Sir Graham Berry,Australian colonial politician, was the 11th Premier of Victoria. He was one of the most radical and colourful figures in the politics of colonial Victoria, made the most determined efforts to break the power of the Victorian Legislative Council, the stronghold of the landowning class. Berry was born in Twickenham, near London, where his father, Benjamin Berry, was a licensed victualler, he had a primary education until 11 years old became an apprentice draper. In 1848 he married Harriet Ann Blencowe. In 1852 he migrated to Victoria, went into business as a grocer in Prahran as a general storekeeper in South Yarra, his business skills and Victoria's booming economy soon made him a wealthy man. After his first wife's death he married Rebekah Evans in 1871. At his death, Berry was survived by eight of the children from his first marriage and all seven of the children from his second marriage. In Victoria, Berry, by voracious reading, acquired the education he had missed in England, taught himself economics and philosophy.
But all his life he retained a broad London accent, which many Victorian conservatives found offensive or amusing. In Parliament he once asked the Speaker: "What is now before the'Ouse?" To which the Leader of the Opposition interjected: "An H!" He developed a powerful rhetorical style modelled on that of his hero Gladstone effective in the rough-house of the colonial Parliament or on the hustings. The conservative newspaper The Argus conceded: "His oratory might not be polished: it was not—but it was passionate, it told." Noted for his humour, Berry was a tough and determined politician. Berry was elected to the Legislative Assembly for East Melbourne at a by-election in 1861, as what The Argus called "an extreme liberal." At the general election in the same year he switched to Collingwood famously the most radical electorate in the colony. He was re-elected in 1864, but his criticism of James McCulloch's government during the tariff crisis of 1865 led to his defeat in that year's snap election.
In 1866 Berry moved to Geelong, where he started a newspaper, the Geelong Register, as a rival to the established Geelong Advertiser. Using the paper as a platform, he was elected for Geelong West in February 1869. In 1877 he switched to Geelong, which he represented until February 1886, he was Treasurer in John MacPherson's government in 1870. When Charles Gavan Duffy formed a strong liberal government in June 1871, Berry again became Treasurer, he was a convinced protectionist, steered a bill for increased tariffs through the Parliament. After the conservative interlude of the Francis and Kerferd governments, Berry assumed leadership of the liberals and became Premier and Treasurer in August 1875, but the liberal majority in the Assembly was unreliable, in October the government's budget was defeated and Berry resigned. He was refused, he campaigned across the colony in opposition to the third McCulloch government. At the May 1877 election, with the powerful backing of the Melbourne Age under David Syme, he won a huge liberal majority in the Assembly and returned to office at the head of a radical ministry.
Berry's election manifesto proposed a punitive land tax designed to break up the squatter class's great pastoral properties – about 800 men at this time owned most of Victoria's grazing lands. He advocated a high tariff to foster local manufacturing, which threatened to harm the importing and banking interests, he promised that if the Council, elected on a limited property-based franchise, blocked his program, it would be "dealt with according to its deserts." He described the Council as "a chamber which robs the people of the gold in the soil and the land God gave them." Given that there was no mechanism in the Victorian Constitution to override the Council, this was taken by conservatives to be a threat of revolutionary violence. Berry had no plans for illegal measures, but the Councillors were sufficiently alarmed to pass a modified version of Berry's land tax bill, despite the urgings of the ultra-conservative former Premier Sir Charles Sladen to reject it outright. Berry, next introduced a bill for the payment of members of the Assembly, which the trade unions were demanding so that working class candidates could be elected.
Berry "tacked" the bill to the Appropriation Bill so that Council could not reject it without paralysing the Colony's finances. The Council resented this blackmail and at Sladen's urging declined to pass the bill, laying it aside. With the two Houses deadlocked, Berry embarked on a public campaign of "coercion" against the Council. "We coerce madmen", he said, "We put them into lunatic asylums, never was anything more the act of madmen than the rejection of the Appropriation Bill." To bring matters to a head, on 8 January 1878 Berry's government began to dismiss public servants, starting with police and judges, arguing that without an Appropriation Bill they could not be paid. Berry next brought in a bill to strip the Council of its powers, which the Council of course rejected. For the next two years Berry clung to office while the colony was gripped with class conflict, including huge torchlit processions through Melbourne sponsored by The Age and The Argus – although, there was no violence.
No legislation was passed and the administration ground to a halt as funds ran out. Berry's next tactic was to pass a bill through the Assembly stating that finance bills did not need to be passed by the Council, but would beco
Keith Rupert Murdoch, is an Australian-born American media mogul. Murdoch's father, Sir Keith Murdoch, was a reporter and editor who became a senior executive of The Herald and Weekly Times publishing company, covering all Australian states except New South Wales. After his father's death in 1952, Murdoch declined to join his late father's registered public company and created his own private company, News Limited. In the 1950s and 1960s, Murdoch acquired a number of newspapers in Australia and New Zealand before expanding into the United Kingdom in 1969, taking over the News of the World, followed by The Sun. In 1974, Murdoch moved to New York City, to expand into the U. S. market. In 1981, Murdoch bought The Times, his first British broadsheet and, in 1985, became a naturalized U. S. citizen, giving up his Australian citizenship, to satisfy the legal requirement for U. S. television ownership. In 1986, keen to adopt newer electronic publishing technologies, Murdoch consolidated his UK printing operations in Wapping, causing bitter industrial disputes.
His holding company News Corporation acquired Twentieth Century Fox, HarperCollins, The Wall Street Journal. Murdoch formed the British broadcaster BSkyB in 1990 and, during the 1990s, expanded into Asian networks and South American television. By 2000, Murdoch's News Corporation owned over 800 companies in more than 50 countries, with a net worth of over $5 billion. In July 2011, Murdoch faced allegations that his companies, including the News of the World, owned by News Corporation, had been hacking the phones of celebrities and public citizens. Murdoch faced police and government investigations into bribery and corruption by the British government and FBI investigations in the U. S. On 21 July 2012, Murdoch resigned as a director of News International. On 1 July 2015, Murdoch left his post as CEO of 21st Century Fox; however and his family would continue to own both 21st Century Fox and News Corp through the Murdoch Family Trust. In July 2016, after the resignation of Roger Ailes due to accusations of sexual harassment, Murdoch was named the acting CEO of Fox News.
Keith Rupert Murdoch was born on 11 March 1931 in Melbourne, Australia, the son of Sir Keith Murdoch and Dame Elisabeth Murdoch. He is of English and Scottish ancestry. Murdoch's parents were born in Melbourne. Keith Murdoch was a war correspondent and a regional newspaper magnate owning two newspapers in Adelaide, South Australia, a radio station in a faraway mining town, chairman of the powerful Herald and Weekly Times group. In life, Keith Rupert chose to go by his second name, the first name of his maternal grandfather. Keith Murdoch the elder asked to meet with his future wife after seeing her debutante photograph in one of his own newspapers and they married in 1928, when she was aged 19 and he was 23 years older. In addition to Rupert, the couple had three daughters: Janet Calvert-Jones, Anne Kantor and Helen Handbury. Murdoch attended Geelong Grammar School, where he was co-editor of the school's official journal The Corian and editor of the student journal If Revived, he took his school's cricket team to the National Junior Finals.
He worked part-time at the Melbourne Herald and was groomed by his father to take over the family business. Murdoch studied Philosophy and Economics at Worcester College, Oxford in England, where he kept a bust of Lenin in his rooms and came to be known as "Red Rupert", he was a member of the Oxford University Labour Party, stood for Secretary of the Labour Club and managed Oxford Student Publications Limited, the publishing house of Cherwell. After his father's death from cancer in 1952, his mother Elisabeth did charity work as life governor of the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne and established the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. At the age of 102, she had 74 descendants. Murdoch completed an MA before working as a sub-editor with the Daily Express for two years. Following his father's death, when he was 21, Murdoch returned from Oxford to take charge of what was left of the family business. After liquidation of his father's Herald stake to pay taxes, what was left was News Limited, established in 1923.
Rupert Murdoch turned The News, its main asset, into a major success. He began to direct his attention to acquisition and expansion, buying the troubled Sunday Times in Perth, Western Australia and over the next few years acquiring suburban and provincial newspapers in New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, including the Sydney afternoon tabloid, The Daily Mirror; the Economist describes Murdoch as "inventing the modern tabloid", as he developed a pattern for his newspapers, increasing sports and scandal coverage and adopting eye-catching headlines. Murdoch's first foray outside Australia involved the purchase of a controlling interest in the New Zealand daily The Dominion. In January 1964, while touring New Zealand with friends in a rented Morris Minor after sailing across the Tasman, Murdoch read of a takeover bid for the Wellington paper by the British-based Canadian newspaper magnate, Lord Thomson of Fleet. On the spur of the moment, he launched a counter-bid. A four-way battle for control ensued in which the 32-year-old Murdoch was successful.
In 1964, Murdoch launched The Australian, Australia's first national daily newspaper, based first in Canberra and in Sydney. In 1972, Murdoch acquired the Sydney morning tabloid The Daily Telegraph from Australian media mogul Sir Frank Packer, who regretted selling it to him. In 1984, Murdoch was appointed Com
Alfred Deakin was an Australian politician who served as the second Prime Minister of Australia, in office for three separate terms – 1903 to 1904, 1905 to 1908, 1909 to 1910. Before entering office, he was a leader of the movement for Australian federation. Deakin was born in Melbourne, attended the University of Melbourne before training as a barrister, he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1879, aged 22, became a government minister in 1883. Deakin was a major contributor to the establishment of liberal reforms in the colony, including pro-worker industrial reforms, he played a major part in developing irrigation in Australia. Throughout the 1890s Deakin was a participant in conferences of representatives of the Australian colonies that were established to draft a constitution for the proposed federation, he played an important role in ensuring that the draft was liberal and democratic and in achieving compromises to enable its eventual success. Between conferences, he worked to popularise the concept of federation and campaigned for its acceptance in colonial referenda.
He fought hard to ensure acceptance of the proposed constitution by the Government of the United Kingdom. After Federation, Deakin was Attorney-General in the Barton Government from 1901 to 1903, he was one of the chief architects of the White Australia policy, overseeing the drafting of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. As Prime Minister, Deakin completed a significant legislative program that makes him, with Labor's Andrew Fisher, the founder of an effective Commonwealth government, he expanded the High Court, provided major funding for the purchase of ships, leading to the establishment of the Royal Australian Navy as a significant force under the Fisher government, established Australian control of Papua. Confronted by the rising Australian Labor Party in 1909, he merged his Protectionist Party with Joseph Cook's Anti-Socialist Party to create the Commonwealth Liberal Party, the main ancestor of the modern Liberal Party of Australia; the Deakin-led Liberal Party government lost to Fisher Labor at the 1910 election, which saw the first time a federal political party had been elected with a majority in either house in Federal Parliament.
Deakin resigned from Parliament prior to the 1913 election, with Joseph Cook winning the Liberal Party leadership ballot. Deakin was born on 3 August 1856 in his parents' cottage at 90 George Street, Melbourne, Victoria, he was of the younger of two children born to Sarah and William Deakin. His paternal grandfather John Deakin was born in Staffordshire, worked in the leather industry as a currier before becoming an excise officer, he married the daughter of Buckinghamshire farmer, their son – Deakin's father – was born in Towcester, Northamptonshire. Deakin's mother was born in Llanarth, the daughter and granddaughter of farmers. William Deakin became a travelling salesman, he met his future wife while travelling through Abergavenny, they married at Grosmont in 1849. Britain was experiencing an economic depression associated with the Panic of 1847, they decided to immigrate to Australia; the Deakins arrived in Adelaide, South Australia, in March 1850. Their first child Catherine was born in July 1850, at which point her father was working as a storekeeper and clerk.
The family moved to Melbourne as a result of the Victorian gold rush, which began the following year. William Deakin struggled to find steady employment, but became involved with the carrying and coaching trade, transporting people and goods. By the early 1870s, he was working with Cobb & Co. as a manager and accountant, earning a salary that allowed he and his family to maintain a comfortable middle-class lifestyle. Deakin spent his early years in Fitzroy lived in Emerald Hill before his family settled in South Yarra in about 1863. Rather than build an new house, his father transported a wooden cottage from Fitzroy to South Yarra and had it brick-nogged, his parents and sister would live there for the rest of their lives. At the age of four, Deakin was sent to join his ten-year-old sister in Kyneton, a small country town where she was attending a girls' boarding school run by the Thompson sisters, he was the only male pupil at the school. It was unusual for children to be sent away at such a young age, his biographer Judith Brett has speculated that their mother may have been suffering from a bout of depression or recovering from a stillbirth.
The Thompson sisters moved their school to Melbourne, which Deakin continued to attend until the age of seven. In early 1864, he was enrolled at Melbourne Grammar School as a day-boy, he attended Melbourne Grammar for eight years, where he was a good student without excelling academically. He recalled that he had been "an incessantly restless, random and at times studiously mischievous pupil", regretted that he had not been made to work harder. In 1871, aged 15, Deakin passed the matriculation exam for the University of Melbourne, he formed an ambition to become a barrister, began attending evening classes the following year. He could not afford to study full-time, working during the day as private tutor. At the time, the Victorian Bar did not require a complete university degree for admission, only passing grades in relevant legal subjects. Deakin was admitted to the bar in September 1877, aged 21, without graduating from university. Accord
Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties support protectionism, the opposite of free trade. Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization multilateral trade agreements. Free trade is additionally exemplified by the European Economic Area and the Mercosur which have established open markets. However, most governments still impose some protectionist policies that are intended to support local employment, such as applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports. Governments may restrict free trade to limit exports of natural resources. Other barriers that may hinder trade include import quotas and non-tariff barriers, such as regulatory legislation. There is a broad consensus among economists that protectionism has a negative effect on economic growth and economic welfare while free trade and the reduction of trade barriers has a positive effect on economic growth.
However, liberalization of trade can cause significant and unequally distributed losses, the economic dislocation of workers in import-competing sectors. Free trade policies may promote the following features: Trade of goods without taxes or other trade barriers. Trade in services without taxes or other trade barriers; the absence of "trade-distorting" policies that give some firms, households, or factors of production an advantage over others. Unregulated access to markets. Unregulated access to market information. Inability of firms to distort markets through government-imposed monopoly or oligopoly power. Trade agreements which encourage free trade. Two simple ways to understand the proposed benefits of free trade are through David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage and by analyzing the impact of a tariff or import quota. An economic analysis using the law of supply and demand and the economic effects of a tax can be used to show the theoretical benefits and disadvantages of free trade.
Most economists would recommend that developing nations should set their tariff rates quite low, but the economist Ha-Joon Chang, a proponent of industrial policy, believes higher levels may be justified in developing nations because the productivity gap between them and developed nations today is much higher than what developed nations faced when they were at a similar level of technological development. Underdeveloped nations today, Chang believes, are weak players in a much more competitive system. Counterarguments to Chang's point of view are that the developing countries are able to adopt technologies from abroad whereas developed nations had to create new technologies themselves and that developing countries can sell to export markets far richer than any that existed in the 19th century. If the chief justification for a tariff is to stimulate infant industries, it must be high enough to allow domestic manufactured goods to compete with imported goods in order to be successful; this theory, known as import substitution industrialization, is considered ineffective for developing nations.
The chart at the right analyzes the effect of the imposition of an import tariff on some imaginary good. Prior to the tariff, the price of the good in the world market is Pworld; the tariff increases the domestic price to Ptariff. The higher price causes domestic production to increase from QS1 to QS2 and causes domestic consumption to decline from QC1 to QC2; this has three main effects on societal welfare. Consumers are made worse off. Producers are better off; the government has additional tax revenue. However, the loss to consumers is greater than the gains by the government; the magnitude of this societal loss is shown by the two pink triangles. Removing the tariff and having free trade would be a net gain for society. An identical analysis of this tariff from the perspective of a net producing country yields parallel results. From that country's perspective, the tariff leaves producers worse off and consumers better off, but the net loss to producers is larger than the benefit to consumers. Under similar analysis, export tariffs, import quotas and export quotas all yield nearly identical results.
Sometimes consumers are better off and producers worse off and sometimes consumers are worse off and producers are better off, but the imposition of trade restrictions causes a net loss to society because the losses from trade restrictions are larger than the gains from trade restrictions. Free trade creates winners and losers, but theory and empirical evidence show that the size of the winnings from free trade are larger than the losses. According to mainstream economics theory, the selective application of free trade agreements to some countries and tariffs on others can lead to economic inefficiency through the process of trade diversion, it is economically efficient for a good to be produced by the country, the lowest cost producer, but this does not always take place if a high cost producer has a free trade agreement while the low cost producer faces a high tariff. Applying free trade to the high cost producer and not the low cost producer as well can lead to trade diversion and a net economic loss.
This is why many economists place such high importance on negotiations for global tar
Sir Henry Edward Bolte GCMG was an Australian politician. He was the longest-serving Premier of Victoria. Henry Bolte was born in the son of a publican of German descent, he was to spend the first 24 years of his life in the small Western District town of Skipton. He was educated at Skipton Primary School and Ballarat Grammar School: he was the last Victorian Premier not to attend a university. After working in various manual jobs he married Edith Elder in 1934 and bought a small farm at Bamganie near Meredith, where he lived for the rest of his life, running sheep and cattle. In 1940 Bolte joined the Australian Army and served as a sergeant with a training regiment until 1945. After the war he became active in the newly formed Liberal Party. At the 1945 election he stood unsuccessfully for the seat of Hampden in the Victorian Legislative Assembly, but in 1947 he stood again and was elected. Victorian politics was volatile at this time, with a succession of weak short-term governments; the electoral system was malapportioned in favour of rural areas, which gave the Liberals' junior partner, the Country Party disproportionate power.
As a rural Liberal, Bolte despised the Country Party nearly as much as the Labor Party. In April 1935 Albert Dunstan unexpectedly withdrew support for the Premier, Stanley Argyle, breaking the coalition agreement and forming a minority Country Party government, which Labor supported in return for some policy concessions; when Bolte was elected to Parliament in 1947 the Liberal leader was Thomas Hollway, who came from Ballarat but was somewhat less conservative than Bolte. In 1951 Hollway tried to reform the electoral system, which caused a split in the Liberal Party and his replacement by Trevor Oldham, with Bolte as Deputy Leader; when Oldham was killed in an air crash on the way to the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953, Bolte succeeded him. The Labor Party under John Cain had come to power at the 1952 elections, but in 1955 the party suffered a split over the issue of communist influence in the trade unions. With Cain's government reeling, Bolte tabled a no-confidence motion on 19 April; the anti-communist Catholic MPs, who had organised as the Australian Labor Party, crossed the floor to support the no-confidence motion, bringing Cain down.
Due in large part to Labor directing its second preferences to the Liberals, Bolte won the ensuing election with a huge majority, routing both Labor and the Country Party. There was little hint at the time that he would reverse the pattern of unstable government in Victoria. However, he was able to form the first stable non-Labor government in Victoria for many years. Bolte was a rough-hewn politician who liked to be seen as a simple farmer, but he had a shrewd political mind. With the help of the expelled faction of the Labor Party, which became the Democratic Labor Party, Bolte was able to consolidate his position. Due in part to the DLP continuing to direct its preferences to the Liberals at elections, Bolte was reelected six times, his populist attacks on the trade unions, intellectuals and the press won him a large following. It peaked at the 1967 election. A portrait of Bolte by William Dargie hangs in Queens Hall at Parliament House Victoria. Bolte used state debt to provide a wide range of state infrastructure and he was successful at winning overseas investment for the state.
Some of his large projects were increased coal production and power generation in the Latrobe Valley, new offshore oil and gas fields in Gippsland, the West Gate Bridge over the lower Yarra River, a new international airport for Melbourne at Tullamarine and two new universities. Bolte was re-elected at the 1958, 1961 and 1964 state elections, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in the New Year's Day honours list of 1966. In the New Year's Day honours list of 1972 he was advanced to the rank of Knight Grand Cross, his wife, Lady Edith Lilian Bolte, known as Jill Bolte, was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1972 for "Public service to Victoria". Bolte was a proponent of using capital punishment as a deterrent against violent crime. Many believed he was foiled when Robert Peter Tait who had murdered Ada Hall, an elderly widow, at the Hawthorn vicarage where she lived with her son and, sentenced to hang for the crime, was granted an eleventh-hour reprieve in 1962 after the High Court had found him insane.
Justice Starke subscribed to the substitute Tait theory, Starke had defended Tait but on was the sentencing judge in the R v Ryan & Walker 1966. Starke said After Bolte was denied with Tait he waited for the next cab off the ranks, poor Ryan happened to be the next cab! In 1967, Bolte would not be denied, they were recaptured, Ryan was sentenced to death for murder. Bolte had the power to recommend clemency, but declined to exercise it, arguing that the death penalty was a necessary deterrent for crime against government officials and law enforcement officers. All calls for clemency and protests were to no avail. Bolte was determined. Ryan was hanged in February 1967. Bolte had said "If I thought the law was wrong I would change it". Bolte was asked by a reporter at his daily press conference on the day of the hanging what he wa
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states. It is a form of regulation of foreign trade and a policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or protect domestic industry; the tariff is used to protect infant industries and to allow import substitution industrialization. Paul Bairoch argues that until the early 1960s, developed countries' international trade was characterized by an era of protectionism rather than a "golden era" of free trade, that in fact, periods of economic growth in the Western world were linked to protectionist policy, he explained that during the 19th century, European countries that were subject to higher tariffs had experienced faster growth. According to Paul Bairoch, the industrialized world of 1913 is similar to that of 1815: "An ocean of protectionism surrounding a few liberal islets", with the exception of a short free trade interlude in Europe between 1860 and 1892. Only two islands of liberalism emerged in the developed part: the Netherlands.
On the other hand, "the Third World was an ocean of liberalism", with Western countries imposing so-called "unequal" treaties on colonized and politically independent countries that required the lowering of customs barriers. Bairoch write that the "Third World" has in fact become underdeveloped because of the imposition of free trade while North America and Western Europe have been able to develop because they have rejected trade liberalism in their history, he notes that:in history, free trade is the exception and protectionism the rule. Trade liberalisation in the United Kingdom from 1846 onwards was the first example of large-scale liberalisation after the Industrial Revolution and was initiated by the dominant economy. However, it is the only country where over a specific period, free trade coincided with an increase in growth. Bairoch explains this by the fact that the country had a significant lead over the other countries in 1846, given that the country had emerged from at least half a century of protectionism.
It was in 1860 that free trade made a real breakthrough in continental Europe with the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty signed by Napoleon III. The agreement was considered in France as a coup d'état, since the parliament was opposed to it, the agreement was established by means of secret negotiations between Napoleon Ill's envoy Michel Chevalier and Britain's Richard Cobden; that agreement was the first of a series which Britain would establish with several European countries, known as the "Cobden agreements": the Franco-Belgian treaty was signed in 1861 and between 1861 and 1866 all European countries joined the Cobden treaty. Only a few countries on the continent had adopted a liberal trade policy before 1860: the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland and Belgium; the decades that followed were not a period of growth and prosperity, but on the contrary they were likened to "the Great Depression". Paul Bairoch notes in Myths and Paradoxes of Economic History that the Great European Depression began around 1870-1872 at the height of free trade in Europe between 1866 and 1877 and ended with the return to protectionism around 1892: The important point is not only that the crisis started at the height of free trade, but that it ended around 1892-1894, just as the return to protectionism became effective in continental EuropeIt is certain that free trade coincided with the depression for which it was the cause, while protectionism was at the origin of growth and development in most of the current developed countrie.
In Europe, the slowdown in GNP growth was the result of the decline in agricultural production growth. This agricultural crisis in continental Europe can be explained exclusively by the influx of foreign cereals, which became possible thanks to the abolition of tariff protection on cereals in continental Europe between 1866 and 1872, it was the farmers who suffered because cheap imports led to the collapse of agricultural commodity prices. But it affected overall demand for industrial goods and the construction sector. In France, an agrarian economy, wheat imports, which reached 0.3% of national production in 1851/1860, rose to 19% in 1888/1892. In Belgium, this percentage rose from 6% around 1850 to more than 100% around 1890. During the 1870s and 1880s, the United States was Europe's largest supplier of cereals. There was an increasing trade imbalance between Europe and the United States until the 1900s, given that the United States had higher tariffs. In the early 1860s, Europe and the United States pursued different trade policies.
The 1860s were a period of growing protectionism in the United States, while the European free trade phase lasted from 1860 to 1892. The tariff average rate on imports of manufactured goods was in 1875 from 40% to 50% in the United States against 9% to 12% in continental Europe at the height of free trade, it experienced a period of strong growth. Around 1870, Europe's trade deficit with America represented 5% to 6% of the region's imports, it reached 32% in 1890 and 59% around 1900. Germany was the first major European country to change its trade policy by adopting a new tariff in July 1879; this new German tariff meant the end of the period of free trade on the continent. Thus, the period 1879-1892 saw the gradual return of protectionism
Web analytics is the measurement, collection and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. However, Web analytics is not just a process for measuring web traffic but can be used as a tool for business and market research, to assess and improve the effectiveness of a website. Web analytics applications can help companies measure the results of traditional print or broadcast advertising campaigns, it helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views, it helps gauge traffic and popularity trends, useful for market research. Most web analytics processes come down to four essential stages or steps, which are: Collection of data: This stage is the collection of the basic, elementary data; these data are counts of things. The objective of this stage is to gather the data. Processing of data into information: This stage take counts and make them ratios, although there still may be some counts.
The objective of this stage is to take the data and conform it into information metrics. Developing KPI: This stage focuses on using the ratios and infusing them with business strategies, referred to as key performance indicators. Many times, KPIs deal with conversion aspects, but not always, it depends on the organization. Formulating online strategy: This stage is concerned with the online goals and standards for the organization or business; these strategies are related to making money, saving money, or increasing marketshare. Another essential function developed by the analysts for the optimization of the websites are the experiments Experiments and testings: A/B testing is a controlled experiment with two variants, in online settings, such as web development; the goal of A/B testing is to identify changes to web pages that increase or maximize a statistically tested result of interest. Each stage can impact the stage preceding or following it. So, sometimes the data, available for collection impacts the online strategy.
Other times, the online strategy affects. There are at least two categories of web analytics. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website, it includes the measurement of a website's potential audience, share of voice, buzz, happening on the Internet as a whole. On-site web analytics, the more common of the two, measure a visitor's behavior once on your website; this includes its conversions. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context; this data is compared against key performance indicators for performance and is used to improve a website or marketing campaign's audience response. Google Analytics and Adobe Analytics are the most used on-site web analytics service. Web analytics has been used to refer to on-site visitor measurement. However, this meaning has become blurred because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. Many different vendors provide services. There are two main technical ways of collecting the data.
External data: can be combined with on-site data to help augment the website behavior data described above and interpret web usage. For example, IP addresses are associated with Geographic regions and internet service providers, e-mail open and click-through rates, direct mail campaign data and lead history, or other data types as needed. Web servers record some of their transactions in a log file, it was soon realized that these log files could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. Thus arose web log analysis software. In the early 1990s, website statistics consisted of counting the number of client requests made to the web server; this was a reasonable method since each website consisted of a single HTML file. However, with the introduction of images in HTML, websites that spanned multiple HTML files, this count became less useful; the first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid-1990s to gauge more the amount of human activity on web servers