Ted Newsom is an American writer, director and actor. Newsom has worked as a documentary filmmaker, specializing in documentaries on the history of the horror and science fiction film. Son of Vernon and Patricia Newsom. While in the military, he attended the University of Maryland extension. Freelancing for magazines and newspapers led him to magazine editing jobs. With John D. Brancato, Newsom co-wrote The Unofficial NFL Players Handbook, a humor book for Simon & Schuster; the team collaborated on several screenplays of Marvel Comics characters: Sgt. Fury, Spider-Man, The Sub-Mariner, working with Stan Lee on these adaptations. Active in the WGA strike in 1988, Newsom segued into directing and producing video documentaries, notably Flesh and Blood, the Hammer Heritage of Horror, becoming the last director to team the British horror stars Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee, who co-narrated; the first half of the program was broadcast on the BBC four days. He made Ed Wood—Look Back in Angora, about legendary B-movie maker Ed Wood, video biographies of Marilyn Monroe, Frank Sinatra, Elvis Presley, was writer/director of the 26-episode series 100 Years of Horror, again with Christopher Lee as host and narrator.
He served as associate producer on several soundtrack releases of the film music of Ronald Stein, such as Not of This Earth and It Conquered the World. He provided film commentary on a number of DVD releases, notably The Devil Bat with Bela Lugosi, Jr. Day the Earth Caught Fire and Hell is a City with Val Guest, his own production The Naked Monster, with director Wayne Berwick, he directed Cinemaker for Charles Band, a video primer on low-budget film production. Newsom has directed Tab Hunter, Kenneth Tobey, John Agar, Raquel Welch, Margaret O'Brien, Jack Palance, Jack Larson, Linnea Quigley, Brinke Stevens, with whom he has written several screenplays. Newsom is sometimes credited as Richmond Reed or Reed Richmond, references to a stage name used by John Carradine, whom Newsom "directed" posthumously, two years after the actor's death, in a film for Fred Olen Ray, he is confused with Ted Newsome, a noted skateboard writer and video producer, and/or another "Ted Newsom," a Utah-based videographer and editor who goes by the name of "The Rose Phantom."
He appeared on stage in the musical 1776 in Germany a Marx Brothers' parody of Hamlet, entitled A Night in Elsinore. He has done narration on numerous documentaries and appeared on-screen in several dozen films by Fred Olen Ray, J. R. Bookwalter, Ron Ford, among others, he appeared as "Dr. Cooper" in the here! original series The Lair, which debuted in June 2007. Newsom and his partner, John Brancato wrote the original first draft screenplay of Spider-Man in 1985 for Joseph Zito who at the time was attached to direct, subsequently rewritten by Barney Cohen in 1986 and polished by Menahem Golan around April of the same year. Interim screenwriters included Don Michael Paul, Ethan Wiley. Frank LaLoggia, Neil Ruttenberg for 21st Century Film Corporation in 1989-1990. A draft dated in 1993, available online credits James Cameron, although the text itself is identical to Golan's version. Newsom and many of the other writers on that long-aborning project objected to the award of sole credit to David Koepp without an arbitration or examination of any of the scripts, a protracted dispute with the WGA and Columbia Pictures ensued.
Newsom filed a NLRB complaint on a subsequent unilateral lawsuit. The situation was amicably resolved. Ted Newsom's Official Blog Ted Newsom on IMDb Skateboard writer/director Ted Newsome Rock videographer Ted Newsom Cinemaker Play, A Night in Elsinore Spider-Man drafts WGA Arbitration Interview
A kiss curl describes a lock of hair curling onto the face and plastered down. Although the curl could be flattened with saliva, soap or hair lotion was more used. In the late seventeenth century there was a fashion for fringes composed of curls described as fripons, guigne-galants, or'kiss-curls', sometimes augmented with false hair; the kiss-curl was worn by both women. It became a trademark of the singer Bill Haley, who wore a large spit curl over his right eye to divert attention from the other blind eye. Other people who became known for kiss/spit curls included Josephine Baker, Diana Ross, Superman
Night of the Ghouls
Night of the Ghouls is a horror film written and directed by Ed Wood. The film features some reoccuring cast members and characters from Bride of the Monster, including Tor Johnson reprising his role of Lobo and Paul Marco again playing the character of Kelton, while the Amazing Criswell plays himself in the frame story of the film. Another returning character is Police Captain Robbins of Homicide, although the character is played by Harvey B. Dunn in Bride, by Johnny Carpenter in Night.. Night of the Ghouls was never released theatrically nor shown on television, was thought for years to be a lost film, it was released direct to video by Wade Williams in 1984. The basic plot involves the police investigating a supposed haunted house; the house is discovered to serve as headquarters for a confidence trickster who pretends to be able to contact the dead, charges naive customers large amounts of money to allow them to speak to their deceased loved ones. The film features a prologue and a brief acting role by Criswell, who narrated Wood's Plan 9 from Outer Space.
The prologue has Criswell rising from a coffin, leaving unclear if the "metaphysical" narrator is awaking from a normal sleep, or whether he is a corpse returning to life. The latter implication can be seen as foreshadowing the final scenes of the film. One of the opening scenes features a montage of unrelated events, which seem to feature Wood's view of the post-war era and its social problems: juvenile delinquency, street fighting, driving under the influence. A memorable sequence has a car crashing; the sequence ends with the bloody corpse of the drunk driver staring blankly at the camera. According to Criswell's narration, this is a rather typical end to "a drunken holiday weekend"; the narrative properly begins with a teenaged couple kissing in a convertible, parked at night in what is a lovers' lane. When the boy gets too aggressive, the girl ends exits the car. At this point the narrative introduces the Black Ghost. In short order, first the girl and the boy are attacked by the undead creature and die.
According to Criswell's narration, the two murders received press attention but were thought to be the work of a maniac. In a police station of East Los Angeles, Inspector Robbins is waiting for Detective Bradford at his office. Bradford soon arrives, dressed in formal evening wear, he was called to work while on his way to the opera, he protests the idea of working an unexpected assignment. But Robbins informs him that the case involves the "old house on Willows lake", which played a part in an earlier case investigated by Bradford.. The house was destroyed by lightning. A flashback scene establishes that the elderly Edwards couple had a terrifying encounter with the White Ghost by this house. Having heard the story, Bradford accepts the assignment to investigate the old house. Robbins assigns Kelton to escort the Detective, despite the protests of the man that "Monsters! Space people! Mad doctors! They didn't teach me about such things in the police academy! And yet that's all I've been assigned to since I became on active duty".
The line is used to recall Kelton's experiences in Bride of the Monster and Plan 9 from Outer Space, to explicitly connect this film to its predecessors. Bradford drives a Pontiac Bonneville to the house and enters through an open door, to be confronted by Dr. Acula. Dressed in a turban and cryptically mentioning that there are many in the house, both living and dead, Acula is a rather strange figure, but Bradford convinces Acula that he is just another prospective client, so his entrance is accepted. The narrator soon establishes that one of "the many" in the house is a remnant of Lobo. A character from Bride, Lobo is depicted as disfigured from the flames which once destroyed this house. Outside the house, Kelton arrives late and has brief encounters with both the Black and the White Ghost; the scene shifts to a strange séance, where Acula and his clients share the table with human skeletons. A subsequent scene both confirms that Dr. Acula is a fake psychic by the name of "Karl", as Bradford suspected earlier, reveals that the White Ghost is an actress by the name of "Sheila".
Her role is to scare away intruders. She is concerned by the presence of the Black Ghost, not part of their hoax, though the cynical Acula dismisses her fears, he doesn't believe in the supernatural. Both Bradford and Kelton have strange and sometimes violent confrontations within the house, are joined by reinforcements; as their accomplices fall to the police and Sheila attempt to escape through a mortuary room. There they are confronted including one played by Criswell; the latter is the only one of them who speaks, explaining to Karl that the "fake" psychic does have genuine powers and his necromantic efforts worked. These dead men were restored to life, if only for a few hours, but they intend to take Karl with them in their return to the grave; as Karl dies, Sheila escapes the house to meet her own fate. The Black Ghost, genuinely undead, takes control of the impostor and tells her that it is time to join "the others" at the grave; as the police try to understand what happened to the deceased Karl, the narrative ends with a shot of an undead Sheila, now a White Ghost.
In a brief epilogue which closes the frame story, the narrator returns to his coffin. Claiming that it is time for both the old dead and the new to return to their graves, he reminds the viewer
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992. It aired during late-night. For its first decade, Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show was based at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, with some episodes recorded at NBC-TV's West Coast studios in Burbank, California. In 2002, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was ranked No. 12 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 it was ranked No. 22 on their list of 60 Best Series. Johnny Carson's Tonight Show established the modern format of the late-night talk show: a monologue sprinkled with a rapid-fire series of 16 to 22 one-liners was followed by sketch comedy moving on to guest interviews and performances by musicians and stand-up comedians. During the early years of Carson's tenure, his guests included politicians such as former U. S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon, former U. S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, but by 1970, Carson interviewed as guests people that had a book, television show, or stage performance to promote.
Other regulars were selected for their entertainment or information value, in contrast to those who offered more cerebral conversation. Carson's preference for access to Hollywood stars caused the show's move to the West Coast on May 1, 1972; when asked about intellectual conversation on The Tonight Show and his staff invariably cited "Carl Sagan, Paul Ehrlich, Margaret Mead, Gore Vidal, Shana Alexander, Madalyn Murray O'Hair" as guests. Family therapist Carlfred Broderick appeared on the show ten times, psychologist Joyce Brothers was one of Carson's most frequent guests. Carson, in general, did not feature prop comedy acts. Carson never socialized with guests before or after the show. Unlike his avuncular counterparts Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, Dick Cavett, Carson was a comparatively "cool" host who only laughed when genuinely amused and abruptly cut short monotonous or embarrassingly inept interviewees. Mort Sahl recalled, "The producer crouches just off camera and holds up a card that says,'Go to commercial.'
So Carson goes to a commercial and the whole team rushes up to his desk to discuss what had gone wrong, like a pit stop at Le Mans." Actor Robert Blake once compared being interviewed by Carson to "facing the death squad" or "Broadway on opening night." The publicity value of appearing on The Tonight Show was so great, that most guests were willing to subject themselves to the risk. The show's announcer and Carson's sidekick was Ed McMahon, who from the first show would introduce Carson with a drawn-out "Heeeeeeeeere's Johnny!". The catchphrase was heard nightly for 30 years, ranked top of the TV Land poll of U. S. TV catchphrases and quotes in 2006. McMahon, who held the same role in Carson's ABC game show Who Do You Trust? for five years would remain standing to the side as Carson did his monologue, laughing at his jokes join him at the guest chair when Carson moved to his desk. The two would interact in a comic spot for a short while before the first guest was introduced. McMahon stated in a 1978 profile of Carson in The New Yorker that "the'Tonight Show' is my staple diet, my meat and potatoes—I'm realistic enough to know that everything else stems from that".
After a 1965 incident in which he ruined Carson's joke on the air McMahon was careful to, as he said, "never to go where's going". He wrote in his 1998 autobiography: My role on the show never was defined. I did. I was there when he needed me, when he didn't I moved down the couch and kept quiet.... I did the audience warm-up, I did commercials, for a brief period I co-hosted the first fifteen minutes of the show... and I performed in many sketches. On our thirteenth-anniversary show Johnny and I were talking at his desk and he said, "Thirteen years is a long time." He paused long enough for me to recognize my cue, so I asked, "How long is it?" "That's why you're here," he said summing up my primary role on the show perfectly... I had to support him, I had to help him get to the punch line, but while doing it I had to make it look as if I wasn't doing anything at all; the better I did it, the less it appeared as if I was doing it.... If I was going to play second fiddle, I wanted to be the Heifetz of second fiddlers....
The most difficult thing for me to learn how to do was just sit there with my mouth closed. Many nights I'd be listening to Johnny and in my mind I'd reach the same ad lib. I'd have to bite my tongue not to say it out loud. I had to m
Cannibalism involves consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food. To consume the same species, or show cannibalistic behavior, is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom, has been recorded in more than 1,500 species. Human cannibalism is well-documented, both in recent times; the rate of cannibalism increases in nutritionally-poor environments as individuals turn to other conspecific individuals as an additional food-source. Cannibalism regulates population numbers, whereby resources such as food and territory become more available with the decrease of potential competition. Although it may benefit the individual, it has been shown that the presence of cannibalism decreases the expected survival rate of the whole population and increases the risk of consuming a relative. Other negative effects may include the increased risk of pathogen transmission as the encounter rate of hosts increases. Cannibalism, does not—as once believed—occur only as a result of extreme food shortage or of artificial/unnatural conditions, but may occur under natural conditions in a variety of species.
Cannibalism seems prevalent in aquatic ecosystems, in which up to 90% of the organisms engage in cannibalistic activity at some point in their life-cycle. Cannibalism is not restricted to carnivorous species: it occurs in herbivores and in detritivores. Sexual cannibalism involves the consumption of the male by the female individual before, during or after copulation. Other forms of cannibalism include intrauterine cannibalism. Behavioural and morphological adaptations have evolved to decrease the rate of cannibalism in individual species. In environments where food availability is constrained, individuals can receive extra nutrition and energy if they use other conspecific individuals as an additional food source; this would, in turn, increase the survival rate of the cannibal and thus provide an evolutionary advantage in environments where food is scarce. A study conducted on wood frog tadpoles showed that those that exhibited cannibalistic tendencies had faster growth rates and higher fitness levels than non-cannibals.
An increase of size and growth would give them the added benefit of protection from potential predators such as other cannibals and give them an advantage when competing for resources The nutritional benefits of cannibalism may allow for the more efficient conversion of a conspecific diet into reusable resources than herbaceous diet. This facilitates for faster development. Studies have shown that there is a noticeable size difference between animals fed on a high conspecific diet which were smaller compared to those fed on a low conspecific diet. Hence, individual fitness could only be increased if the balance between developmental rate and size is balanced out, with studies showing that this is achieved in low conspecific diets. Cannibalism regulates population numbers and benefits the cannibalistic individual and its kin as resources such as extra shelter and food are freed. However, this is only the case if the cannibal recognizes its own kin as this won't hinder any future chances of perpetuating its genes in future generations.
The elimination of competition can increase mating opportunities, allowing further spread of an individual's genes. Animals which have diets consisting of predominantly conspecific prey expose themselves to a greater risk of injury and expend more energy foraging for suitable prey as compared to non-cannibalistic species. In order to combat the risk of personal injury, a predator targets younger or more vulnerable prey. However, the time necessitated by such selective predation could result in a failure to meet the predator's self-set nutritional requirements. In addition, the consumption of conspecific prey may involve the ingestion of defense compounds and hormones, which have the capacity to impact the developmental growth of the cannibal's offspring Hence, predators partake in a cannibalistic diet in conditions where alternative food sources are absent or not as available. Failure to recognize kin prey is a disadvantage, provided cannibals target and consume younger individuals. For example, a male stickleback fish may mistake their own "eggs" for their competitor's eggs, hence would inadvertently eliminate some of its own genes from the available gene pool.
Kin recognition has been observed in tadpoles of the spadefoot toad, whereby cannibalistic tadpoles of the same clutch tended to avoid consuming and harming siblings, while eating other non-siblings. The act of cannibalism may facilitate trophic disease transmission within a population, though cannibalistically spread pathogens and parasites employ alternative modes of infection. Cannibalism can reduce the prevalence of parasites in the population by decreasing the number of susceptible hosts and indirectly killing the parasite in the host, it has been shown in some studies that the risk of encountering an infected victim increases when there is a higher cannibalism rate, though this risk drops as the number of available hosts decreases. However, this is only the case. Cannibalism is an ineffective method of disease spread as cannibalism in the animal kingdom is a one-on-one interaction, the spread of disease requires group cannibalism.
Plan 9 from Outer Space
Plan 9 from Outer Space is a 1959 American independent black-and-white science fiction horror film, produced and edited by Ed Wood, that stars Gregory Walcott, Mona McKinnon, Tor Johnson, "Vampira", is narrated by Criswell. The film posthumously bills Bela Lugosi as a guest star. Other guest stars are former cowboy star Tom Keene. Plan 9 from Outer Space was released theatrically in 1959 by Distributors Corporation of America; the storyline concerns extraterrestrials who are seeking to stop humanity from creating a doomsday weapon that could destroy the universe. The aliens implement "Plan 9", a scheme to resurrect the Earth's dead, referred to as "ghouls". By causing chaos, the aliens hope. If not, the aliens will destroy mankind with armies of the undead; the film was developed under the title Grave Robbers from Outer Space, but its financial backers objected to this title, which they saw as being sacrilegious, it was retitled Plan 9 from Outer Space prior to production. Plan 9 from Outer Space played on television in relative obscurity until 1980, when authors Harry Medved and Michael Medved dubbed it the "worst film made" in their book The Golden Turkey Awards.
Wood and his film were posthumously given two Golden Turkey Awards for Worst Director Ever and Worst Film. It has since been retroactively described as "The epitome of so-bad-it's-good cinema" and has gained a cult following. For years, when the film was shown on television, viewers could see random objects cluttering the top and bottom of the frame; this would lead viewers to conclude that director Wood was being careless as usual, should have known better than to stage these scenes so poorly. However, in the film's original theatrical runs, the top and bottom of the frame were cut off when the film was projected on a wide screen; the resulting images were properly composed. A DVD release in the widescreen format demonstrates Wood's intended compositions. At the funeral of an old man's wife, mourners are gathered by an open grave, among them her husband. Overhead, an airliner is heading toward California; the pilot, Jeff Trent, his co-pilot Danny are blinded by a bright light and loud sound. They see a flying saucer.
The pilots follow the saucer's flight until it lands at the graveyard, where the funeral's gravediggers are killed by a female zombie. At his home, lost in his thoughts of grief, the old man goes outside and steps in front of an oncoming car and is killed. Mourners at the old man's funeral discover the dead gravediggers. Inspector Daniel Clay and other police officers arrive, but Clay goes off alone to continue his investigation. Trent and his wife Paula, who live near the graveyard, hear the sirens and Jeff tells Paula about his saucer encounter, stating that the Army has since sworn him to secrecy. A powerful swooshing noise knocks everyone to the ground at both the Trent residence and the nearby graveyard as a saucer lands. Police Inspector Clay encounters the female zombie and the reanimated corpse of the old man, is killed by them. Upon investigating Clay's disappearance, Lt. Harper states, "But one thing's sure. Inspector Clay is dead and somebody's responsible."Newspaper headlines continue to report saucer sightings over Hollywood Boulevard, while a trio of saucers flies over Los Angeles.
In Washington, D. C. the military fires missiles at more saucers, while the Chief of Saucer Operations, Col. Thomas Edward, reveals that the government has been covering up saucer attacks, he mentions. The aliens return to their Space Station 7. Commander Eros informs their ruler. To force their acknowledgment, Eros recommends implementing "Plan 9", which will resurrect human dead by stimulating their pituitary and pineal glands. Meanwhile Trent, about to leave on another flight, is concerned for his wife's safety, he urges her to stay with her mother. That night the zombie old man rises from his grave and breaks into their house, he is joined by his zombie wife and the zombie Inspector Clay. Paula escapes, but collapses after her ordeal. All three zombies return to Eros' saucer. At the Pentagon, Gen. Roberts informs Edwards, they explain that the aliens are trying to prevent humanity from destroying the universe. The general dispatches Edwards to San Fernando, where most of the alien activity has occurred.
Though the undead are under alien control, zombie Clay attacks and nearly strangles Eros. The ruler examines zombie Clay and orders the zombie old man destroyed in order to further frighten humanity, he approves Eros' Plan 9 to raise undead armies and orders they march on the capitals of Earth. In California the police and Edwards interview the Trents. Unknown to them, the flying saucer has returned to the graveyard. Officer Kelton encounters the zombie old man, who chases him into the Trents' yard, where the zombie old man is hit with Eros' ray, causing his body to decompose. Not knowing what to make of this, the Trents and the police drive to the cemetery. John Harper insists on leaving Paula in the
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo