; the river is navigable to large ocean-going ships as far as the Pool of London at London Bridge and is the United Kingdom's second largest port by tonnage.
Today, little commercial traffic passes above the Thames Barrier, central London sees only the occasional visiting cruise ship or warship moored alongside HMS Belfast, a few smaller aggregate or refuse vessels, operating from wharves in the west of London. Most trade is handled by the Port of Tilbury, ro-ro ferry terminals at Dagenham and Dartford, petroleum products handling facilities at Purfleet and Canvey Island. There is a speed limit of 8 knots west of Wandsworth Bridge and in tributary creeks, except for authorised vehicles, 12 knots between Wandsworth Bridge and Margaretness; the tidal river is used for leisure navigation. In London sections there are many sightseeing tours in tourist boats past riverside attractions such as the Houses of Parliament and the Tower of London, as well as regular riverboat services provided by London River Services; this section is not suitable for sporting activity because of the strong stream through the bridges. Rowing has a significant presence upstream of Putney Bridge, while sailing takes place in the same area and along the coasts of the Estuary.
The annual Great River Race for traditional rowed craft takes place over the stretch from Greenwich to Ham. Thames meander challenges along the length of the Thames from Lechlade pass through the London sections and finish well downstream, for example at Gravesend Pier; the Grand Union Canal joins the river at Brentford, with a branch – the Regent's Canal – joining at Limehouse Basin. The other part of the canal network still connecting on the Tideway is the River Lea Navigation. Narrow low-lying belts beside the tidal section of the Thames flood at spring tides, supporting brackish plants. One such example is at Chiswick Lane South, where the river, as pictured, overflows this road a few times per year.. Although water quality has improved over the last 40 years and efforts to clean up the Tideway have led to the reintroduction of marine life and birds, the environment of the Tideway is still poor. Heavier rainfall in London causes overflows from pipes on the river banks from the standard type of sewer in the capital, the combined sewer.
Around 39,000,000 m3 or 39 million tonnes of untreated sewage mixed with rainwater are released into the Tideway each year from sewage treatment works and combined sewer overflows, averaging 106,849 m3 per day or 106,849 tonnes per day. These CSOs can cause the deaths of marine health hazards for river users; the Thames Tideway Scheme, under construction, aims to divert most of the overflow from sewers into a tunnel under the river. The Thames Estuary is bordered by the coast and the low-lying lands upstream between the mouth of the River Stour on the Essex/Suffolk border and The Swale in north Kent, it is now designated the Greater Thames Estuary and is one of the largest inlets on the coast of Great Britain. The water can rise by 4 metres moving at a speed of 8 miles per hour; the estuary extends into London near Tower Bridge, can be divided into the Outer Estuary up to the Swale at the west end of the Isle of Sheppey, the Inner Estuary, designated the Thames Gateway above this point. The shore of the Outer Estuary consists of saltmarshes and mudflats, but there are man-made embankments along much of the route.
Behind these, the land is used for grazing. Parts of the Outer Estuary are on a major shipping route; the Gateway is some 70 kilometres long, stretching from the Isle of Sheppey to Westferry in Tower Hamlets
The Blackwater Estuary is the estuary of the River Blackwater between Maldon and West Mersea in Essex. It is a 5,538 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. An area of 4,395 hectares is designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance, a Special Protection Area 1,099 hectares is a National Nature Reserve. Tollesbury Wick and part of Abbotts Hall Farm, both nature reserve managed by the Essex Wildlife Trust, are in the SSSI. Oysters have been harvested from the estuary for more than a thousand years and there are remains of fish weirs from the Anglo-Saxon era. At the head of the estuary is the town of Maldon, a centre of salt production; the other major settlement is the town West Mersea, of Mersea Island, on the northern seaward side. Numerous other villages are on its banks. Within the estuary is Northey Island, the location for the first experiments in the UK in'managed retreat', i.e. creating saltmarsh by setting sea walls back from what are perceived to be unsustainable positions.
The area is notable as a transit point for ringed plover. Over-wintering species Pied avocet Black-tailed godwit Dark-bellied brent goose Dunlin Eurasian golden plover Grey plover Hen harrier Common redshank Ringed plover Ruff Common shelduck The Estuary is the current mooring location for the Ross Revenge, the home of former pirate station Radio Caroline Osea Island Pewet Island Its management and conservation project
Teddington is an affluent area of South West London, England. In Middlesex, it has been part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965. Teddington is on the north bank of the Thames, just after the start of a long meander, between Hampton Wick and Strawberry Hill, Twickenham. Residential, it stretches from the Thames to Bushy Park with a long high street of upmarket shops and pubs culminating in a pedestrian suspension bridge over the lowest non-tidal lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock. At Teddington's centre is a mid-rise urban development, containing offices and apartments. Teddington is bisected by an continuous road of shops and other facilities running from the river to Bushy Park. There are two clusters of offices on this route. Around Teddington station and the town centre are a number of offices in industries such as direct marketing and IT, which include Tearfund and BMT Limited. Several riverside businesses and houses were redeveloped in the last quarter of the 20th century as blocks of riverside flats.
As of 2016 the riverside site of the former Teddington Studios is being developed to provide modern apartment blocks and other smaller houses. The lowermost lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock, just within Ham's boundary, is accessible via the Teddington Lock Footbridges. In 2001 the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened the Teddington Lifeboat Station, one of four Thames lifeboat stations, below the lock on the Teddington side; the station is the only volunteer station on the river. The name "Teddington" comes from the name of Tuda; the place was known in Norman times as Todyngton and Tutington. There have been isolated findings of flint and bone tools from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in Bushy Park and some unauthenticated evidence of Roman occupation. However, the first permanent settlement in Teddington was in Saxon times. Teddington was not mentioned in Domesday Book. Teddington Manor was first owned by Benedictine monks in Staines and it is believed they built a chapel dedicated to St. Mary on the same site as today's St. Mary's Church.
In 971, a charter gave the land in Teddington to the Abbey of Westminster. By the 14th century Teddington had a population of 100–200; the Hampton Court gardens were laid out in 1500 in preparation for the planned rebuilding of a 14th-century manor to form Hampton Court Palace in 1521 and were to serve as hunting grounds for Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII and his family. In 1540 some common land of Teddington was enclosed to form Bushy Park and acted as more hunting grounds. Bushy House was built in 1663, its notable residents included British Prime Minister Lord North who lived there for over twenty years. A large minority of the parish lay in communal open fields, restricted in the Middle Ages to certain villagers; these were inclosed in two phases, in 1800 and 1818. Shortly afterwards, the future William IV of the United Kingdom lived there with his mistress Dorothy Jordan before acceding to the throne, with his Queen Consort, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the facilities were converted into the National Physical Laboratory.
In subsequent centuries, Teddington enjoyed a prosperous life due to the proximity of royalty, by 1800 had grown significantly. But the "Little Ice Age" had made farming much less profitable and residents were forced to find other work; this change resulted in great economic change in the 19th century. The first major event was the construction of Teddington Lock in 1811 with its weir across the river; this was the first of five locks built at the time by the City of London Corporation. In 1889 Teddington Lock Footbridge, consisting of a suspension bridge section and a girder bridge section, was completed, linking Teddington to Ham, it was funded by local business and public subscription. After the railway was built in 1863, easy travel to Twickenham, Richmond and London was possible and Teddington experienced a population boom, rising from 1,183 in 1861 to 6,599 in 1881 and 14,037 in 1901. Many roads and houses were built, continuing into the 20th century, forming the close-knit network of Victorian and Edwardian streets present today.
In 1867, a local board was established and an urban district council in 1895. In 1864 a group of Christians left the Anglican Church of St. Mary's and formed their own independent and Reformed, Protestant-style, congregation at Christ Church, their original church building stood on. The Victorians attempted to build St. Alban's, based on the Notre Dame de Paris. In 1993 the temporary wall was replaced with a permanent one as part of a refurbishment that converted St Alban's Church into the Landmark Arts Centre, a venue for concerts and exhibitions. A new cemetery, Teddington Cemetery, opened at Shacklegate Lane in 1879. Several schools were built in Teddington in the late 19th century in response to the 1870 Education Act, putting over 2,000 children in schools by 1899, transforming the illiterate village. On 26 April 1913 a train was destroyed in Teddington after an arson attack by suffragettes. Great change took place around the turn of the 20th century in Teddington. Many new
London Stone (riparian)
London Stone is the name given to a number of boundary stones that stand beside the rivers Thames and Medway, which marked the limits of jurisdiction of the City of London. Until 1350, the English Crown held the right to fish the rivers of England and charged duties on those people it licensed to fish. In 1197 King Richard I, in need of money to finance his involvement in the Third Crusade, sold the rights over the lower reaches of the River Thames to the City of London. Marker stones were erected to indicate the limit of the City's rights. In Victorian times, the Lord Mayor would come in procession by water and touch the Staines stone with a sword to re-affirm the City's rights. Control of the river passed from the City to the Thames Conservancy, below Teddington to the Port of London Authority and above it to Thames Water Authority and the Environment Agency. In medieval times before the canalisation of the Thames, Staines-upon-Thames was the highest point at which the high tide was perceivable for a few minutes every semi-diurnal tide, adding some millimetres to the water depth compared to more upstream parishes.
This London Stone marked the upstream limit of the City's rights. The official role of a London Corporation stone of 1285 beside Staines Bridge was set out with a grant of associated privileges in a charter of Edward I, its use by the river is confirmed by the semi-circular indentations, to cater to tow ropes of horse-drawn boats rubbing against the stone. Staines is on the point where the north bank moves from east to north and has always been its site but the exact position has changed. In 1750 the approx. 0.6m-tall half cube on a tall stone pillar was moved about 500 metres upstream to a site at grid reference TQ028718 by the river in the Lammas Pleasure Ground. In 1986 the stone was moved to the Old Town Hall Arts Centre, Market Square and a replica was placed in the Pleasure Ground. In 2004 the original was moved to Spelthorne Library, Friends Walk/Thames Street; the stone has been recarved in its lower section making its long base narrower than its top. Its sole inscription is a eroded etching'STANE' in its top section of uncertain date, the Old English word for Stone.
If the inscription is old enough this reinforces the traditional spelling, if not the pronunciation of the name of the town, for which see Great Vowel Shift. It is possible that there was more than one such stone, explaining the Anglo Saxon name of the town, established many centuries after the Romans noted they called their staging post at the bridge, Ad Pontes; the lower carved area has a shield in relief. It stands on a much wider plinth inscribed with the names of various City worthies who may have been involved in its 1750 move; the replica, due to its location, is in the lowest category of architecture, a Grade II listed structure achieved since it happens to stand on the point of one of the former coal-tax posts. Martin Nail included the Stone as No. 83 in his list The downstream limit of the City's rights is about 33.5 miles as the crow flies from London Bridge and is marked on both banks of the Thames. On the south bank, the marker is the London Stone which stands at grid reference TQ860786 beside the mouth of Yantlet Creek on the Isle of Grain.
The overall height of the monument is about 8 metres. The main column has an inscription, now illegible; the plinth on which it stands has an inscription listing various worthy gentlemen who were involved in the re-erection of the stone in Victorian times. They include Horatio Thomas Austin and Warren Stormes Hale, sometime Lord Mayor and founder of the City of London School; the marker on the north bank is due north of Yantlet Creek and is called the Crow Stone. It stands at grid reference TQ857852 on the mud opposite the end of Chalkwell Avenue, Southend-on-Sea, it was erected in 1837 and replaced a smaller stone, dating from 1755. The older stone was removed to Priory Park in Southend, it is that there has been a marker on this site and at Yantlet since 1285. The line between the Crow Stone and the London Stone, Yantlet Creek is known as the Yantlet Line and was used as the boundary for various things, including at one time the limit of jurisdiction of the Port of London Authority. Two London Stones stand at grid reference TQ762712, between the Arethusa Venture Centre and the River Medway in Lower Upnor.
The older, smaller stone is dated 1204 and carries on its rear the inscription "God preserve the City of London". Apart from that, the inscriptions of both stones are the names of various Lord Mayors and years, they mark the limit of the charter rights of London fishermen. The older stone is dated 1204. Pages on Geograph for: London Stone, the Crow Stone, London Stone, Yantlet Creek Google search for "Yantlet Line" The PLA page of thames.me.uk "Spelthorne Museum". Retrieved 15 January 2012
London Thamesport is a small container seaport in the Port of London on the River Medway, serving the North Sea. It is located on the Isle of Grain, in the Medway unitary authority district of the English county of Kent; the area was called Port Victoria. In 1953, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company developed a large oil refinery, Kent Oil Refinery, in the south of the Isle of Grain. A fuel depot with an attached port had existed there since 1928. From 1953, over ten million tons of crude oil were processed annually on the 4 km2 site; this led to the establishment of the oil-fired power station at Grain and dual-fuel capable Kingsnorth. In practice, Kingsnorth used coal; the refinery was closed on 27 August 1982, work was transferred to other BP locations. The plant was taken over by British Gas plc, which used a small part of the site for the storage of liquefied natural gas. Three-quarters of the site remained unused. During the construction of the Channel Tunnel, segments to line the tunnel from the British side were made on the site, now Thamesport, before being delivered by railway to the site at Shakespeare Cliff, near Dover.
As there was hardly any room at the site itself, the site on the Isle of Grain was chosen because of the links to the ships from Scotland delivering aggregate. Trains full of segments left the factory each day, travelling on the Hundred of Hoo Railway on the island before taking a circuitous route avoiding steep gradients before arriving at Shakespeare Cliff. In 1987 British Gas submitted plans to use 0.87 km2 of the disused refinery site as a Container port. Building began in 1989; the risk capital financing of the £150 million project, named Thamesport, took place through the operating company Thames Estuary Terminals Ltd. Thamesport Ltd. By March 1990 the enterprise had a capacity of 360,000 TEU per year. Land access to Thamesport was at first only by road. In time the railway line from Gravesend to the Isle of Grain was to be used. A goods station with track and transshipment facilities was developed at Thamesport. A government subsidy of £1.8 million was received. It started operating in January 1992.
By the first half of 1990, the repayment of c. £100 million risk capital put the operator company Thamesport Ltd. into administration. The investment group Rutland Partners LLP acquired 95% of MTS holdings Ltd – the parent company of Thamesport Ltd – in December 1995 for £25 million and took over debts of £27 million. With the new owner, the port was further developed; the capacity increased to 635,000 TEU per year. In 1997, with a turnover of £27.3 million, a profit of £2.5 million was made. In February 1998 Rutland Partners LLP sold their interest in MTS holdings Ltd and small navigation company "Maritime Haulage" for £112 million to the Hutchison Whampoa Group. Hutchison Whampoa operates two other important ports on the British east coast and Harwich. In 2001 Thamesport was developed into a deep-water port; the harbour basin was dredged to a depth of at least 15.5 metres, the approach to a minimum depth of 12.5 metres, at a cost of £3.5 million. In June 2008, its name was changed to London Thamesport.
The heart of Thamesport is a 655 metres deep water dock. The quay has eight gantry cranes, can service vessels with draughts of 14.5 metres. The temporary storage facility has capacity for 26,000 TEU; the container handling is semi-automatic. 635,000 TEU can be processed annually. In the long-term the capacity could be doubled. Although site constraints limit the maximum possible length of the quay to only 750 metres, there is considerable scope for future development at Thamesport; the majority of this brownfield site remains undeveloped, Thamesport Interchange has outline planning permission to build 5,000,000 square feet of logistics related facilities. To the north of Thamesport is a terminal for the import of aviation fuel. Thamesport will be well-placed if proposals for a new London Airport, either on the Isle of Grain itself, or on the Mayor of London's "Boris Island", come to fruition. Although the company appears confident of further development and a prosperous future, Thamesport is in danger of being eclipsed by the new and much bigger London Gateway port on the north bank of the Thames.
London Gateway is receiving 17 container ships per day. RoadThamesport is connected to national road network by the A228. RailThe port has from a connection to the single-tracked, standard gauge, freight Hundred of Hoo Railway. Two British rail freight companies – DB Cargo UK and Freightliner – have container services to Thamesport. In the first half of 2005 25% of traffic to and from Thamesport used the rail link. London Thamesport website
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s