Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Speaking, there are two main groups of dialects spoken in the Hejaz region, one by the urban population spoken in the major cities of Jeddah and Medina, another by the Bedouin or rural populations. However, the term most applies to the urban variety, discussed in this article. In antiquity, the Hejaz was home to the Old Hejazi dialect of Arabic. Old Hejazi is distinct from modern Hejazi Arabic, represents an older linguistic layer wiped out by centuries of migration, but which happens to share the imperative prefix vowel /a-/ with the modern dialect. Hejazi Arabic belongs to the western Peninsular Arabic branch of the Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language, it includes features of both urban and bedouin dialects giving its history between the ancient urban cities of Medina and Mecca and the bedouin tribes that lived on the outskirts of these cities. Referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form most associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", is spoken in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah and Medina.
With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both. Like other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less conservative than the bedouin varieties in some aspects and has therefore shed some Classical forms and features that are still present in bedouin dialects, these include gender-number disagreement, the feminine marker -n, but in contrast to bedouin dialects, the constant use of full vowels and the absence of vowel reduction plus the distinction between the emphatic letters ⟨ض⟩ and ⟨ظ⟩ is retained. The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix بـ /bi/ or قاعد /gaːʕid/ as in بيدرس /bijidrus/ or قاعد يدرس /gaːʕid jidrus/; the future tense is marked by the prefix حـ /ħa/ as in حيدرس /ħajidrus/. The internal passive form, which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern; the final -n in present tense plural verb forms is no longer employed. The dominant case ending before the 3rd person masculine singular pronoun is -u, rather than the -a, prevalent in bedouin dialects.
For example, بيته /beːtu/, عنده /ʕindu/, أعرفه /aʕrifu/. Hejazi Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi ما اعرف /maː aʕrif/, as opposed to Egyptian معرفش /maʕrafʃ/ and Palestinian بعرفش /baʕrafiʃ/; the present indicative tense is not marked by any prefixes as in يِدْرُس /jidrus/, as opposed to Egyptian بيدرس. The prohibitive mood of Classical Arabic is preserved in the imperative: لا تروح /laː tiruːħ/; the possessive suffixes are preserved in their Classical forms. For example, بيتكم /beːtakum/ "your house"; the plural first person pronoun is نحنا /niħna/ or إحنا /iħna/, as opposed to the bedouin حنّا /ħənna/ or إنّا /ənna/. When used to indicate location, the preposition في /fi/ is preferred to بـ /b/. In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region. Less restriction on the distribution of /i/ and /u/; the glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as a way of emphasising. Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hejazi retains most of the short vowels of Classical Arabic with no vowel reduction, for example:سمكة /samaka/, as opposed to bedouin.
نُطْق /nutˤg/, as opposed to bedouin. ضربَته /dˤarabatu/, as opposed to bedouin. وَلَدُه /waladu/, as opposed to bedouin. عندَكُم /ʕindakum/, as opposed to bedouin and Levantine. The Arabic of today is derived principally from the old dialects of Central and North Arabia which were divided by the classical Arab grammarians into three groups: Hejaz and the language of the tribes in adjoining areas. Though the modern Hejazi dialects has developed markedly since the development of Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is quite distinct from the modern dialect of Hejaz. Standard Arabic now differs from modern Hejazi Arabic in terms of its phonology, morphology and lexicon, such diglossia in Arabic began to emerge at the latest in the sixth century CE when oral poets recited their poetry in a proto-Classical Arabic based on archaic dialects which differed from their own, it is not well known in which stage of Arabic the shift from the Proto-Semitic pair /q, g/ to Hejazi /g, d͡ʒ/ ⟨ج, ق⟩ occurred, although it has been attested as early as the eighth century CE, it can be explained by a chain shift /q/* → /g/ → /d͡ʒ/ that occurred in one of two ways: Drag Chain: Proto-Semitic gīm /g/ palatalized to Hejazi /d͡ʒ/ jīm first, opening up a space at the position of, which qāf /q/ moved to fill the empty space resulting in Hejazi /g/ gāf, restoring structural symmetrical relationships present in the pre-Arabic system.
Push Chain: Proto-Semitic qāf /q/ changed to Hejazi /g/ gāf first, which resulted in pushing the original gīm /g/ forward in articulation to become Hejazi /d͡ʒ/ jīm, but since most modern qāf dialects as well as standard Arabic have jīm, hence the push-chain of qāf to gāf first can be discredited, although there are good grounds for believing that old Arabic qāf had both voiced and voiceless allophones.
Wadi Rum, known as the Valley of the Moon, is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km to the east of Aqaba. Wadi Rum has been inhabited by many human cultures since prehistoric times, with many cultures–including the Nabataeans–leaving their mark in the form of rock paintings and temples. In the West, Wadi Rum may be best known for its connection with British officer T. E. Lawrence, who passed through several times during the Arab Revolt of 1917–18. In the 1980s one of the rock formations in Wadi Rum known as Jabal al-Mazmar, was named "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" after Lawrence's book penned in the aftermath of the war, though the'Seven Pillars' referred to in the book have no connection with Rum; the area is centered on the main valley of Wadi Rum. The highest elevation in Jordan is Jabal Umm ad Dami at 1,840 m high, located 30 kilometres south of Wadi Rum village, it was first located by a Zalabia Bedouin from Rum. On a clear day, it is possible to see the Saudi border from the top.
Jabal Ram or Jebel Rum is the second highest peak in Jordan and the highest peak in the central Rum, rising directly above Rum valley, opposite Jebel um Ishrin, one metre lower. Khaz'ali Canyon in Wadi Rum is the site of petroglyphs etched into the cave walls depicting humans and antelopes dating back to the Thamudic times; the village of Wadi Rum itself consists of several hundred Bedouin inhabitants with their goat-hair tents and concrete houses and their four-wheel vehicles, one school for boys and one for girls, a few shops, the headquarters of the Desert Patrol. Geoff Lawton has achieved success in establishing a permaculture ecosystem in Wadi Rum. Shots of Wadi Rum in Lawrence of Arabia from 1962 kick-started Jordan's tourism industry. Wadi Rum is home to the Zalabia Bedouin who, working with climbers and trekkers, have made a success of developing eco-adventure tourism as their main source of income; the area is one of Jordan's important tourist destinations, attracts an increasing number of foreign tourists trekkers and climbers, but for camel and horse safari or day-trippers from Aqaba or Petra.
Its luxury camping retreats have spurred more tourism to the area. Popular activities in the desert environment include camping under the stars, riding Arabian horses and rock-climbing among the massive rock formations. All Terrain Vehicles and Jeeps are available and new camps have opened that offer accommodation for tourists. Dima and Lama Hattab coordinate an annual marathon in the region called Jabal Ishrin; the Bedouin have climbed in the Sandstone mountains of Wadi Rum for many generations. Many of their ` Bedouin Roads' have been documented by modern climbers. Several are included in the climbing guidebook by Tony Howard, online by Liên and Gilles Rappeneau. In 1949 Sheikh Hamdan took surveyors to the summit of Jabal Ram; the first recorded European ascent of Jabal Ram took place in November 1952, by Charmian Longstaff and Sylvia Branford, guided by Sheik Hamdan. The first recorded rock climbs started in 1984, with the first of many visits by English climbers Howard, Baker and Shaw; this group repeated many of the Bedouin routes, accompanied by locals and independently, including, in 1984, Hammad's Route on Jebel Rum, and, in 1985, Sheikh Kraim’s Hunter’s Slabs and Rijm Assaf on Jebel Rum.
Many new routes were climbed in the 1980s, by this team, French guide Wilfried Colonna, by the Swiss Remy brothers, by Haupolter and Precht. The first dedicated climbing guide book and Climb in Wadi Rum, by Tony Howard, was first published in 1987; some of the many Bedouin routes have been documented online by Gilles Rappeneau. A new routes book for climbers is held at the Wadi Rum Guest House; the route Guerre Sainte was climbed in 2000 by Batoux and friends. This was the first route in Wadi Rum to be equipped using bolt protection; the route, on the East Face of Jebel Nassarani North, is 450 m long, graded F7b or F7aA0. The area has been used as a background setting in a number of films. Filmmakers are drawn to it for science fiction films set on Mars; the Location Managers Guild recognized the Jordanian Royal Film Commission with its LMGI Award for Outstanding Film Commission in 2017 for its work on Rogue One, which filmed at Wadi Rum. The RFC was nominated for its work with The Martian. Lawrence of Arabia – David Lean filmed much of this 1962 film on location in Wadi Rum.
Red Planet – Wadi Rum was used as the surface of Mars in this 2000 film. Passion in the Desert – The area was used for scenes in this 1998 film; the Face – BBC Film, Rock climbing in Rum, featuring Wadi Rum pioneers Tony Howard and Di Taylor. Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen – represented as being in Egypt The Frankincense Trail – scenes from train, aerial filming too Prometheus – scenes for the Alien Planet Krrish 3 – the song'Dil Tu Hi Bata' May in the Summer – a film by Cherien Dabis presented at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival. Long shots of Wadi Rum set the mood for the film, it's a place where the main character finds peace away from the world and within herself; the Last Days on Mars – filming for exterior shots representing the surface of the titular planet for this 2013 film. The Martian – filming for the Ridley Scott film began in March 2015, for shots that
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, non-entertainment content. While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic, the morphology and syntax have remained unchanged. In the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, both are called al-fuṣḥá in Arabic, meaning'the most eloquent'. In the late 6th century AD, a uniform intertribal ‘poetic koiné’ distinct from the spoken vernaculars developed based on the Bedouin dialects of Najd in connection with the Lakhmid court of al-Ḥīra. During the first Islamic century the majority of Arabic poets and Arabic-writing persons spoke a form of Arabic as their mother tongue.
Their texts, although preserved in far manuscripts, contain traces of non-standardized Classical Arabic elements in morphology and syntax. The standardization of Classical Arabic reached completion around the end of the 8th century; the first comprehensive description of the ʿarabiyya "Arabic", Sībawayhi's al-Kitāb, is based first of all upon a corpus of poetic texts, in addition to the Qurʾān and Bedouin informants whom he considered to be reliable speakers of the ʿarabiyya. "Colloquial" Arabic refers to the many regional dialects derived from Arabic spoken daily across the region and learned as a first language, as second language if people speak other languages native to their particular country. By the 8th century, knowledge of Classical Arabic had become an essential prerequisite for rising into the higher classes throughout the Islamic world, as it was the lingua franca across the Middle East, North Africa, Horn of Africa during those times. Various Arabic dialects borrowed words from Classical Arabic, this situation is similar to Romance languages, wherein scores of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin.
People speak Classical Arabic as a second language if they speak colloquial Arabic dialects as their first language, but as a third language if others speak other languages native to a country as their first language and colloquial Arabic dialects as their second language. But Classical Arabic was spoken with different pronunciations influenced by informal dialects; the differentiation of the pronunciation of informal dialects is the influence from native languages spoken and some presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian in Yemen, Aramaic in the Levant. Like Modern Standard Arabic, Classical Arabic had 28 consonant phonemes: Notes: ^1 Sibawayh described the consonant ⟨ط⟩ as voiced, but some modern linguists cast doubt upon this testimony. ^2 Ibn Khaldun described the pronunciation of ⟨ق⟩ as a voiced velar /g/ and that it might have been the old Arabic pronunciation of the letter, he describes that prophet Muhammad may have had the /g/ pronunciation.
^3 Non-emphatic /s/ may have been, shifting forward in the mouth before or with the fronting of the palatals. ^4 As it derives from Proto-Semitic *g, /ɟ/ may have been a palatalized velar: /ɡʲ/. ^5 /l/ is emphatic only in /ʔaɫɫɑːh/, the name of God, except after /i/ or /iː/ when it is unemphatic: bismi l-lāhi /bismillaːhi/. ^6 /ɾˠ/ is pronounced without velarization before /i/:. Notes: might have been an allophone of short /a/ in certain imalah contexts In pre-Classical Arabic, arose out of contraction of certain Old Arabic triphthongs; some Arabs said banē for zēda for zāda. This /eː/ merged with /aː/ in Classical Arabic. A different phenomenon called imāla led to the raising of /a/ and /aː/ adjacent to a sequence iC or Ci, where C was a non-emphatic, non-uvular consonant, e.g. al-kēfirīna < al-kāfirīna might have been an allophone of /a/ and /aː/ after uvular and emphatic consonants The A1 inscription dated to the 3rd or 4th c. AD in the Greek alphabet in a dialect showing affinities to that of the Safaitic inscriptions shows that short final high vowels had been lost in at least some dialects of Old Arabic at that time, obliterating the distinction between nominative and genitive case in the singular, leaving the accusative the only marked case:أوس عوذ بناء كازم الإداميْ أتو من شحاصْ؛ أتو بناءَ الدَّورَ ويرعو بقلَ بكانون ʾAws ʿūḏ Bannāʾ Kāzim ʾal-ʾidāmiyy ʾatawa miś-śiḥāṣ.
Classical Arabic however, shows a far more archaic system identical with that of Proto-Arabic: The definite article spread areally among the Central Semitic languages and it would seem that Proto-Arabic lacked any overt marking of definiteness. Besides dialects with no definite article, the Safaitic inscriptions exhibit about four different article forms, ordered by frequency: h-, ʾ-, ʾl-, hn-; the Old Arabic
Andalusian Arabic known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule from the 9th century to the 17th century. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by Christian Spain. Once spoken in Iberia, the expulsions and persecutions of Arabic speakers caused an abrupt end to the language's use on the peninsula, its use continued to some degree in Africa after the expulsion although Andalusi speakers were assimilated by the Moroccan and Tunisian communities to which they fled. Andalusi Arabic is still used in Andalusi music and has influenced the dialects of such towns as Sfax in Tunisia, Rabat, Tlemcen and Cherchell. Nowadays there is one case of Spanish converts to Islam; the language exerted some influence on Mozarabic, Ladino, Catalan-Valencian-Balearic, Classical Arabic and the Moroccan, Tunisian and Algerian Arabic dialects.
Andalusian Arabic appears to have spread and been in general oral use in most parts of Al-Andalus between the 9th and 15th centuries. The number of speakers is estimated to have peaked at around 5–7 million speakers around the 11th and 12th centuries before dwindling as a consequence of the Reconquista, the gradual but relentless takeover by the Christians. In 1502, the Muslims of Granada were forced to choose between exile. In 1526, this requirement was extended to the Muslims elsewhere in Spain. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree in Spain forbidding Moriscos from the use of Arabic on all occasions and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime, they were given three years to learn a "Christian" language, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. This triggered one of the largest Morisco Revolts. Still, Andalusian Arabic remained in use in certain areas of Spain until the final expulsion of the Moriscos at the beginning of the 17th century.
As in every other Arabic-speaking land, native speakers of Andalusian Arabic were diglossic, that is, they spoke their local dialect in all low-register situations, but only Classical Arabic was resorted to when a high register was required and for written purposes as well. Andalusian Arabic belongs to Early Western Neo-Arabic, which does not allow for any separation between Bedouin, urban, or rural dialects, nor does it show any detectable difference between communal dialects, such as Muslim and Jewish; the oldest evidence of Andalusian Arabic utterances can be dated from the 10th and 11th century, in isolated quotes, both in prose and stanzaic Classical Andalusi poems, from the 11th century on, in stanzaic dialectal poems and dialectal proverb collections, while its last documents are a few business records and one letter written at the beginning of the 17th century in Valencia. Many features of Andalusian Arabic have been reconstructed by Arabists using Hispano-Arabic texts composed in Arabic with varying degrees of deviation from classical norms, augmented by further information from the manner in which the Arabic script was used to transliterate Romance words.
Such features include the following. The phoneme represented by the letter ق in texts is a point of contention; the letter, which in Classical Arabic represented either a voiceless pharyngealized velar stop or a voiceless uvular stop, most represented some kind of post-alveolar affricate or velar plosive in Andalusian Arabic. The vowel system was subject to a heavy amount of fronting and raising, a phenomenon known as imāla, causing /a/ to be raised to or and with short vowels, in certain circumstances when i-mutation was possible. Contact with native Romance speakers led to the introduction of the phonemes /p/, /ɡ/ and the affricate /tʃ/ from borrowed words. Monophthongization led to the disappearance of certain diphthongs such as /aw/ and /aj/ which were leveled to /oː/ and /eː/ though Colin hypothesizes that these diphthongs remained in the more mesolectal registers influenced by the Classical language. There was a fair amount of compensatory lengthening involved where a loss of consonantal gemination lengthened the preceding vowel, whence the transformation of عشّ /ʕuʃ/ into عوش /ʕuːʃ/.
The -an which, in Classical Arabic, marked a noun as indefinite accusative, became an indeclinable conjunctive particle, as in Ibn Quzmân's expression rajul-an'ashîq. The unconjugated prepositive negative particle lis developed out of the classical verb lays-a; the derivational morphology of the verbal system was altered. Whence the initial n- on verbs in the first person singular, a feature shared by many Maghrebi dialects; the form V pattern of tafaʻʻal-a was altered by epenthesis to atfa``al. Andalusian Arabic developed a contingent/subjunctive tense consisting of the imperfect form of a verb, preceded by either kân or kîn, of which the final -n was assimilated by preformatives y- and t-. An example drawn from Ibn Quzmân will illustrate this: Varieties of Arabic Maghrebi Arabic Imala Aljamiado Corriente, Frederico, A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, New Yor
Old Arabic is the earliest attested stage of the Arabic language, beginning with the first attestation of personal names in the 9th century BC, culminating in the codification of Classical Arabic beginning in the 7th century AD. The primary language of the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions, it came to be expressed in a modified Nabataean script after the demise of the Nabataean Kingdom. In addition, inscriptions in Old Arabic are attested in the Dadanitic script and the Greek alphabet, the latter of which have proved indispensable in the reconstruction of the language's phonology. Old Arabic and its descendants are Central Semitic languages and are most related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the languages of the Dadanitic, Taymanitic inscriptions, the poorly understood languages labeled Thamudic, the ancient languages of Yemen written in the Ancient South Arabian script. Old Arabic, is however, distinguished from all of them by the following innovations: negative particles m */mā/; the earliest inscriptional evidence of this article is provided by a 1st-century BC inscription in Qaryat al-Faw.
An earlier literary attestation occurs in the 5th century BC, in the epithet of a goddess which Herodotus quotes in its preclassical Arabic form as Alilat, which means "the goddess". The earliest attestations of Arabic are personal names dating back to the Assyrian period. From the second century BC onwards, personal names are attested in Nabataean inscriptions and Nabataean Arabic substratal influence can be demonstrated in the Nabataean Aramaic. Dating to the 1st century BC, the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions, concentrated in Hauran and Hisma attest to the forms of Arabic used by the nomads of those regions. Late Antiquity saw linguistic Arabization farther afield: in Yemen in the 6th century in the language of trade and among the military, following the influence of Kindah, in Palestine, one would expect, in areas where Ancient North Arabian scripts were used; the Nabataean alphabet did not replace the Ancient North Arabian scripts functionally and the disappearance of inscriptions in the Ancient North Arabian scripts may have had more to do with the integration of the peoples who produced them into an emerging Arab society in which the day-to-day role of these peoples had changed.
The Safaitic inscriptions belong to a continuum of Old Arabic dialects which included the dialect spoken in parts of Nabataea and the language expressed by the Hismaic inscriptions. A different continuum, Old Ḥigāzī, underlies the Quranic Consonantal Text and became the literary register and prestige spoken dialect of the Umayyad Empire. A more advanced form of it is attested 1st CC papyri and gave rise to early Arabic colloquials encountered in Greek transcriptions. ^1 The emphatic interdental and lateral were voiced in Old Higazi, in contrast to Northern Old Arabic, where they remained voiceless. Proto-Arabic nouns could take one of the five above declensions in their unbound form; the definite article spread areally among the Central Semitic languages and it would seem that Proto-Arabic lacked any overt marking of definiteness. The ʿEn ʿAvdat inscription in the Nabataean script dating to no than 150 shows that final had been deleted in undetermined triptotes, that the final short vowels of the determined state were intact.
The reconstructed text of the inscription is as follows: pa-yapʿal lā pedā wa lā ʾaṯara pa-kon honā yabġe-nā ʾal-mawto lā ʾabġā-h pa-kon honā ʾarād gorḥo lā yorde-nā"And he acts neither for benefit nor favour and if death claims us let me not be claimed. And if an affliction occurs let it not afflict us"; the Old Arabic of the Nabataean inscriptions exhibits exclusively the form ʾl- of the definite article. Unlike the Classical Arabic article, the Old Arabic ʾl never exhibits the assimilation of the coda to the coronals; the A1 inscription dated to the 3rd or 4th century in a Greek alphabet in a dialect showing affinities to that of the Safaitic inscriptions shows that short final high vowels had been lost, obliterating the distinction between nominative and genitive case in the singular, leaving the accusative the only marked case: ʾAws ʿūḏ Bannāʾ Kazim ʾal-ʾidāmiyy ʾatawa miś-śiḥāṣ. Besides dialects with no definite article, the Safaitic inscriptions exhibit about four different article forms, ordered by frequency: h-, ʾ-, ʾl-, hn-.
Unlike the Classical Arabic article, the Old Arabic ʾl never exhibits the assimilation of the coda to the coronals. The Safaitic and Hismaic texts attest an invariable feminine consonantal -t ending, the same appears to be true of the earliest Nabataean Arabic. While Greek transcriptions show a mixed situation, it is clear that by the 4th c. CE, the ending had shifted to /-a/ in non-construct position in the settled areas. Safaitic attests the following demonstratives: Northern Old Arabic preserved the
Northwest Arabian Arabic
Northwest Arabian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken by Bedouins of the Sinai Peninsula, the Negev, southern Jordan, the northwestern corner of Saudi Arabia. In the eastern desert of Egypt, the dialect of the Maʿāzah borders the dialect of the ʿAbābdah, who speak a dialect more related to Sudanese Arabic; the Northwest Arabian Arabic dialects share a number of features distinguishing them from the North Arabian Bedouin dialects: Absence of tanwīn and its residues. Absence of affricated variants of /g/ and /k/. Absence of final /n/ in the imperfect, 2nd person feminine singular, 2nd person masculine plural, 3rd person masculine plural; the pronominal suffix of the 2nd person masculine plural is -ku. The use of the locative preposition fi. Levantine Bedawi is spoken in the eastern area of Jordan, in the southwestern corner of Syria and in the Bedouin regions of Egypt. Varieties of Arabic Peninsular Arabic Gordon, Raymond G.. Jr. ed. "Bedawi Arabic", Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics Haim Blanc.
1970. "The Arabic Dialect of the Negev Bedouins," Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 4/7:112-150. Rudolf E. de Jong. 2000. A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral: Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World. Leiden: Brill. Judith Rosenhouse. 1984. The Bedouin Arabic Dialects: General Problems and Close Analysis of North Israel Bedouin Dialects. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz