Thameslink is a 24-hour, 115-station main-line route in the British railway system, running from Bedford, Luton and Cambridge via central London to Sutton, Sevenoaks, Rainham and Brighton. Additional services to East Grinstead and Littlehampton operate at peak times; the network opened as a through service in 1988, with severe overcrowding by 1998, carrying more than 28,000 passengers in the morning peak. All the services are operated by Govia Thameslink Railway; the Thameslink Programme is a major £5.5 billion scheme to increase capacity on the central London section by accommodating more frequent and longer trains. The upgrade is scheduled for completion in 2019. In 2016, new Class 700 trains started operating on the route and have now replaced the Class 319, Class 377 and Class 387 trains which were withdrawn and transferred elsewhere. Much of the original route is over the Brighton Main Line and the southern part of the Midland Main Line, with a suburban loop through Sutton and Wimbledon.

A branch via the Catford Loop Line to Sevenoaks was added in 2012. Sections to Peterborough on the East Coast Main Line, Cambridge via the Cambridge Line, Horsham on the Arun Valley line and Rainham via Greenwich were added in 2018. East Grinstead and Littlehampton are served in peak hours; the route through central London is via St Pancras International for connections to Eurostar and the East Midlands. King's Cross Thameslink on Pentonville Road closed on 8 December 2007. Trains operating the "main line" service include first-class accommodation; when Govia operated the original Thameslink franchise these services were designated "Thameslink CityFlier" and "Thameslink CityMetro" but First Capital Connect dropped this branding. Govia Thameslink Railway now refers to these services as Route TL2/TL3 respectively. In trains per hour: Bedford↔Brighton – 2 Bedford↔Gatwick – 2 Peterborough↔Horsham – 2 Luton↔Rainham – 2 St Albans↔Sutton – 2 St Albans↔Sutton – 2 Kentish Town↔Orpington – 2 London Blackfriars↔Sevenoaks – 2 Cambridge↔Brighton – 2Peak services: Bedford/Luton↔East Grinstead Bedford↔Littlehampton Luton↔Orpington – 200:01–04:00: Bedford↔Three Bridges – 2 Passenger services operated across London through the Snow Hill Tunnel from mid-Victorian times until World War I, when services terminated at Moorgate from the Midland line to the north, at Holborn Viaduct from the south, at a time when most inner cross-London traffic had been lost to buses and trams.

There were low-level platforms under the main part of Holborn Viaduct station known as the Snow Hill platforms: these can still be seen when leaving City Thameslink station travelling northwards. On 14 June 1941 railwayman George Dow proposed in an article in the London evening newspaper The Star that new routes be built in tunnels from Marylebone south to Victoria, from King's Cross south to Charing Cross. Both were to connect with a Paddington–Liverpool Street tunnel that he proposed, anticipating Crossrail by 40 years, he proposed a north-east/south- west route from Liverpool Street to Charing Cross, all designed to give London a comprehensive main-line network of connections. The Snow Hill Tunnel route remained open for cross-London freight trains until 1970, when the short section between Farringdon and Holborn Viaduct was closed. Overhead electrification, completed in 1982, allowed the northern section to run as the Midland City Line from Bedford via the Midland Main Line to St Pancras, via the City Widened Lines to Moorgate.

The Snow Hill tunnel was re-opened by British Rail to passenger trains after 72 years, with Thameslink beginning in May 1988. On 29 January 1990 the section between Blackfriars and Farringdon was temporarily closed to permit the construction of a new alignment; the route through the site of the long-closed Ludgate Hill station, over Ludgate Hill to Holborn Viaduct was abandoned and demolished. The replacement route under Ludgate Hill was opened on 29 May 1990 by the Network SouthEast concurrently with City Thameslink station, called St Paul's Thameslink but was renamed in 1991 to avoid confusion with St. Paul's station on the Underground, about 500 m away. King's Cross Thameslink on Pentonville Road closed on 8 December 2007 when the Thameslink platforms at nearby St Pancras opened. In the south the services divide: main-line trains run through London Bridge to East Croydon and Brighton, but the other route has a more convoluted history. In 1988–91 trains went via Bromley to Orpington and Sevenoaks, via Herne Hill and East Croydon to Purley.

Non-Brighton trains ran via Elephant & Castle and Streatham to West Croydon, Carshalton Beeches, Epsom and Effingham Junction, to Guildford. On the privatisation of British Rail, Thameslink was franchised to Thameslink, a subsidiary of Govia. Around 1994 the second branch was cut back to West Croydon as this route crossed the commuter networks of what were to become several different rail companies, rail privatisation made the route difficult to maintain. Around 1995 the route was changed

.5: The Gray Chapter

.5: The Gray Chapter is the fifth studio album by American heavy metal band Slipknot. It was released in Australia and the Netherlands on October 17, 2014, the UK on October 20, 2014 and in North America on October 21, 2014, it is the first studio album by the band in six years and the first not to feature original founding members bassist Paul Gray and drummer Joey Jordison due to the death of Gray in 2010, Jordison being fired from the band in late 2013, as well as the only Slipknot album to feature original guitarist Donnie Steele on bass, although the tracks he played on are unknown. The album has received commercial success and acclaiming reviews. A standard and deluxe edition of the album was released, it is the band's final studio album to feature their longtime percussionist Chris Fehn before his dismissal from the band due to lawsuit in March 2019. "The Negative One" received a nomination for Best Metal Performance at the 57th annual Grammy Awards. The album was nominated for Best Rock Album the following year, along with a Best Metal Performance nomination for the song "Custer".

The writing process of the record began in late 2013. Wanting to dedicate more time to the album, guitarist Jim Root decided not to tour with Stone Sour in January 2014. According to frontman Corey Taylor, the sound of the album is somewhat of a cross between 2001's Iowa and 2004's Vol. 3:. Taylor stated that the material contains "gorgeous melodies" and the artistic direction as Vol. 3: but yet retains some of its "brutality" from the Iowa era. A new bassist and drummer were added to the lineup during live shows. Taylor told Loudwire that two similar masks were created for their appearances in music videos and stage performances, as, when the new members were given the opportunity to make their own masks, the results were, according to Taylor, "kind of cartoony" and did not fit the mind set of Slipknot. Both members were shown in the music video for "The Devil in I", but their identities have not been announced by Slipknot amidst speculation. Root revealed in an interview that founding guitarist and former touring bassist Donnie Steele was involved in some of the studio sessions for the album, but that Steele declined to rejoin the band in favor of starting a family with his wife.

Bassist Alessandro Venturella of Krokodil was identified by the unique tattoos on his hands, performing in the video for "The Devil in I". Jay Weinberg from the band Against Me! was brought in to audition on drums after Joey Jordison was fired from Slipknot. Jay Weinberg is the son of Max Weinberg the drummer for Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band and Conan O'Brien's drummer and band leader for his late night talk show. Max Weinberg introduced Jay Weinberg to Slipknot and from there on forged a friendship by going to several concerts and being invited backstage; the album was mixed by Joe Barresi. Fidelman is known for his work with Metallica, System of a Down and more, as well as mixing Slipknot's third album, Vol. 3:, in 2004. On July 15, the band began releasing short teasers for the new album for over a two-week period that turned out to be clips from the official video along with samples from a song entitled "The Negative One"; the song was released on August 1, 2014 and an accompanying video was released on August 5, 2014.

It was directed by Shawn Crahan. On August 13, 2014 the band revealed the cover art for their official radio single entitled "The Devil in I", the single premiered on August 24, 2014; the official video for the single was unveiled on September 12 featuring the members with new variations of their masks with the exception of Taylor who debuted a new mask and the new bassist and drummer's masks which were similar. Slipknot began their world tour at the second iteration of Knotfest as headliners on October 25 and the 26 with Anthrax, Five Finger Death Punch and Black Label Society among others in California. A co-headline North American tour with Korn dubbed the Prepare for Hell tour commenced afterwards with King 810 in support. Slipknot and Korn embarked on the British leg of the Prepare For Hell tour in January 2015. In addition to the standard edition, a deluxe edition featuring two listed and three unlisted bonus tracks, a special edition featuring a T-shirt of the album cover have been released..5: The Gray Chapter received positive reviews, as most critics praised the return of their older sound from Slipknot and Iowa, while maintaining the melodies the band explored on Vol. 3:.

Florino characterized it as "the most abrasive work since their self-titled debut," The Guardian's Dom Lawson as "every bit as warped and explosive as previous records" Ray Van Horn of hailed the album as "a return to their punishing roots" and noted that "AOV" showcased some elements of thrash metal. Exclaim! Critic Bradley Zorgdrager pointed out that Slipknot "wastes no time kicking it back to 2001's Iowa" while Metal Hammer's critic Dom Lawson noted that "there’s plenty of brutal, turbocharged Slipknot here," while Rock Revolt mentioned that the album uses elements from their previous studio albums while "pushing the creative boundaries of past albums into new territory." Q' magazine's Tom Bryant complained that the album's lighter tracks, namely "Goodbye," "Killpop," and "The One That Kills The Least," were "disappointingly timid." However, he followed by commenting that "It's possible to forget these when Slipknot play to their st

Clarine Coffin Grenfell

Clarine Coffin Grenfell was an American poet and teacher. Grenfell graduated from University of Maine in Orono, in 1932, where she was the Class Poet for 1932 and became a member of the Phi Mu Sorority, she graduated from the Hartford Theological Seminary on May 1938, with a Bachelor of Divinity. Grenfell was an active member of the Alumni Association of the University of Maine and wrote the Golden Bears column for Maine Alumni Magazine from 1996 to 2002. In 2002, the University of Maine awarded her an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters. Grenfell's teaching career began at the age of 17 in Maine, she taught at many other schools in Bangor and Bethel, Bloomfield, West Hartford, Westport, Connecticut. She chaired the English Department at schools including Hall High School in West Hartford, Connecticut. Grenfell retired from teaching English in 1980, but continued to teach in other capacities, such as teaching a class called "Writing a Life Story – Yours and Mine" at more than sixty Elderhostels.

Grenfell was an active church member, supply pastor, licensed local preacher in the United Methodist Church. She preached when young in the churches in Dixmont and Hermon, in years conducted many weddings and funerals, taught in Christian education programs, wrote and directed church plays and pageants, she was the coordinator of Steeple People, a campaign to restore the steeple of the Orland United Methodist Church. Additional materials about Dr. Grenfell are available through the United Methodist Archives Center at Drew University. Grenfell worked as an editor and reading consultant for the Educational Division of Reader's Digest and as a reading consultant for the state of Connecticut. After retiring from teaching in 1980, Grenfell founded a small publishing house, the Grenfell Reading Center, publishing books by Maine authors, inspirational books, her own memoirs and poetry. Several of the poems in her books had been printed in other publications, including the Bangor Daily News and the Hartford Courant.

Grenfell traveled extensively throughout the US, reading from her works. She was one of the founders of the Maine Christian Writers Conference. Grenfell's most famous short story concerns the wedding of Marian Anderson in July 1943; the wedding was a private ceremony performed by Grenfell's husband, the Reverend Jack Grenfell, at that time the pastor of the Bethel United Methodist Church in Bethel, Connecticut. Miss Anderson wanted her wedding to be kept private, so Rev. Grenfell arranged to conduct the ceremony in the parsonage instead of the church. At the last minute, the location of the ceremony was changed to the Elmwood Chapel on the site of the Elmwood Cemetery."The'Inside' Story" is a comedic behind-the-scenes account of events surrounding the wedding from the perspective of the minister's wife. The story relates young Clarine's frantic attempts to decorate the living room of the parsonage for Anderson's wedding ceremony and her efforts to fend off reporters during and after the ceremony in order to protect Miss Anderson's privacy.

The story was published in Grenfell's second book, "Women My Husband Married". It became so popular with readers that editions of the book included the subtitle "including Marian Anderson." In 1990, Grenfell celebrated her 80th birthday by establishing the Grenfell Poetry Prize to recognize outstanding student poets at the University of Maine. Past judges include Leonore Hildebrandt. Clarine Coffin was born in Maine, to Millard Fillmore Coffin and Clara B. Kelley Coffin. One of six children, she lived in Bangor throughout her college years, she moved to Connecticut to attend Hartford Theological Seminary, where she met her future husband, the Rev. Jack Grenfell. Jack Grenfell, the son of Rev. Thomas and Ethel Grenfell, was born in St. Just, but moved with his family to the United States in 1912 as a young boy. Clarine Coffin and Jack Grenfell announced their engagement in 1937. At that time, Clarine was serving the Methodist Church in Dixmont and Jack was serving the Trinity Methodist Church in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

They were married on June 1938, by the groom's father, Rev. Thomas Grenfell, they had three children: the Rev. Dr. John Millard Grenfell, the Rev. Lornagrace Thomas Grenfell, Pamela Grenfell Smith. Rev. Jack Grenfell died on July 1980, in Orland, Maine. Clarine never remarried, remaining a widow for more than 24 years until her death in Bangor, Maine, on September 7, 2004, at age 93. Clarine and Jack Grenfell are both buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Bangor. Phi Beta Kappa Grenfell was made a member of the Augusta Evans Wilson Literary Society, established to recognize members of Phi Mu who are published authors of books with an assigned ISBN number. Grenfell was awarded a Doctorate in Humane Letters by the University of Maine in 2002 at the age of 91. At that time, her health had declined and she was therefore unable to travel to Orono for the commencement ceremony, so University of Maine President Peter S. Hoff made a rare exception to the university policy against conferring honorary degrees in absentia and traveled to Orland to confer the degree on Grenfell in a special hooding ceremony.

The Caress and the Hurt. Grenfell Reading Center. 1982. Women My Husband Married. Grenfell Reading Center. 1983. Roses in December. Grenfell Reading Center. 1984. A Backward Look. Grenfell Reading Center. 1985. Teacher’s Guide for RD Leaflets. Reader's Digest Services. 1972. Clarine Coffin Grenfell obituary in Bangor Daily News Clarine Coffin Grenfell at Find a Grave Clarine Coffin Grenfell Papers, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine