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The Age of Reason

The Age of Reason. It follows in the tradition of 18th-century British deism, challenges institutionalized religion and the legitimacy of the Bible, it was published in three parts in 1794, 1795, 1807. It was a best-seller in the United States. British audiences, fearing increased political radicalism as a result of the French Revolution, received it with more hostility; the Age of Reason presents common deistic arguments. Paine advocates reason in the place of revelation, leading him to reject miracles and to view the Bible as an ordinary piece of literature, rather than a divinely-inspired text, it argues for the existence of a creator-god. Most of Paine's arguments had long been available to the educated elite, but by presenting them in an engaging and irreverent style, he made deism appealing and accessible to the masses. Distributed as unbound pamphlets, the book was cheap, putting it within the reach of a large number of buyers. Fearing the spread of what it viewed as potentially-revolutionary ideas, the British government prosecuted printers and booksellers who tried to publish and distribute it.

Paine's work inspired and guided many free thinkers. Paine's book followed in the tradition of early 18th-century British deism; those deists, while maintaining individual positions, still shared several sets of assumptions and arguments that Paine articulated in The Age of Reason. The most important position that united the early deists was their call for "free rational inquiry" into all subjects religion. Saying that early Christianity was founded on freedom of conscience, they demanded religious toleration and an end to religious persecution, they demanded that debate rest on reason and rationality. Deists embraced a Newtonian worldview and believed that all things in the universe God, must obey the laws of nature. Without a concept of natural law, the deists argued, explanations of the workings of nature would descend into irrationality; this belief in natural law drove their skepticism of miracles. Because miracles had to be observed to be validated, deists rejected the accounts laid out in the Bible of God's miracles and argued that such evidence was neither sufficient nor necessary to prove the existence of God.

Along these lines, deistic writings insisted that God, as the first cause or prime mover, had created and designed the universe with natural laws as part of his plan. They held that God does not alter his plan by suspending natural laws to intervene in human affairs. Deists rejected the claim that there was only one revealed religious truth or "one true faith". Religion had to be "simple, apparent and universal" if it was to be the logical product of a benevolent God. They, distinguished between "revealed religions", which they rejected, such as Christianity, "natural religion", a set of universal beliefs derived from the natural world that demonstrated God's existence. While some deists accepted revelation, most argued that revelation's restriction to small groups or a single person limited its explanatory power. Moreover, many found the Christian revelations in particular to be irreconcilable. According to those writers, revelation could reinforce the evidence for God's existence apparent in the natural world but more led to superstition among the masses.

Most deists argued that priests had deliberately corrupted Christianity for their own gain by promoting the acceptance of miracles, unnecessary rituals, illogical and dangerous doctrines. The worst of the doctrines was original sin. By convincing people that they required a priest's help to overcome their innate sinfulness, deists argued, religious leaders had enslaved the human population. Deists therefore viewed themselves as intellectual liberators. By the time Part I of The Age of Reason was published in 1794, many British and French citizens had become disillusioned by the French Revolution; the Reign of Terror had begun, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had been tried and executed and Britain was at war with France. The few British radicals who still supported the French revolution and its ideals were viewed with deep suspicion by their countrymen; the Age of Reason belongs to the more radical, stage of the British political reform movement, which embraced republicanism and sometimes atheism and was exemplified by such texts as William Godwin's Political Justice.

By the middle of the decade, the moderate voices had disappeared: Richard Price, the Dissenting minister whose sermon on political liberty had prompted Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France, had died in 1791, Joseph Priestley had been forced to flee to America after a Church–and–King mob burned down his home and church. The conservative government, headed by William Pitt, responded to the increasing radicalization by prosecuting several reformers for seditious libel and treason in the famous 1794 Treason Trials. Following the trials and an attack on George III, conservatives were successful in passing the Seditious Meetings Act and the Treasonable Practices Act; the 1795 Acts prohibited freedom of assembly for groups such as the radical London Corresponding Society and encouraged

Big Van Vader

Leon Allen White, better known by his ring names Big Van Vader or Vader, was an American professional wrestler and professional football player. Throughout his career, he performed for New Japan Pro-Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation, All Japan Pro Wrestling during the 1990s and 2000s. According to CBS Sports, White is "widely regarded as one of the greatest super-heavyweight pro wrestlers of all time". White performed as a monstrous wrestler capable of aerial maneuvers: his diving moonsault was voted the "Best Wrestling Maneuver" of 1993 by Wrestling Observer Newsletter readers. Among other accolades in WCW and Japan, he won the IWGP Heavyweight Championship and the WCW World Heavyweight Championship three times each, the Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship twice, the WCW United States Heavyweight Championship once, won the battle royal main event of the 1993 Battlebowl pay-per-view. Vader was inducted into the Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame in 1996.

White was a nationally ranked center, recruited by forty colleges. He played offensive line at the University of Colorado, where he was a second-team All-American for the Buffaloes in 1977, he earned a business administration degree. In the 1978 NFL Draft, White was drafted as a center by the Los Angeles Rams with the 24th pick of the 3rd Round. During White's first season—which bought them to the Super Bowl and earned White an NFC championship ring—and he was put on the injured reserve list, retired due to a ruptured patella. While working out at a gym, White was spotted by a man who remembered him from his college football days who suggested he look into professional wrestling. Trained by Brad Rheingans, White got his first national exposure in the American Wrestling Association, he went by the moniker Baby Bull, changed to Bull Power. White honed his skills during this time, his ring work improved to the point that he was booked in a match with Stan Hansen for the AWA World Heavyweight Championship, where he was defeated.

In May 1986, White went to Europe to compete for Otto Wanz and his promotion, Catch Wrestling Association, touring Austria and Germany, using the name Bull Power. That summer, he took part in Austria, he made it before losing to Klaus Wallas. On March 22, 1987, he won his first championship, the CWA World Heavyweight Championship, defeating Otto Wanz in Denver, ending Wanz's reign of nearly nine years in its only title change in the United States, he held onto the title for nearly four months, before losing to back to Wanz on July 11 in Graz, Austria. In December 1987, he participated in the Bremen Catch Cup, in Germany, he defeated Rambo in the finals. In 1989, Bull Power returned to the CWA, to challenge Otto Wanz for the CWA World Heavyweight Championship. On August 21 in Vienna, Austria, he defeated Wanz to win his second CWA World title, he held onto the title for a little over four months before losing it back to Wanz in Bremen, Germany, on December 22. A year Otto Wanz retired and the CWA World title was held up.

Bull Power defeated Rambo to win the vacant title for the final time. He held to the title for over six months, before losing it to Rambo in Graz, Austria on July 6, 1991. Five months he defeated Tatsumi Fujinami to become the inaugural CWA Intercontinental Heavyweight Champion, he vacated the title in 1992 after signing with World Championship Wrestling. Although signed to All Japan Pro Wrestling, AJPW owner Giant Baba traded White's contract over to New Japan Pro-Wrestling in 1987 after consideration. Upon joining NJPW, White was given the ring name Big Van Vader and began to wear a black wrestling mask, his new identity was based on a strong warrior of the same name from Japanese folklore. He was introduced as the crown jewel of the Takeshi Puroresu Gundan stable, managed by Takeshi Kitano. Vader challenged Antonio Inoki, who had defeated Riki Choshu, defeated the worn-down Inoki; the pro-Inoki audience rioted, resulting in NJPW being banned from its home arena. The ban remained in effect until 1989, when NJPW did their first show back in Sumo Hall on February 22.

After winning the final match of an eight-man tournament against Shinya Hashimoto at Battle Satellite in Tokyo Dome, Vader was declared the new IWGP Heavyweight Champion. He was the first gaijin wrestler to hold the title. On May 25, one month after being crowned champion, Vader lost the title to Russian suplex master Salman Hashimikov. Hashimikov dropped the title to Vader's old rival, Riki Choshu, on July 12. On August 10, Vader defeated Choshu to become a two-time IWGP Heavyweight Champion. On February 10, 1990, Vader faced Stan Hansen at an AJPW versus NJPW supercard show called Super Fight In Tokyo Dome. Before Vader entered the ring, Hansen accidentally broke Vader's nose with the bullrope Hansen carried to the ring for his matches. During an exchange of stiff punches, Hansen unintentionally poked Vader's left eye with his thumb during their brawl, which caused the eye to pop out of its socket. After removing his mask, pushing the eye back into its socket and holding it in place with his eyelid, Vader continued wrestling Hansen until the match was rendered a no contest.

As a result of the injury, Vader required a metal plate to be surgically placed under his eye. Vader's success garnered the attention of World Championship Wrestling, who convinced him to work for them while still the IWGP Heavyweight Champion and an active competitor in NJPW. In January 1991, Vader defeated Tatsumi Fujinami to earn himself

George Bolton (banker)

Sir George Lewis French Bolton was a British banker, noted for his expertise in the foreign exchange market and as a leading influence on the rebirth of London after the Second World War. He served as director of the Bank of England, chairman for the Bank of London and South America and executive director of the International Monetary Fund, he twice served as High Sheriff of the County of London. Bolton was born in Lower Clapton, London in 1900, the son of William Bolton, a shipping clerk, Beatrice, he went to school at Leyton County High school in Waltham Forest. At age 16, he joined the London branch of the Société Générale de Paris to be trained as an exchange dealer. In 1920, he joined the merchant banking firm of Helbert, Wagg & Co. and learned the trade in London and Paris. At Helbert, Wegg, & Co. Bolton managed a successful foreign exchange dealing department. After the Bank of England had abandoned the gold standard in 1931, the bank sought out Bolton for his expertise in this industry.

In 1933, Bolton joined the Bank of England, where he was responsible for the market management of sterling exchange rate, using the resources of the Exchange Equalisation Account created by Neville Chamberlain the previous year. During the late 1930s, Bolton was involved with classified preparations for a structure of wartime exchange control plans, which were implemented when the war broke out in 1939. From 1941 to 1948, Bolton served as an adviser to the Bank of England's Board of Governors on policies of development of the sterling area, in addition to the technical apparatus of foreign exchange control. In 1948, he was named Executive Director of the Bank of England. From 1946 to 1952, Bolton was the UK's executive director of the International Monetary Fund and Alternate Governor from 1952 to 1957, he served as director of the Bank for International Settlements. In 1957, he became chairman of the Bank of London and South America, staying in that role until he retired in 1970. After his retirement, he remained a director of BOLSA, subsequently of Lloyds Bank International, after their merger in 1974.

Bolton served in various other positions and sat on the boards of many companies, including the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and the Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. He was deputy chairman of Bank of London and Montreal and chairman of the Commonwealth Development Finance Corporation, he was High Sheriff of the County of London in 1952–52 and 1961–62, governor of the London School of Economics. After his retirement in 1970, a collection of his speeches and writings on London was published as a book, Banker's World: The Revival of the City 1957–1970, edited by Richard Fry, former financial editor of The Guardian, with a preface by Sir Frank Lee, Permanent Secretary of the Treasury. Bolton was knighted as a Commander of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George in the 1950 New Year Honours. In 1960, he was appointed a Gran Oficial of the Order of May by the Argentine government, in 1965 was awarded the Order of Merit from Chile. In 1928, Bolton married May Howcroft, they had one son, Nicholas George, two daughters and Gillian.

He died in London in 1981. Nicholas married the Hon. Lavinia Valerie Woodhouse, daughter of James Woodhouse, 4th Baron Terrington, their daughter Carina married Alexander Burton Conyngham, Earl of Mount Charles, heir to the Marquessate of Conyngham

Armando Vajushi

Armando Vajushi is an Albanian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Petrolul Ploiești and the Albania national team. Vajushi joined local side Vllaznia Shkodër as a child and made his way through the youth teams at the club before making his professional debut in 2009, he established himself in the Vllaznia first team and soon became one of the club's star players, which attracted the interest of several foreign clubs. He completed a move to Bulgarian club Litex Lovech in January 2012 for a reported fee of €100,000. Vajushi is a product of the academies of his hometown club Vllaznia Shkodër, where he was part for 3 years before becoming professional. Vajushi made his professional debut for Vllaznia Shkodër in the Europa League against Rapid Vienna on 16 July 2009, coming on as a 77th-minute substitute for Fetim Kasapi in the 5–0 loss, he played in the return fixture a week in Shkodër where he again came on as a substitute, this time in the 62nd minute for Ansi Nika. He made his league debut in the opening game on 23 August 2009 against Besa Kavajë, replacing Ansi Nika in the 72nd minute in the 2–0 loss.

In UEFA.com's season review of 2010–11, Vajushi was the'One To Watch' and described as "one of the hottest prospects in Albania" after a successful campaign in which he made 32 league appearances for Vllaznia Shkodër and earned his first full international cap with Albania. He went on trial at German Bundesliga side 1. FC Köln before the start of the 2011–12 season but Köln did not follow up their interest in the player as they deemed his €300,000 price tag too expensive, he scored twice in a 7-0 friendly against Vorgebirgsauswahl and was described by manager Stale Solbakken as being "very fast mentally" and that he was convinced in his ability. On 3 January 2012, Vajushi joined Bulgarian A PFG title holders Litex Lovech on a three and a half year contract, for a fee of €100,000, he made his debut in a 3–0 home win over Vidima-Rakovski on 3 March, coming on as a substitute for Galin Ivanov. On 12 May, Vajushi scored his first goal, netted the fourth for Litex's 5–0 victory over Kaliakra Kavarna.

On 23 September 2012, he scored latest goal of the away victory 4-0 over Etar 1924. He scored twice a week on 29 September 2012 in the 5–0 victory against Slavia Sofia. On 18 November 2012 he scored opening goal in the victory 5-0 over Pirin Gotse Delchev. Vajushi scored on 28 November 2012 against Lokomotiv Sofia, as match finished in an away victory 0–2. On 2 March 2013, he scored two goals in the 0–2 away win over CSKA Sofia and a few days he voted by journalists as the player of the Bulgarian A Football Group 16th week. On 30 March 2013 Vajushi scored twice in the victory 5-1 over Botev Vratsa. In 2012–13 season, Vajushi played in all 30 league games for Litex and finished the season with 9 goals. On 10 August 2013, Vajushi scored Litex's 1000th A PFG goal in a 5–1 away win over Pirin Gotse Delchev. Vajushi assisted the opening goal of the 2–4 away victory on 20 October 2013 against a hard opponent such as Ludogorets Razgrad. On 9 November 2013 Vajushi scored twice opening goals in the victory 6–2 against Pirin Gotse Delchev.

Vajushi finished first part of 2013–2014 season with a total of 24 appearances, 9 goals a total of 9 assists, positioning on second place behind Zdravko Lazarov on League's rank of Top assists. Litex were placed as runners-up in the League table and gained entry in the Championship Group, who played with a total of seven teams. Vajushi started playing second phase of the league on 13 March 2014 in the match against Cherno More Varna finished in a goalless draw, where he came in as a substitute in place of Tom in the 57th minute, he scored first goal in the second phase, on 9 April 2014 against Lokomotiv Plovdiv, match finished in the 3–0 win, where Vajushi scored the latest goal in the 80th minute. He scored in the 2nd consecutive match on 12 April 2014 against Levski Sofia, match finished in the victory 1–2, were Vajushi scored the first goal in the 23rd minute and get substituted off for his compatriot Jurgen Gjasula. Vajushi finished the 2013–2014 season scoring in total 11 goals in 33 appearances and Litex ranked 3rd in the league table, gaining entry to play in the UEFA Europa League for the next season.

Litex were shorted to play against the Moldova side Veris Chișinău in the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League qualifying phase - 1st round. In first leg match on 3 July 2014 Vajushi played as a starter and got substituted off in the 80th minute as the match finished in a goalless draw. In the second leg a week on 11 July 2014 he played the full 90-minutes match, which finished in the 3–0 victory and made Litex advancing in the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League qualifying phase - 2nd round with the same aggregate result as the win. In the Second round, Litex was shorted to play against the Hungary side Diósgyőri. Vajushi played for the entire first leg match, which played on 17 July 2014 and finished as a 0–2 home loss. Vajushi played another full 90-minutes at the second leg on 24 July 2014, which finished in the 1–2 away victory but anyway wasn't enough for Litex as they lost on aggregate 2–3, he started another season of the A PFG, the 2014–15, with the opening match against CSKA Sofia on 20 July 2014, finished in the 0–1 loss with Vajushi playing the full 90-minutes.

He managed to score his first season goal on 27 September 2014 in the Bulgarian Cup's match against Pirin Blagoevgrad finished in the 1–2 victory with Vajushi scoring the opening goal in the 74th minute from the Penalty spot. He scored first league season goal on 24 October 2014 in the 4–2 win over Lokomot

Football at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's Asian Qualifiers

The Asian Football Confederation's Pre-Olympic Tournament was held from 3 April 1999 to 13 November 1999. Thirty-five teams entered the qualification for the three allocated spots for the 2000 Summer Olympics Football tournament in Sydney; the qualification saw Korea Republic and Kuwait winning their final round groups and qualifying to the Olympics. Asian berths for the final is 3. First round 35 teams were grouped into 9 groups, where each group would consist of round-robin tournament; the winners of each group would qualify to the finals. 12 teams from West Asia were grouped into 4 groups of 3 teams each, 5 teams from Central Asia were grouped into one group, 18 teams from East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia were grouped into 4 groups of 4 or 5 teams each. Final round 9 teams were grouped into 3 groups of 3 teams each, where each group would consist of home and away round-robin tournament; the winners of each group would qualify to the finals. The first round was played in nine groups held from 3 April 1999 to 24 July 1999.

The winner of each group will be promoted to the final round. Qatar qualify to the final round. Kuwait qualify to the final round. Saudi Arabia qualify to the final round. Bahrain qualify to the final round. Kazakhstan qualify to the final round. Japan qualify to the final round. China qualify to the final round. South Korea qualify to the final round. Singapore and Laos withdrew. Thailand qualify to the final round; the final round was played in three groups of three teams each held from 1 October to 13 November 1999. The winner of each group will represent Asia at the 2000 Olympic Games. Kuwait qualify to the 2000 Summer Olympics Football tournament in Sydney. South Korea qualify to the 2000 Summer Olympics Football tournament in Sydney. Japan qualify to the 2000 Summer Olympics Football tournament in Sydney

Kendriya Vidyalaya BEML Nagar

Kendriya Vidyalaya, BEML Nagar is a school located in the Kolar Gold Fields, India. It is affiliated to the CBSE board, New Delhi, it is a school of the chain of KVS, an autonomous body under the Ministry of HRD, government of India. The Kendriya Vidyalayas are situated in all the states of India and in Kathmandu and Moscow; the school started functioning in 1982 under the project sector, catering to the needs of the children of the employees of BEML, Government of India undertaking under the Ministry of Defence. The Vidyalaya has an imposing building with gardens and a children’s park, nestling amidst the greenery. Official website