Gene Ha is an American comics artist and writer best known for his work on books such as Top 10 and Top 10: The Forty-Niners, with Alan Moore and Zander Cannon, for America's Best Comics, the Batman graphic novel Fortunate Son, with Gerard Jones, The Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix, among others. He has drawn Global Frequency and has drawn covers for Wizard and Marvel Comics, he was awarded the 1994 Russ Manning Most Promising Newcomer Award, won four Eisner Awards, in 2000, 2001, 2006, 2008. Gene Ha was raised in South Bend, Indiana. According to Ha, his parents were well-educated Korean immigrants whose aspiration was that their three sons would obtain prestigious degrees and enter corresponding careers. Gene was the most introverted of his brothers, a "geek" who sought out escapist fantasy through comic books. Whilst his siblings displayed impressive artistic talent, they lacked the patience to sit for hours on end applying themselves to illustration. Ha notes parallels between his generation of Asian-American comics artists and the generation of Jewish creators from the 1930s, both of whom were children of immigrants struggling to fit into America.
Ha cites as his influences numerous creators from the 1980s, such as John Byrne, Frank Miller, Bill Sienkiewicz, Walter Simonson, Alan Moore, most Matt Wagner, whose Mage series Ha says is still "epic" to him, its main characters "personal archetypes". Ha took few classes in art, as he was only interested in drawing as a means of creating comics, South Bend offered little in the way of education in realistic drawing, he began to understand graphic arts when working on his high school newspaper, The Clay Colonial, winning the Most Valuable Staffer Award, unusual for an artist. After high school, Ha attended the College for Creative Studies. In his last semester he sent drawing samples to Marvel and DC. Although he received a harshly critical response from Marvel, DC was interested and sent him a sample script. Ha's first published comics work was in Green Lantern vol. 3 #36, whose story, "The Ghost of Christmas Light", was written by Gerard Jones. He would draw a number of comics for DC and Malibu Comics, did work for Marvel as well, illustrating the 1994 miniseries The Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix, which documented the childhood of the character Cable.
He would draw that miniseries' sequel as well. Ha was one of the artists on the Shade limited series, he would subsequently illustrate a number of different properties for various publishers, including Aliens: Havoc, Superman, JLA Annual, which included interiors and cover work. In 1999, he began illustrating Top Ten, one of the series of Alan Moore's America's Best Comics imprint for Wildstorm, he would draw that series' twelve issues which ran until late 2001. Moore and Ha collaborated on the Top 10: The Forty-Niners graphic novel prequel published in 2005. In 2002 Ha wrote "The Stronghold", an Iron Fist story published in Marvel Knights Double Shot #4, which represented his first published comics writing. In 2006, Ha was set to serve as artist on the first four issues of a relaunch of Wildstorm's The Authority, with writer Grant Morrison. Ha drew two issues, but the project stalled after the second issue, as DC needed Morrison to concentrate his efforts on Batman rather than on Wildstorm projects.
In a December 2013 interview, Ha announced a sabbatical from work-for-hire comics and expressed his desire to focus on creator-owned projects. In June 2015, Dark Horse Comics selected for publication Ha's creator-owned series Mae, which Ha funded through the crowdfunding website Kickstarter; the Mae fundraising campaign, for a 68-page Mae graphic novel written and illustrated by Ha, launched on April 24, reaching its $22,000 goal in 36 hours, concluding with a total of $75,643. The book, will be published as an ongoing series rather than as a graphic novel. A portal fiction story, it depicts sisters Abbie and Mae reunited following Abbie's disappearance eight years earlier into a fantasy world of monsters, who have followed her back to her world in pursuit of her; the series holds a 7.8 out of 10 rating at the review aggregator website Comic Book Round Up, based on 35 reviews. Once Ha obtains a script, he makes "tiny" thumbnail sketches of each page, makes layout sketches on reduced copies of comic art board, two per page.
It is at this stage. Though he says about 90% of his artwork are done without photo reference, he will sometimes photograph his friends posing as the central characters, or use a full length mirror to draw himself, he renders minor characters from his imagination. Irrespective of how much sunlight he has on a given day, he prefers to use a 500W incandescent photo lamp, though he believes a 500W halogen lamp is adequate, he prefers to use a lead holder with H lead for sketching, 2B lead for shading, which he sharpens with a rotary lead pointer, believing that such leads can be sharpened better than a traditional pencil. He blows up a scan of each page layout to 8.5" x 11", draws "tight" pencils on top of these, which are scanned and printed on 11" x 17" inkjet paper in faint blue line. He prefers Xerox paper because he feels that the surface of marker paper tends to get smudgy or oily; when modifying art in his computer, he uses Photoshop. To effect his current ink wash style of shading and inking, he uses a variety of warm grey Copic markers with wide and brush tips, in particular a 9W Copic Sketch brush marker.
For outlines and precise shading effects he will use a variety of pencils, most notably a 2B pencil, for highlights and corrections, he will use white chalk pencils and white gouache paint. He u
Telepathy is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference. Telepathy experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, the topic is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience. According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research; as the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena, with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.
Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed. In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity. Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats such as identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject, he would hold the wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a trained skill to detect ideomotor movements. Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland, he was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.
Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud. George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud: For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference......the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.
Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender. Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917; the subjects produced below chance expectations. Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper. In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy; the results were negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number, out of 2010 replies none were correct.
In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation, V. J. Woolley, at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part; the experiment involved'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy. A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife, she attempted to duplicate 290 pictures. Sinclair claimed Mary duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not condu
Jean Grey-Summers is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character has been known under the aliases Marvel Girl and Dark Phoenix. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1. Jean is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, she was born with telekinetic powers. Her powers first manifested, she is a caring, nurturing figure, but she has to deal with being an Omega-level mutant and the physical manifestation of the cosmic Phoenix Force. Jean experienced a transformation into the Phoenix in the X-Men storyline "The Dark Phoenix Saga", she has faced death numerous times in the history of the series. Her first death was under her guise as Marvel Girl, when she died and was "reborn" as Phoenix in "The Dark Phoenix Saga"; this transformation led to her second death, suicide, though not her last. She is an important figure in the lives of other Marvel Universe characters the X-Men, including her husband Cyclops, her mentor and father figure Charles Xavier, her unrequited love interest Wolverine, her best friend and sister-like figure Storm, her genetic children Rachel Summers, Stryfe and X-Man.
The character was present for much of the X-Men's history, she was featured in all three X-Men animated series and several video games. She is a playable character in X-Men Legends, X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse, Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2, Marvel vs Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds, Marvel Heroes, Lego Marvel Super Heroes, appeared as a non-playable in the first Marvel: Ultimate Alliance. Famke Janssen portrayed the character in five installments of the X-Men films. Sophie Turner portrays a younger version in the 2016 film X-Men: Apocalypse. Turner will return to portray the character as well as her alternate personality the Phoenix in the 2019 film Dark Phoenix. In 2006, IGN rated Jean Grey 6th on their list of top 25 X-Men from the past forty years, in 2011, IGN ranked her 13th in the "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes", her Dark Phoenix persona was ranked 9th in IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time" list, the highest rank for a female character. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby, Jean Grey first appeared as Marvel Girl in The X-Men #1.
The original team's sole female member, Marvel Girl was a regular part of the team through the series' publication. Possessing the ability of telekinesis, the character was granted the power of telepathy, which would be retconned years as a suppressed mutant ability. Under the authorship of Chris Claremont and the artwork of first Dave Cockrum and John Byrne in the late 1970s, Jean Grey underwent a significant transformation from the X-Men's weakest member to its most powerful; the storyline in which Jean Grey died as Marvel Girl and was reborn as Phoenix has been retroactively dubbed by fans "The Phoenix Saga", the storyline of her eventual corruption and death as Dark Phoenix has been termed "The Dark Phoenix Saga". This storyline is one of the most well-known and referenced in mainstream American superhero comics, is considered a classic, including Jean Grey's suicidal sacrifice; when the first trade paperback of "The Dark Phoenix Saga" was published in 1984, Marvel published a 48-page special issue titled Phoenix: The Untold Story.
It contained the original version of Uncanny X-Men #137, the original splash page for Uncanny X-Men #138, transcripts of a roundtable discussion between Shooter, Byrne, editors Jim Salicrup and Louise Jones, inker Terry Austin about the creation of the new Phoenix persona, the development of the story, what led to its eventual change, Claremont and Byrne's plans for Jean Grey had she survived. Claremont revealed that his and Cockrum's motivation for Jean Grey's transformation into Phoenix was to create "the first female cosmic hero"; the two hoped that, like Thor had been integrated into The Avengers lineup, Phoenix would become an effective and immensely powerful member of the X-Men. However, both Salicrup and Byrne had strong feelings against how powerful Phoenix had become, feeling that she drew too much focus in the book. Byrne worked with Claremont to remove Phoenix from the storyline by removing her powers. However, Byrne's decision to have Dark Phoenix destroy an inhabited planetary system in Uncanny X-Men #135, coupled with the planned ending to the story arc, worried then-Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter, who felt that allowing Jean to live at the conclusion of the story was both morally unacceptable and an unsatisfying ending from a storytelling point of view.
Shooter publicly laid out his reasoning in the 1984 roundtable: I think, I've said this many times, that having a character destroy an inhabited world with billions of people, wipe out a starship and then—well, you know, having the powers removed and being let go on Earth. It seems to me that that's the same as capturing Hitler alive and letting him go live on Long Island. Now, I don't think. I think a lot of people would come to his door with machine guns... One of the creative team's questions that affected the story's conclusion was whether the Phoenix's personality and descent into madness and evil were inherent to Jean Grey or if the Phoenix was itself an entity possessing her; the relationship between Jean Grey and the Phoenix would continue to be subject to different interpretations and explanations by writers and edi
Age of Apocalypse
Age of Apocalypse is a 1995–96 comic book crossover storyline published in the X-Men franchise of books by Marvel Comics. The Age of Apocalypse replaced the universe of Earth-616 and had ramifications in the main Marvel Comics universe when the original timeline was restored, it was retconned as having occurred in the alternate universe of Earth-295. During the entirety of the Age of Apocalypse event the published X-Men comics were replaced by new X-Men related mini series, focusing on various teams and individuals in the Age of Apocalypse world including X-Calibre and the X-Ternals, Generation Next, Astonishing X-Men, Amazing X-Men, Weapon X, Factor X, X-Man and X-Universe; the event was bookended by X-Men Alpha and X-Men Omega. The storyline starts with Legion, a psychotic mutant who traveled back in time to kill Magneto before he can commit various crimes against humanity. Legion accidentally kills Professor Charles Xavier, his father, leading to a major change in the timeline; the death of Professor Xavier leads Apocalypse to attack 10 years sooner than he did in the original timeline, taking control of Earth and altering everything that happened from that point forward.
Apocalypse is opposed including a group led by Magneto. The group manages to send the mutant Bishop back in time to prevent the murder of Professor Xavier, undoing the entire timeline. In 2005, Marvel published an Age of Apocalypse one-shot and miniseries to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the fan favorite event; the book looks at what happened after the end of the original story, revealing that the timeline became in fact an alternate earth, designated "Earth-295". The "Dark Angel Saga" in 2011 revisited the alternate reality once more, leading to an Age of Apocalypse ongoing series launched in 2012 that ran for 14 issues; the world was featured as part of Marvel's 2015 Secret Wars. Legion, a psychotic mutant on Earth and son of Professor Charles Xavier, travels back in time with the intention of killing Magneto. However, Legion travels to a time when Xavier are still friends; as Xavier dies trying to protect Magneto, Legion vanishes, a new timeline is created. The only person aware of how history has changed is Bishop, a time traveling mutant who followed Legion.
Because of Xavier's sacrifice, Magneto comes to believe in his late friend's dream of a peaceful coexistence between humans and mutants. Apocalypse, an immortal mutant villain, was monitoring the fight, he chooses this moment as the perfect time to begin his world conquest, which did not happen in the mainstream Marvel universe for another ten years. Magneto assembles the X-Men. Despite the X-Men's resistance, Apocalypse conquers all of North America and mutants are considered the ruling class. Apocalypse initiates. To further ensure that no one is left to challenge him or undo the circumstances that led to his reign, he has everyone with telepathic or chronal abilities hunted down. Meanwhile, the changes in the timeline result in a destructive crystallization wave created by the M'Kraan Crystal. X-Men: Alpha was published in January, 1995, launched the "Age of Apocalypse" crossover story, it shows readers how many popular X-Men characters have changed in this new world. Bishop is reunited with Magneto while retaining fragmented memories of the true timeline.
Magneto assigns their allies different missions. Some are to gather the forces needed to change history while others will continue resisting Apocalypse; the story continues in eight interlocking miniseries, each focusing on a different team of X-Men or other mutant forces. Each miniseries temporarily replaced one of the monthly X-Men titles being published at the time. X-Calibre is a team built around Nightcrawler, sent by Magneto to locate Destiny, a mutant capable of seeing into the future, so that she can verify Bishop's story. Nightcrawler must travel to a secret refuge where mutants and humans live together in peace. Along his journey, he encounters John Proudstar, the monk Cain, the pirate Callisto, his mother Mystique; the chief antagonists for Nightcrawler's journey consist of the Pale Riders, a trio of Apocalypse's servants made up of Moonstar, Dead Man Wade and the Shadow King. Nightcrawler's team consists of Mystique and Damask, who joins Nightcrawler after realizing the beauty Avalon has to offer.
The X-Calibre series gets its name from an in-joke between Nightcrawler and his mother, because of the caliber of bullets she uses stamped with an X. This title replaced Excalibur. Gambit's X-Ternals consist of Sunspot, Strong Guy, Lila Cheney, they are sent deep into space using Lila's teleportation in order to retrieve a shard of the M'Kraan Crystal, essential to the verification of Bishop's alternate reality. The X-Ternals are pursued by Rictor, a henchman of Apocalypse desperate to earn his master's praise by killing Gambit. Upon reaching Shi'ar space, the X-ternals fight the Imperial Guard in order to retrieve the crystal shard. Upon their return to Earth, Strong Guy betrays the team, not only stealing the M'Kraan Crystal, but kidnapping Magneto's son, Charles; this title replaced X-Force. Generation Next consists of a young group of mutant students trained by the husband and wife team of Colossus and Shadowcat, they consist of Chamber, Mondo, Vincente Cimetta, Skin. They are sent by Magneto into the Seattle Core to rescue Colossus' sister, the last surviving transdimensional teleporter.
Illyana is one of Apocalypse's prefects and ruler of the Seattle Core. Mondo finds Illyana and hi
Cyclops (Marvel Comics)
Cyclops is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is a founding member of the X-Men. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in the comic book The X-Men. Cyclops is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, who are born with superhuman abilities. Cyclops can emit powerful beams of energy from his eyes, he can not control the beams without the aid of special eyewear. He is considered the first of the X-Men, a team of mutant heroes who fight for peace and equality between mutants and humans, one of the team's primary leaders. Cyclops is most portrayed as the archetypal hero of traditional American popular culture—the opposite of the tough, anti-authority antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War. One of Marvel's most prominent characters, Cyclops was rated #1 on IGN.com's list of Top 25 X-Men from the past forty years in 2006, the 39th in their 2011 list of Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.
In 2008, Wizard Magazine ranked Cyclops the 106th in their list of the 200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time. In a 2011 poll, readers of Comic Book Resources voted Cyclops as 9th in the ranking of 2011 Top Marvel Characters. James Marsden has portrayed Cyclops in the first three and the seventh X-Men films, while in the 2009 prequel film, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, he is portrayed as a teenager by actor Tim Pocock. In 2016's X-Men: Apocalypse, a younger version of him is portrayed by Tye Sheridan. Sheridan will reprise his role in Dark Phoenix. Sheridan's Cyclops made a cameo in Deadpool 2. Cyclops first appeared in The X-Men #1, he was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, has been a mainstay character of the X-Men series. Lee said that Cyclops and Beast were his two favorite X-Men, elaborating that "I love tortured heroes—and he was tortured because he couldn't control his power." Dubbed "Slim Summers", by The X-Men #3 his name was changed to "Scott", with "Slim" becoming a nickname. Scott Summers is the first of the X-Men recruited by Professor X.
Xavier views Scott as one of his most prized pupils. From time to time, Scott's extreme loyalty to Xavier has cost him dearly in his relationships with others. Dave Cockrum created the Starjammers, including Corsair, convinced X-Men writer Chris Claremont to use the characters for this series. In order to provide a plausible excuse for the Starjammers to make repeat appearances in X-Men, they decided to make Corsair the father of Cyclops. Summers remained a member of the team up through Uncanny X-Men #138. After departing the main cast, he was a recurring character in the series until Uncanny X-Men #201, after which he was featured in the launch of a new series by Marvel; this new series, X-Factor, launched in 1986 and starred the original X-Men team of Cyclops, Marvel Girl, Beast and Angel. Scott stayed with the X-Factor title through X-Factor #70. In October 1991, Summers returns to the X-Men to launch X-Men #1; this series was the second of two X-Men titles and featured Cyclops, Gambit, Psylocke and Beast as Blue team.
Cyclops has been featured in another title launch with the second introduction of a new X-Men series Astonishing X-Men. Astonishing X-Men features Cyclops, Shadowcat, Emma Frost, Beast as a team. Throughout this time, Cyclops continued to make appearances in Uncanny X-Men Marvel has used Cyclops to launch variant series of X-Men titles most notably Ultimate X-Men and New X-Men. Cyclops has appeared in limited series including Adventures of Cyclops & Phoenix, Further Adventures of Cyclops & Phoenix, X-Men: The Asgardian Wars, the second series of Astonishing X-Men, X-Men: The Search for Cyclops, his own self-titled series Cyclops, X-Men Origins: Cyclops #1. In 1991, writer Brian K. Vaughan worked on the self-titled series Cyclops #1–4. In 2000, Joseph Harris wrote the four-issue run titled X-Men: The Search for Cyclops that dealt with Cyclops's return after merging with Apocalypse in the events of the Twelve from Uncanny X-Men #377. During Joss Whedon's run of Astonishing X-Men, Cyclops adopts a new attitude unfamiliar to most accustomed fans.
After Emma Frost's psychic intervention at the mansion, he temporarily loses his powers after owning up to his self-inflicted, traumatic past. This prompted an interview with Whedon in Wizard magazine #182; when asked if Cyclops didn't have his powers any more, Whedon replied: No, he doesn't have his powers. Well, he had a choice to either be out of control or bury them, he can't use them. That's pretty much it, but the thing that would be fun is that, with no powers, he's going to be the best that he's been. That's. Been the team leader and the team washout in terms of popularity, he was defined by Jean so much, I just think that this guy is so interesting in his struggle against mediocrity. When it's all laid on the line, when you find out the thing that's been holding him back from being just a complete bad ass has been himself all his life, that he's been lying to everyone, including himself, about who he is-that should be freeing; the Scott we're going to see is going to be a little bit different.
This guy is either out of control or in control of something we're not used to. I wanted him to be an unabashed tough guy, he is shooting people and turning much into a lead
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w