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Thamesmead

Thamesmead is an area of south-east London, straddling the border between the Royal Borough of Greenwich and the London Borough of Bexley. It is located 11 miles east of north-east of Woolwich and west of Erith, it consists of social housing built from the mid-1960s onwards on former marshland on the south bank of the River Thames. Most of the land area of Thamesmead formed about 1,000 acres of the old Royal Arsenal site that extended over Plumstead Marshes and Erith Marshes. There is some evidence of prehistoric human occupation of the area: flints, animal bones and charcoal were found in bore holes around Western and Central Way in 1997 by the Museum of London Archaeological Service. In Roman times, the river level was lower, work by MOLAS in 1997 around Summerton Way revealed evidence of field ditches and pottery and quernstones from Germany dating from around the 3rd or 4th century. After the Roman era, river levels rose again and the area reverted to marshland. According to Hasted, some areas of this marshland were drained by 1279 by the monks of Lesnes Abbey.

Between 1812 and 1816, a canal was built by convicts to take materials such as timber from the River Thames to Woolwich Royal Arsenal. Much of this canal has been filled in, but part remains in Thamesmead West and is now called the Broadwater. A disused lock gate and swing bridge over the canal still exist beside the River Thames. Thamesmead as it is now was built at the end of the 1960s. Efforts were made to solve the social problems that had started to affect earlier estates; these were believed to be the result of people being uprooted from close-knit working-class communities and sent to estates many miles away, where they did not know anybody. The design of the estates meant that people would see their neighbours more than they would have done in the terraced housing, typical in working-class areas; the solution proposed was that once the initial residents had moved in, their families would be given priority for new housing when it became available. Another radical idea of the GLC division architect Robert Rigg was taken from housing complexes in Sweden, where it was believed that lakes and canals reduced vandalism and other crime among the young.

He used water as a calming influence on the residents. Thamesmead was designed around futuristic ideas, indeed, looked impressive at first from a distance, it was provided walkways between its blocks of housing and between sections in North Thamesmead. The walkways became littered and abused, they were not considered safe places to walk. Pathways set out for people to walk on were put in without regard to how people would wish to get about, so some were ignored in favour of more direct routes over grassed areas. Much of Thamesmead was built by the Greater London Council for rent to families moving from overcrowded back-to-back Victorian housing in south eastern parts of Inner London; the area had been inundated in the North Sea Flood of 1953, so the original design placed living accommodation at first floor level or above, used overhead walkways and left the ground level of buildings as garage space. There is an elevated'escape route' from the estate to be used in the event of flooding, which runs along the top of a grassed mound to the north of Lesnes neighbourhood.

The first residence was occupied in 1968, but there were rain penetration problems. The pre-1974 parts of Thamesmead are a mix of modernist town houses, medium-rise and 12-storey blocks system-built in concrete, which have featured in various films due to their'rough urban look'; when the GLC was abolished in 1986, its housing assets and the remaining undeveloped land were vested in a non-profit organisation, Thamesmead Town Limited. TTL was a private company with an unusual form of governance, its nine executive directors were local residents. Despite early proposals for the Jubilee Line Extension to go to Thamesmead, via the Isle of Dogs and the Royal Docks, Thamesmead was not included and after reaching the Greenwich Peninsula, the line heads north to Stratford, despite Stratford being on the major Central line tube link into London; the main reason cited for this decision was that many workers in Canary Wharf lived in Essex and could change from National Rail to the Jubilee line at Stratford and West Ham.

Thamesmead is cut off from the north of the River Thames and is in the centre of the 15 mile gap between the Blackwall Tunnel and the Dartford Tunnel/QE2 Bridge. Various proposals have been made for a new river crossing, the closest of, in the late 1980s, when there was a controversial proposal to alter the shape of London's South Circular inner orbital road to run through Oxleas Woods. Houses in Plumstead were compulsorily purchased but the plans fell through. Since Thamesmead has grown limiting the number of potential sites for a new river crossing; the most significant design failure was the complete lack of shopping facilities and banks: only a few "corner shops" were built at Tavy Bridge. From the start Thamesmead was cut off from Abbey Wood, the nearest town with shopping facilities, by a railway line; the area was cut in two by the A2016, a new four lane dual carriageway by-pass of the Woolwich to Erith section of the A206. Still, residential building continued, this time on the other side of

A New England Nun

"A New England Nun" is a short story by Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman published in 1891. "A New England Nun" is the story of a woman who has lived alone for many years. Louisa is set in her ways, she likes to keep her house meticulously clean, wear multiple aprons, eat from her nicest china every day, she has an old dog named Caesar who she feels must be kept chained up because he bit a neighbor 14 years ago as a puppy. Louisa promised Joe Dagget 14 years ago that she would marry him when he returned from his fortune-hunting adventures in Australia, now that he has returned it is time for her to fulfill her promise; when Joe arrives, however, it becomes obvious that Louisa sees him as a disruption of the life that she has made for herself. When Joe arrives on one of his twice weekly visits, Louisa attempts to have a conversation with him, but is distracted when he tracks dirt on the floor, re-arranges her books, accidentally knocks things over; the two have a cool and awkward conversation when Louisa inquires after Joe's mother's health and Joe blushes and tells Louisa that Lily Dyer has been taking care of her.

She is only planning on marrying Joe because she promised that she would, since it would mean that Louisa would have to give up the life that she has made for herself. Three weeks a week before the wedding, as Louisa is enjoying a moonlit stroll, she happens to overhear a conversation between Joe and Lily. Through this conversation, Louisa learns that Joe and Lily have developed feelings for each other in the short time that Joe has been back, that Joe is in love with Lily but refuses to break his promise to Louisa. Lily supports Joe's decision, though Joe encourages her to find someone else, Lily says, "I'll never marry any other man as long as I live." The next day, when Joe comes to visit, Louisa releases Joe from his promise without letting him know that she is aware of his relationship with Lily. Joe and Louisa part tenderly, Louisa is left alone to maintain her present lifestyle; the last line of the story is: "Louisa sat, prayerfully numbering her days, like an uncloistered nun." Louisa Ellis, the protagonist, lives in a quiet home in the New England countryside.

Louisa is known for her cool sense and sweet temperament. Her world is her home, everything from her aprons to her china has a use and purpose in her every day rhythm, she is engaged to Joe Dagget for fourteen years. However, after listening to Joe and Lily discuss their affection, she resolves to “keep her inheritance” and disengage herself from her long-standing engagement. In the end, she is content to spend her life as a spinster. Joe Dagget is the fiancé of beau to Lily Dyer, he is a man of great wealth. He works his large farm to care for his mother and himself. Joe carries dust wherever he goes. After returning from Australia, he meets Lily and in the short months before his marriage to the protagonist, falls in love with her. After being released from his engagement, there is no real textual evidence that he and Lily marry, but his admiration for Louisa never changes. Lily Dyer is the darling of his mother's caretaker. Louisa describes her as "tall and full-figured, with a firm, fair face, her strong, yellow hair braided in a close knot".

Her reputation among the village was praiseworthy. Her honor would not allow Joe to leave Louisa: "I've got good sense an' I ain't going to break my heart nor make a fool of myself. I ain't that sort of a girl to feel this way twice." While there is not a solid ending saying whether or not Joe and Lily wed, there is enough evidence to suggest they do. She is the better match for Joe with her courage. Caesar is Louisa’s “veritable hermit of a dog.” For most of his life he resided in the small hut, which Louisa’s dead brother built for him, eating only corn-mush and cakes for food. The dog brings insight into the internal affairs of the Ellis home. Just like the dog, Louisa has not permanently left the home in over 14 years, as he is chained up after biting a neighbor. Caesar is a foreshadowing for Louisa in his example of what will come of her if she should not marry. For example, there is no fear or sadness with the dog, but a simple acceptance of life as it passes before the front gate; the dog is a warning for Joe, for the only reason he is allowed outside the limits of the land is to walk with his mistress as she leads him by a heavy chain.

"A New England Nun" falls within the genre of local color. A thorough focus on native scenery, dialog of the characters as native to the area, displays of the values of a 19th-century New England landscape, are all contributing elements to that genre; the story is told from a third person viewpoint. Another specific, structural feature includes Freeman's focus on nature; the piece begins with a brief but thorough description of the landscape surrounding the world of Ms. Louisa. "Somewhere in the distance the cows were lowing, a little bell was tinkling. Through this small scene the reader feels the presence of nature and the rhythm to which people and time march on in the New England landscape; the emphasis of the countryside and the human's small part of nature is reminiscent of literature of the time period. Dr. Jesse S. Crisler, a scholar specializing in literary realism, notes in his class lectures that

Fraser Basin Council

The Fraser Basin Council is a charitable non-profit organization devoted to advancing sustainability in the Fraser Basin and across BC. The mandate of the organization is, "To advance sustainability in British Columbia, with a core focus on the Fraser River Basin." The Council has 38 Directors: an "impartial" Chairperson and 37 Directors representing the four orders of government, the private sector and civil society. Decisions are by consensus; the Fraser Basin Council serves as facilitator and educator, partnering with others on sustainability issues and initiatives, including flood management, smart planning for communities, climate change action and adaptation, air quality improvement, green fleets, healthy watersheds, sustainable fisheries, sustainability reporting and education. The touchstone of the Fraser Basin Council's work is its Charter for Sustainability, developed in 1997 by the council's predecessor, the Fraser Basin Management Board; the Charter defines sustainability as: "Living and managing activities in a way that balances social, economic and institutional considerations to meet our needs and those of future generations."

Fraser Basin Council website Fraser Basin Council Charter for Sustainability

Investec Cup

The Investec Cup is a golf tournament on the Sunshine Tour. It is played annually in March at Millvale Private Retreat in South Africa. Similar to the PGA Tour's Tour Championship, the Investec Cup has a 16-man field determined by the Chase to the Investec Cup standings. Points are earned in all Sunshine Tour events, beginning after the previous Investec Cup. While the tournament's prize fund is a winner-take-all, R 250,000, a bonus pool of R 10,000,000 is distributed to the top finishers in the Chase, with the winner of the Chase taking R 4,000,000. For the first three years, the tournament had a field of 30 players and was played over two courses, with the Millvale Private Retreat joined by the Lost City Golf Course in Sun City. Coverage at the Sunshine Tour's official site

Philip Edward Tovrea Jr.

First Lieutenant Philip Edward Tovrea Jr. was a U. S. Army Air Forces World War II ACE, awarded the Silver Star Medal for gallantry and the Distinguished Flying Cross for extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight while serving as a P-38 Fighter Pilot of the 27th Fighter Squadron, he is credited with shooting down 8 enemy aircraft in aerial combat. Tovrea was born in Arizona to Philip Edward Tovrea, Sr. and Helen Green Tovrea. His family was involved in the family cattle business in Arizona, his uncle Edward A. Tovrea, known as a Cattle Baron, established the Tovrea Packing Company in 1919, the base from which the Tovrea family made its fortune. Tovrea received his primary and secondary education in his native homeland. Tovrea joined the U. S. Army Air Force the outbreak of World War II. In 1944, he was assigned to the 27th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, 15th Air Force in Europe, his unit participated in aerial combat in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations during the war.

He was awarded the Silver Star Medal for gallantry and the Distinguished Flying Cross for extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight. During the war Tovrea flew a Lockheed P-38 Lightning, a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed; as an Ace he was credited with shooting down 8 enemy aircraft in aerial combat. American Aces Lockheed Lightning Aircraft Tovrea served in the Board of Directors of the Tovrea Company, a family business, incorporated as Arizona Packing Company; the principal business of the Tovrea Company was operating a packinghouse and buying and selling cattle. He resigned as director on November 28, 1958, he was a partial owner of the Tovrea Equipment Company known as Tovrea Motors. The company sold vehicles to the Tovrea Company. Tovrea married Phoebe Milicent Hearst, a granddaughter of publishing tycoon William Randolph Hearst. Tovrea's wife used one of the nation's biggest fortunes to support a variety of philanthropic causes. In 1953, they had a daughter.

Tovrea died at the age of 62 in Phoenix. He was buried with full Military Honors in Phoenix's Greenwood/Memory Lawn Cemetery. 27th Fighter Squadron

List of brigadier generals in the United States Regular Army before February 2, 1901

This is a complete list of brigadier generals in the United States Regular Army before February 2, 1901. The grade of brigadier general is ordinarily the fourth-highest in the peacetime Army, ranking above colonel and below major general; the grade of brigadier general was the highest peacetime rank in the Regular Army during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the second-highest for most of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was rare: until 1901 there were fewer than twenty brigadier generals on active duty at any given time. During times of war, the number of Regular Army brigadier generals remained constant, because rather than expand the permanent military establishment to meet transient wartime requirements, the Regular Army served as a cadre for a much larger temporary force of volunteers and conscripts. Many famous generals of the American Civil War held high rank only in the volunteer service, reverted to much lower permanent grades in the Regular Army when the volunteers were disbanded after the war.

The number of Regular Army brigadier generals increased when the Army was reorganized after the Spanish–American War. In addition to increasing the number of brigadier generals of the line from six to fifteen, the Army instituted a practice of funneling a succession of senior colonels through each vacancy in the grade of brigadier general, each officer in turn being promoted and retired at the higher rank and retired pay after only one day in grade; the reorganization took effect on February 2, 1901. The United States Army included two components: the permanently established Regular Army, which constituted the peacetime force. There were two types of brigadier generals in the Regular Army: A brigadier general of the line was an officer, commissioned in the permanent grade of brigadier general and therefore maintained that personal rank regardless of assignment. A brigadier general of the staff was an officer who held the ex officio rank of brigadier general only while occupying an office designated by statute to carry that rank.

Brigadier generals in the non-permanent or non-federal establishments included the following: A brigadier general of militia was appointed or elected to that rank in one of the state militia forces. A brigadier general of levies was appointed to that rank in the federal volunteer forces raised during the Northwest Indian War. A brigadier general of volunteers was appointed to that rank in the United States Volunteers during the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, or the Spanish–American War. A brigadier general of state volunteers was appointed to that rank in one of the non-federal volunteer forces raised by individual states during the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, or the Spanish–American War. A brigadier general in the Provisional Army was appointed to that rank in the non-permanent Regular Army augmentation force authorized during the Quasi-War by the Act of May 28, 1798. A brigadier general in the Eventual Army was appointed to that rank in the non-permanent Regular Army augmentation force authorized during the Quasi-War by the Act of March 2, 1799.

Brigadier generals in other establishments included the following: A brigadier general in the Continental Army was appointed to that rank in the United States Army's predecessor organization during the American Revolution. A brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate States Army equivalent of a Regular Army brigadier general during the Civil War. A brigadier general in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States was the Confederate States Army equivalent of a brigadier general of volunteers during the Civil War. In addition, honorary brevet ranks of brigadier general were conferred in several organizations: A brevet brigadier general was awarded that brevet rank in the Regular Army for actions in the War of 1812, the Mexican War, or the Civil War. A brevet brigadier general of volunteers was awarded that brevet rank in the United States Volunteers for actions in the Civil War or the Spanish–American War. A brevet brigadier general of militia was awarded that brevet rank in one of the state militia forces.

The following list of brigadier generals includes all officers appointed to that rank in the line or staff of the United States Regular Army prior to February 2, 1901. It does not include officers who held that rank by brevet or in the non-permanent or non-federal establishments, such as brigadier generals of militia or volunteers. Entries are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was appointed to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty; each entry lists the officer's name. The list is sortable by active-duty appointment order, last name, date of rank, date vacated, number of years on active duty as brigadier general. By February 1, 1901, there were six brigadier generals of the line. An officer held the permanent grade of brigadier general until his death. An officer's Regular Army grade was not affected by brevet appointments or appointments in other organizations such as the United States Volunteers or the Confederate States Army.

By February 1, 1901, there were ten brigadier generals of