A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
William Boone Daniels, better known as Billy Daniels, was an American singer active in the United States and Europe from the mid-1930s to 1988, notable for his hit recording of "That Old Black Magic" and his pioneering performances on early 1950s television. He was one of the first African-American entertainers to cross over into the mainstream and his star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame lies alongside that of Jerry Lewis. Daniels was born in Jacksonville, where his father was a postmaster and notary, his mother was a organist. Daniels had a heritage of Portuguese sailor, Native American, African American, frontiersman Daniel Boone. In 1935, Daniels moved from Jacksonville to New York to attend Columbia University, he planned to become a lawyer. His grandmother was a seamstress in Harlem for the Ziegfeld Follies, she encouraged her grandson to sing at Dickie Wells, the club where he first worked as a dishwasher a singing waiter. There he was discovered by bandleader Erskine Hawkins, he toured with the Erskine Hawkins Band in 1935–36 and returned to Harlem.
Throughout 1938, he sang daily on New York radio for 12 different sponsors. "It was me or the horse racing," Daniels remarked. Daniels performed at nightclubs on New York's famed 52nd Street, where he was one of the first singers to leave the big-band scene and pursue a solo career, he sometimes made three 52nd Street club performances per night. In 1945, he played intermission with Charlie Parker at the Spotlite Club on 52nd Street. Daniels had several accompanists, including while in New York. In 1948, he teamed with ex-big-band pianist Benny Payne, Cab Calloway's pianist in the Cotton Club. Payne remained as accompanist for the rest of Daniel's career. Daniels' first trademark song from his time on New York radio was the song "Diane," which he recorded on Bluebird in 1941, his signature song was "That Old Black Magic", by Harold Arlen and Johnny Mercer, which Daniels first recorded for Apollo Records in 1948. His 1950 recording on Mercury became a hit, his sensational performance in 1950 in Bill Miller's Riveria Club led to holdover appearances.
Following Park Avenue residences, Daniels record holdover at 1952 New York Copacabana Club still stands. He was popular in Europe after he headlined at the London Palladium in 1952, having broken the house records, he toured the UK's Moss Theatre circuit in the 1950s as "America's most exciting singer". His forte was as a nightclub entertainer, he was the biggest cabaret draw in New York throughout the 1950s, appearing alongside the comedian Jimmy Durante, his vocal stylings and trademark dance movements were imitated by the impressionists of the era. In 1958, Daniels was the first entertainer to sign a longterm contract to appear in Las Vegas for three years at the Stardust, he had performed in musicals on Broadway early in his career with a minor role in a short-lived musical, Memphis Bound. More notable was the long run of Golden Boy with Sammy Davis Jr. in 1964, directed by Arthur Penn. Daniels toured the US in 1975 with Pearl Bailey in the all-black Hello, Dolly!, in London's West End, he headlined a 1978 presentation of Bubbling Brown Sugar.
He was popular in Australia where he first toured with the Andrews Sisters in 1954. He was a pioneer in the new medium of television with his own television series on ABC in 1952; the Billy Daniels Show was sponsored by a popular vitamin tablet at the time. This 15-minute show, telecast from New York on Sunday evenings from what was to become The Ed Sullivan Theater was a milestone: the first sponsored network television series starring a black performer, he appeared on television in the US and UK and Australia and Canada throughout the 1950s and 1960s with performances on The Milton Berle Show and'The Ed Sullivan Show. His films include When You're Smiling "On the Sunny Side of the Street and Columbia's Rainbow'Round My Shoulder. Daniels' recordings cover the period of transition from 78-rpm to the dawn of microgroove recording. Remembered for his charismatic live performances, he made an album at Abbey Road, The Magic of Billy Daniels, which contained a disco version of "That Old Black Magic".
He recorded a now rare recording. Daniels was married four times: Gladys Gordan. Daniels and Gladys Gordan had one child, he had three children with his second wife Florence Clotworthy. Clotworthy died in 1947. In 1950, Daniels married socialite Martha Braun. Braun filed for divorce in Juarez, citing mental cruelty, he did not contest the action. After the divorce Daniels married Pierette Cameron. Pierrette had two daughters with Daniels. Daniels had heart-bypass surgery, in 1982 and 1987, he died on October 1988 from stomach cancer at the age of 73 in Los Angeles, California. He is buried at the El Camino Memorial Park in San Diego, California. 1952 You Go to My Head 1954 Love Me or Leave Me 1957 You Go to My Head 1958 The Masculine Touch 1960 Touch of Your Lips 1963 Love Songs For A Fool" 1978 The Magic Of Billy Daniels 1993 Billy Daniels at the Crescendo 2001 Mr. Black Magic 2003 Around Midnight 2004 The Legendary Billy Daniels 194
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
Vera Zorina was a Norwegian ballerina and film actress, choreographer. Today, she is chiefly remembered for her films choreographed by her then-husband George Balanchine, they include The Goldwyn Follies, I Was an Adventuress with Erich Von Stroheim and Peter Lorre, Louisiana Purchase with Bob Hope, dancing to "That Old Black Magic" in Paramount Pictures' Star Spangled Rhythm. Vera Zorina was born Eva Brigitta Hartwig in Germany, her father Fritz Hartwig was a German lapsed Roman Catholic, her mother Abigail Johanne Wimpelmann was Norwegian and Lutheran. Both were professional singers. Young Eva was brought up in a small coastal town between Trondheim and Bergen, called Kristiansund North, where she debuted as a dancer at the Festiviteten, the oldest opera house in Norway, she received her education at the Lyceum for Girls in Berlin and was trained in dance by Olga Preobrajenska and Nicholas Legat. At age 12, she was presented to Max Reinhardt, who cast her in A Midsummer Night's Dream and Tales of Hoffman.
A performance at London's Gaiety Theatre won her an invitation to join the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo in 1933, at which time she adopted the stage name of Vera Zorina. The company only wanted Russian names and she was given a list of 20 and chose the last name because she could pronounce it. A few years she attained a lead role in the London production of On Your Toes and was seen by American film producer Samuel Goldwyn, who signed her to a seven-year film contract, she appeared in seven Hollywood movies between 1938 and 1946. When she lost the role of Maria in For Whom the Bell Tolls after only two weeks shooting, her film career came to a halt; the Hollywood axe fell on her when David O. Selznick, co-star Gary Cooper, director Sam Wood, Ernest Hemingway all preferred Ingrid Bergman. One of her major stage roles was in the 1938 Hart musical I Married an Angel; as the title character, she played an exquisite angel who descended from heaven to marry a Hungarian banker played by Dennis King, but whose complete lack of human guile presented him with a whole new set of problems.
In 1945, she had great success as Ariel in William Shakespeares The Tempest at the Alvin Theatre on Broadway. Starting in 1948, Zorina appeared in Arthur Honegger's Joan of Arc at the Stake, playing the title role in the first American performance with the New York Philharmonic under Charles Münch, she subsequently commanded the role many times, notably in the recorded performance from the Royal Festival Hall in June 1966, with the London Symphony Orchestra under Seiji Ozawa. In 1968, she directed Cabaret at the Oslo Nye Teater to great acclaim, her farewell performance was in Perséphone with New York City Ballet in 1982. In the 1970s, Vera Zorina was appointed director of the Norwegian National Opera and Ballet, but withdrew before she settled in because of her husband's illness, she was active with the Lincoln Center as an adviser and director and, for several seasons, directed operas at the Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico. In 1986, she completed her autobiography. Zorina was married in 1938 to choreographer George Balanchine.
She danced in productions he choreographed for both stage and screen, including On Your Toes, a Broadway hit adapted for the screen by Lawrence Riley. From 1946 her second husband was Columbia Records president Goddard Lieberson until his death on May 29, 1977, they had two sons: Peter Lieberson, a composer, Jonathan Lieberson. Her final marriage in 1991 was to harpsichordist Paul Wolfe until her death in 2003 at age 86 of undisclosed causes. Zorina was the grandmother of sisters Elizabeth and Kristina Lieberson, who are now members of the band TEEN. Kisselgoff, Anna. "Obituary for Vera Zorina". The New York Times. Koegler, Horst; the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Ballet. Oxford Paperback Reference. Photographs and literature Vera Zorina images Collection Guide, Vera Zorina papers, 1910-2001 Houghton Library, Harvard University Vera Zorina at the Internet Broadway Database Vera Zorina on IMDb Vera Zorina at Find a Grave Vera Zorina memorabilia collection
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big-band trombonist, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the best-selling recording artist from leading one of the best-known big bands. Miller's recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", " Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", "Elmer's Tune", "Little Brown Jug". In just four years Glenn Miller scored 16 number-one records and 69 top ten hits—more than Elvis Presley and the Beatles did in their careers. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller's aircraft disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. The son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller, Glenn Miller was born in Iowa, he attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska. In 1915, his family moved to Missouri. Around this time, he had made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone and played in the town orchestra.
He played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918 the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, where he went to high school. In the fall of 1919 he joined the high-school football team, which won the Northern Colorado American Football Conference in 1920, he was named Best Left End in Colorado. During his senior year he became interested in "dance band music", he was so taken. By the time he graduated from high school in 1921 he had decided to become a professional musician. In 1923 Miller entered the University of Colorado in Boulder, he spent most of his time away from school, attending auditions and playing any gigs he could get, including with Boyd Senter's band in Denver. After failing three out of five classes, he dropped out of school to pursue a career in music, he studied the Schillinger System with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, "Moonlight Serenade". In 1926 Miller toured with several groups, landing a good spot in Ben Pollack's group in Los Angeles.
He played for Victor Young, which allowed him to be mentored by other professional musicians. In the beginning he was the main trombone soloist of the band, but when Jack Teagarden joined Pollack's band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically. He realized that his future was in composing, he had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Miller's 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers. During his time with Pollack, he wrote several arrangements, he wrote his first composition, "Room 1411", with Benny Goodman, Brunswick Records released it as a 78 under the name "Benny Goodman's Boys". In 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger, he was a member of Red Nichols's orchestra in 1930, because of Nichols, he played in the pit bands of two Broadway shows, Strike Up the Band and Girl Crazy. The band included Gene Krupa. During the late 1920s and early 1930s Miller worked as a freelance trombonist in several bands.
On a March 21, 1928 Victor Records session he played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra directed by Nat Shilkret. He arranged and played trombone on several significant Dorsey Brothers sessions for OKeh Records, including "The Spell of the Blues", "Let's Do It", "My Kinda Love", all with Bing Crosby on vocals. On November 14, 1929, vocalist Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records: "Hello, Lola" and "If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight". Beside Miller were saxophonist Coleman Hawkins, clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa. In the early-to-mid-1930s, Miller worked as a trombonist and composer for The Dorsey Brothers, first when they were a Brunswick studio group and when they formed an ill-fated orchestra. Miller composed the songs "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Dese Dem Dose", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Tomorrow's Another Day" for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935. In 1935, he assembled an American orchestra for British bandleader Ray Noble, developing the arrangement of lead clarinet over four saxophones that became a characteristic of his big band.
Members of the Noble band included Claude Thornhill, Bud Freeman, Charlie Spivak. Miller made his first movie appearance in The Big Broadcast of 1936 as a member of the Ray Noble Orchestra performing "Why Stars Come Out at Night"; the film included performances by Dorothy Dandridge and the Nicholas Brothers, who would appear with Miller again in two movies for Twentieth Century Fox in 1941 and 1942. In 1937, Miller formed his first band. After failing to distinguish itself from the many bands of the time, it broke up after its last show at the Ritz Ballroom in Bridgeport, Connecticut on January 2, 1938. Benny Goodman said in 1976: In late 1937, before his band became popular, we were both playing in Dallas. Glenn came to see me, he asked, "What do you do? How do you make it?" I said, "Glenn. You just stay with it." Discouraged, Miller returned to New York. He realized that he needed to develop a unique sound, decided to make the clarinet play a melodic line with a tenor saxophone holding the same note, while three other saxophones harmonized within a single octave.
George T. Simon discovered. Miller hired Schwartz, but instead had him play lead clarinet. According to Simon, "Willie's tone and way of playing provided a fullness and richness so distinctive that none of the
1955 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1955. 1955 in British music 1955 in Norwegian music 1955 in country music 1955 in jazz January 1 – RCA Victor announces a marketing plan called "Operation TNT." The label drops the list price on LPs from $5.95 to $3.98, EPs from $4.95 to $2.98, 45 EPs from $1.58 to $1.49 and 45's from $1.16 to $.89. Other record labels follow RCA's lead and begin to drop prices as well. January 7 Marian Anderson is the first African American singer to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. "Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley & His Comets first appears on the British charts. January 14 – In New York City, Alan Freed produces the first rock and roll concert. January 27 – Michael Tippett's opera The Midsummer Marriage is premiered at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in London, conducted by John Pritchard, with designs by Barbara Hepworth and choreography by John Cranko. February 19 – Dot Records introduces a new singer, Pat Boone, with an advertisement in Billboard magazine calling him "a great new voice".
February 24 – Carlisle Floyd's opera Susannah is premiered in the Ruby Diamond Auditorium of Florida State University, Tallahassee with Phyllis Curtin in the title role. February 26 – For the first time since their introduction in 1949, 45 rpm discs begin to outsell standard 78s. February – Kay Starr leaves Capitol to sign with RCA. March 3 – Italian soprano Mirella Freni makes her operatic debut as Micaëla in Carmen at the Teatro Municipale in her native Modena. March 7 – The Broadway production of Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, is presented on American television for the first time by NBC-TV with its original cast, as an installment of Producers' Showcase, it is the first time that a stage musical is presented in its entirety on TV exactly as it was performed on stage. This program gains the largest viewership of a TV special up to this time and becomes one of the first great TV family musical classics. March 15 – Colonel Tom Parker becomes Elvis Presley's de facto manager. March 19 – The film Blackboard Jungle is premièred in New York City, featuring Bill Haley & His Comets' "Rock Around the Clock" over the opening credits, the first use of a rock and roll song in a major film.
March 22 – Decca Records signs DJ Alan Freed as an A&R man. March 26 – Bill Hayes tops the US charts for five weeks with "The Ballad of Davy Crockett" and starts a coonskin cap craze. April 14 – Imperial Records in the United States release "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino, it reaches #1 in the R&B chart and becomes over time a million seller, bringing Domino to prominence and giving his work covers by white artists: Pat Boone makes this song a Billboard number-one single of 1955 for jukebox play. May 13 – First riot at an Elvis Presley concert takes place in Jacksonville, Florida. May 21 – Chuck Berry records his first single, "Maybellene", for Chess Records in Chicago. May 22 – Bridgeport, authorities cancel a rock concert to be headlined by Fats Domino for fear of a riot breaking out. June The 29th International Society for Contemporary Music Festival takes place in Baden-Baden; the newly formed Netherlands Chamber Orchestra gives its first performance at the Holland Festival. June 2 – Italian singers Natalino Otto and Flo Sandon's marry.
June 16 – Glenn Gould completes his recording of Bach's Goldberg Variations. June 18 Pearl Carr & Teddy Johnson marry in the U. K. Pierre Boulez's influential composition Le marteau sans maître, for contralto and six instrumentalists, is premiered at the International Society for Contemporary Music Festival in Baden-Baden at the insistence of Heinrich Strobel. July 9 – "Rock Around the Clock" becomes the first Rock and roll single to reach Number One on the American charts. July 13 – The Beaux Arts Trio make their debut at the Berkshire Music Festival. August 8 – Luigi Nono marries Arnold Schoenberg's daughter Nuria in Venice. August 19 – WINS radio station in New York City adopts a policy of not playing white cover versions of black R&B songs. August 31 – A Londoner is fined for "creating an abominable noise" for playing "Shake and Roll" at top volume. September 3 – Little Richard records "Tutti Frutti" with cleaned up lyrics. September 26 – "America's Sweethearts", singers Eddie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, marry.
October 15 – Elvis Presley plays a concert in Lubbock, Texas. Opening act is local duo Buddy and Bob, Buddy being future rock star Buddy Holly. October 20 – Disc jockey Bill Randle of WERE is the key presenter of a concert at Brooklyn High School, featuring Pat Boone and Bill Haley & His Comets and opening with Elvis Presley, not only Elvis's first performance north of the Mason–Dixon line, but his first filmed performance, for a documentary on Randle titled The Pied Piper of Cleveland. October 29 – Dmitri Shostakovich's Violin Concerto No. 1 completed in 1948, is premiered by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra with its dedicatee, David Oistrakh, as soloist. November 4 – William Schuman's orchestral piece Credendum: Article of Faith, commissioned by UNESCO, is premiered in Cincinnati. November 12 – Billboard magazine DJ poll names Elvis Presley as the most promising new country and western singer. November 20 – Bo Diddley makes his debut TV appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show on CBS television.
November 22 – Colonel Tom Parker signs Elvis Presley to RCA Records. November 29 – Juan José Castro conducts the UK première of Carlos Chávez's Symphony No. 3 at the Maida Vale Studios with the London Symphony Orchestra. December 15 – Sun Records releases "Folsom Prison Blues" recorded by Johnny Cash on July 30. Christmas – The Te
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board