Eaton Company Ltd. was a Canadian department store retailer, and once Canadas largest. It was founded in 1869 in Toronto by Timothy Eaton, a Presbyterian Ulster Scot immigrant from what is now Northern Ireland. Eatons grew to become a retail and social institution in Canada, with stores across the country, buying offices around the globe, a changing economic and retail environment in the late 20th century and mismanagement culminated in the chains bankruptcy in 1999. In an era when haggling for goods was the norm, the chain proclaimed We propose to sell our goods for CASH ONLY – In selling goods, in addition it had the long-standing slogan Goods Satisfactory or Money Refunded. In 1869 Timothy Eaton sold his interest in a small store in the market town of St. Marys and bought a dry-goods. The first store was only 24 by 60 feet, with two windows, and was located a fair distance from Torontos fashionable shopping district of King Street West. The business prospered, and Eaton moved the store one block north in August 1883 into much larger premises at 190 Yonge Street, the store’s first telephone, with phone number 370, was installed in 1885.
In 1886, the first elevator in an establishment in Toronto was installed in the Eaton store. Eaton maintained the lease on the empty store at 178 Yonge Street until its expiry in 1884 in order to delay the plans of one of his competitors. Over time, the competition between the Simpsons and Eaton’s department stores, facing each other across Queen Street West, became one of Toronto’s great business rivalries, by 1896, Eatons was billing itself as Canada’s Greatest Store. The store continued to expand in size, and new buildings were constructed to house the mail order division, the number of people employed in Eatons operations numbered 17,500 in 1911. In 1919, the Eatons buildings in Toronto contained a space of over 60 acres. At the beginning of the 20th century, Eatons conducted a business in Western Canada through its catalogue. Eatons considered Winnipeg, Manitoba as the most logical location for a new mail order warehouse to serve its western customers. A store was not originally part of the plans, John Craig Eaton, the son of Timothy Eaton, became an early proponent of building a combined store and mail order operation in Winnipeg.
Although Timothy Eaton initially had misgivings over the difficulties involved in managing a store 2,100 kilometres from Toronto, Eatons acquired a city block on Portage Avenue at Donald Street, and the five-storey Eatons store opened to much fanfare on July 15,1905. The landmark red brick store, known as the Big Store to Winnipeggers, was a success, the initial staff of 750 grew to 1200 within a few weeks of the opening. By 1910, three storeys were added to the store and other buildings were constructed
Forest Hill, Toronto
Forest Hill is a neighbourhood and former village in Toronto, Canada, located north of downtown. The village was amalgamated into Toronto in 1967 and the area has retained its name as a neighbourhood, along with other neighbourhoods such as The Kingsway and The Bridle Path, it is one of Toronto’s wealthiest and most affluent neighbourhoods. It is home to many prominent Toronto business people, Census data from Statistics Canada states an average income for all private households in Forest Hill to be $101,631, compared to the $40,704 average income in Torontos Census Metropolitan Area. Forest Hill was originally incorporated as a village in 1923, and annexed by the City of Toronto in 1967, the village was named after the summer home of John Wickson, previously it had been known as Spadina Heights. Spadina Heights is a derivative of the First Nations word ishapadenah, rather than electing a mayor as in a city, the leading municipal official was the reeve of the village. In the late 1960s, the City of Toronto planned to construct a highway that would run from Highway 401 to downtown Toronto via the Cedarvale Ravine, Forest Hill and the Annex would be bisected by the proposed route and numerous local houses would be sacrificed for the new expressway.
This prompted local residents to rise to protest and raise the awareness of the greater public, the provincial government was forced to withdraw its support for the so-called Spadina Expressway in 1971. The Forest Hill War Memorial was erected by Page and Steele Architects on Eglinton Avenue in 1980, in memory of those who lost their lives in the First and Second World Wars. When the Village was annexed by the City of Toronto, the agreement granted local residents the right to have their garbage picked up from their doorstep rather than from the curb. It wasnt until 1993 that the learned that this extra service cost $420,000 a year and was paid for by the municipal government. This time, the opinion of other Torontonians forced the city to discontinue this favour to Forest Hill residents. Neighbourhoods north of Eglinton are sometimes though not unanimously regarded as Forest Hill, theres a key tonal difference in the architecture of the two places, where big Rosedale houses shout history, big Forest Hill houses shout grandeur.
More than any other district in the city, Forest Hill has become the site of spectacular new neo-traditional homes built on a grand scale. Forest Hill Village is the part of Forest Hill, a short block along Spadina Road. The designations Upper and Lower are based on height of land, Forest Hill Village was completely developed by the 1930s and is known for its upscale shopping and dining, although the actual mix of stores includes several modest enterprises. The Upper Village was slower to develop due to the fact it had previously occupied by the old Belt Line Railway. Its houses were mostly in the 1940s and 50s. Many homes have been, or are being renovated, with some being torn down completely to make way for monster neo-classical homes
Richardson first used elements of the style in his Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane in Buffalo, New York, designed in 1870. This very free revival style incorporates 11th and 12th century southern French, the style includes work by the generation of architects practicing in the 1880s before the influence of the Beaux-Arts styles. It is epitomised by the American Museum of Natural Historys original 77th Street building by J. Cleaveland Cady of Cady and See in New York City. It was seen in communities in this time period such as in St. Thomas, Ontarios city hall and Menomonie. Some of the practitioners who most faithfully followed Richardsons proportion and detailing had worked in his office and these include, Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow and Frank Alden, George Shepley and Charles Coolidge, Herbert Burdett. Bate designed the Grays Armory in this style in Cleveland, the style influenced the Chicago school of architecture and architects Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. In Finland, Eliel Saarinen was influenced by Richardson, research is underway to try to document the westward movement of the artisans and craftsmen, many of whom were immigrant Italians and Irish, who built in the Richardsonian Romanesque tradition.
The style began in the East, in and around Boston, as the style was losing favor in the East, it was gaining popularity further west. Stone carvers and masons trained in the Richardsonian manner appear to have taken the style west, as an example, four small bank buildings were built in Richardsonian Romanesque style in Osage County, during 1904–1911. For pictures of H. H. Richardson’s own designs and some of the details, with the exception of the Richardson Olmsted Complex, none of the following structures were designed by Richardson. They illustrate the strength of his personality on progressive North American architecture from 1885 to 1905. They are divided into categories denoting the various different uses of the buildings, civic Buildings Educational Institutions and Libraries Service-related buildings Churches and chapels Residences Henry Hobson Richardson H
Lawrence Park, Toronto
Lawrence Park is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. It is bordered by Yonge Street to the west and Bayview Avenue to the east, Lawrence Park was one of Torontos first planned garden suburbs. Begun in the part of the 20th century, it did not fully develop until after the Second World War. It was ranked the wealthiest neighbourhood in all of Canada in 2011, centred on Mount Pleasant Road, the neighbourhood grew slowly with medium-sized houses on narrow but deep lots. There are few businesses within a five-minute walk. The closest grocery stores are close to Yonge and Lawrence, in its early years, the neighbourhoods transportation was served predominantly by the northern section of the Toronto Transportation Commissions Yonge streetcar line. When the Yonge subway opened to Eglinton in 1954, the TTC replaced this service with buses on Yonge Street and Mount Pleasant Road. Demographically, the neighbourhood still retains a largely Anglo-Protestant population, the assembly of Lawrence Park began in 1907 by the Dovercourt Land Building and Saving Company, which acquired the north parcel of the park from John Lawrence, after whom this neighbourhood is named.
The president of the Dovercourt Land Company was Wilfred Servington Dinnick and it was under Dinnick’s direction that Lawrence Park was developed as a suburb for the well to do. In the early years Howard and Lorrie Dunington-Grubb, who founded Sheridan Nurseries, undertook much of the architecture for the boulevards. They took commissions for garden design from the owners of the new homes, the first advertisement for Lawrence Park trumpeted it as an “aristocratic neighbourhood, four hundred feet above Lake Ontario, and Far from the Lake Winds in Winter. However, Lawrence Park’s development was sporadic, the building of houses was interrupted by two world wars, a recession and a depression. It wasn’t until the 1950s that this neighbourhood was completed, Lawrence Park is one of Toronto’s most exclusive residential neighborhoods. In 2011, Canadian Business magazine named it the wealthiest postal code in Canada by household net worth, the neighborhood is located in a setting that includes gently rolling hills, several parks, and a ravine.
Lawrence Park’s shops and recreational facilities are located on its periphery, many of the residents belong to The Granite Club, a sports and recreation centre on Bayview Avenue north of Lawrence Avenue. The shops and restaurants in the Yonge and Lawrence area, are well patronized by Lawrence Park residents and this shopping district includes fashion stores, children’s stores, sporting goods stores, gift shops, gourmet dining, casual restaurants and coffee shops. Notable institutions located in or adjacent to Lawrence Park are the Rosedale Golf Club, Lawrence Park’s houses include a variety of architectural styles including English Cottage, Tudor Revival and Colonial style designs. Most of these homes were built between 1910 and the late 1940s, for the last few years parts of Lawrence Park have been redeveloped with larger houses which do not match the scale of the original housing in the neighborhood
Timothy Eaton was a Canadian businessman who founded the Eatons department store, one of the most important retail businesses in Canadas history. He was born in Ballymena, County Antrim, Northern Ireland and his parents were Scottish Protestants, John Eaton and Margaret Craig. As a 20-year-old Irish apprentice shopkeeper, Timothy Eaton sailed from Ireland to settle with other members in southern Ontario. On 28 May 1862, Eaton married Margaret Wilson Beattie and they had five sons and three daughters. Among the sons were John Craig Eaton and Edward Young Eaton, one of the daughters, Josephine Smyth Eaton, survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania off the Irish coast in 1915. His granddaughter, Iris Burnside, was lost, in 1854 for a short time he worked in a haberdashery store in Glen Williams Ontario. His sister married William Reid they owned a farm in Georgetown Ontario a short distance from Glen Williams. In 1865, with the help of his brothers Robert and James, Timothy Eaton set up a business in the town of Kirkton, Ontario.
Undaunted, he opened a dry goods store in St. Marys, in 1869, Eaton purchased an existing dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in Toronto. In these tiny communities, the arrival of Eatons catalogue was a major event, when rendered obsolete by the new season’s catalogue, it served another important use in the outdoor privy of most every rural home. Timothy Eaton spawned a colossal retail empire that his offspring would expand coast to coast, reaching its high point during World War II, limited employed more than 70,000 people. Eaton died of pneumonia on January 31,1907 and is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto and he was succeeded by his son, John Craig Eaton. In 1919, two life-sized statues of Timothy Eaton were donated by the Eatons employees to the Toronto and Winnipeg stores in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the company. For years, it was tradition for customers in both Toronto and Winnipeg to rub the toe of the statue for good luck, museum-goers in Toronto and hockey fans in Winnipeg continue to rub Timothy’s toe for luck.
In 1985, his granddaughter, Nancy Eaton, was murdered by a childhood friend. Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, in Toronto, was erected in 1914, the town of Eatonia, Saskatchewan was named after Timothy Eaton. The ground of Ballymena RFC, originally the grounds of the Mid-Antrim Sports Association is called Eaton Park. A school in Scarborough, Timothy Eaton Business and Technical Institute, was named after him opened in 1971 for classes and his grandson was flying ace Henry John Burden
Uno Prii was an Estonian-born Canadian architect. He designed approximately 250 buildings, many in Toronto, but around southern Ontario, some of his best-known works are apartment buildings in The Annex neighbourhood of Toronto, featuring outlines that make sweeping curves. These include The Vincennes at 35 Walmer Road, Prince Arthur Towers at 20 Prince Arthur Avenue, Brazil Towers at 485 Huron Street, Uno Prii grew up in Estonia, where his father was an architect and builder. In 1943, Prii left for Finland, and in 1944, he moved to Stockholm and he trained and worked as a civil engineer in Stockholm but left for Canada in 1950. He came to Toronto so that he could study architecture, and in 1955 he graduated cum laude from the University of Toronto School of Architecture, every summer he worked with Eric Arthurs Fleury & Arthur firm until graduation. Prii created his own firm in 1957. Having his own firm allowed him to explore his vision, which diverged from the straight lines and simple forms emphasized by Modernism.
In the 1960s, apartment living was quickly growing in popularity as thousands of immigrants arrived in Toronto, baby boomers entered the work force and sought convenient living spaces. The 1960s was Priis most exuberant era, when he saw the completion of buildings with the sculptural curves. In this era, Prii took advantage of new slip-form concrete molds which slid up buildings as concrete was being poured, the architect pushed his sculptural design ideas with passion. Some potential clients were alienated and walked away, Uno Priis design for The Vincennes at 35 Walmer Road was among his boldest works yet. Priis lightly curved façade features a dramatic yet elegant flare at the fifth floor, the facade is white, a characteristic shared by several of his most distinctive towers from the 1960s. Prii designed the apartment tower with a large curved canopy over its entrance. Harry Hiller completed the tower in 1966 and it was at 20 Prince Arthur Avenue where the collaboration of Prii and Hiller produced what is arguably Priis most expressive design ever to be realized.
The single 23-storey high-rise apartment tower completed in 1968 emphasizes its vertical form with a bold, what appear to be flying buttresses create a massive flared base projecting outwards from the main façade. These elements not only became the feature of the tower. The flyers merge with the façade, continuing upwards beyond the roofline, the sides are blank concrete walls with a smooth texture and white finish, save for a black vertical stripe running the length of the walls, opening up to a massive arch at ground level. A rectangular section of the façade behind the arch is painted black for contrast, the white walls are contrasted with opaque blue balcony railings on the main façade facing the street, as well as on the opposite side of the building
Gooderham and Worts
Gooderham and Worts, known as Gooderham & Worts Limited, was a Canadian distiller of alcoholic beverages. It was once the largest distiller in Canada, the company was merged with Hiram Walker, which was in turn sold to Allied Lyons. Its distillery facility on the Toronto waterfront was closed in the 1990s, the buildings, dating to the 1860s, were preserved and repurposed as the Distillery District arts and entertainment district. The company was founded by James Worts and his brother-in-law, William Gooderham, Worts had owned a mill in Suffolk, moved to Toronto in 1831 and established himself in the same business. He built a prominent windmill at the Toronto waterfront near the mouth of the Don River, the next year, Gooderham joined him in Toronto and in the business. The business prospered, processing grain from Ontario farmers and shipping it out via the port of Toronto, in 1834, Worts wife, died during childbirth. Two weeks later, Worts killed himself by throwing himself into the windmills well, with a surplus of wheat, Gooderham expanded the company in 1837 into brewing and distilling, and soon this lucrative business became the firms primary focus.
Gooderham served as the manager of the business until 1845. In 1859, work began on a new complex, the area that today is the Distillery District. It was built on the waterfront, with access to Torontos main train lines. In 1862, its first full year of production, the facility made some 700,000 imperial gallons of spirits, at that time, it was a full quarter of all the spirits produced in Canada. In the second half of the 19th century, the rose to become one of Canadas most prominent industrial concerns. Under the control of Williams son, George Gooderham, production increased to two million gallons a year, half of the entire spirits production of Canada. The distillery itself expanded, becoming one of Torontos largest employers, as well as keeping interests in the milling and brewing trades, the company expanded into other ventures. It had a controlling interest in the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, in 1892, the company constructed the Gooderham Building, still a notable Toronto landmark, as its new headquarters.
By the end of the century, the companys growth began to slow. Beer and wine became popular in Canada, reducing sales of whisky. The rise of the movement harmed the company, with the Ontario Temperance Act of 1916 banning the sale of alcohol in the province
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada on the grounds that surround Queens Park. It was founded by charter in 1827 as Kings College. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution, as a collegiate university, it comprises twelve colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, by a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University, the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey.
The universitys Hart House is an example of the North American student centre. The founding of a college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15,1827, a charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming from this time one College, with the style. For the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, the granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the colleges first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queens Park, under Strachans stewardship, Kings College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact.
Reformist politicians opposed the control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary, University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, while the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees, the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884, over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachans Trinity College in 1904.
The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991, the University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canadas first academic publishing house
E. J. Lennox
Edward James Lennox was a Toronto-based architect who designed several of the citys most notable landmarks in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries including Old City Hall and Casa Loma. He designed over 70 buildings in the city of Toronto, the son of Irish immigrants, he studied at the Mechanics Institute where he finished first in his class. Upon graduation in 1874 he apprenticed for architect William Irving for five years and he formed a partnership with fellow architect William Frederick McCaw, before forming his own firm in 1881. He quickly became one of the most successful architects in Toronto and he rose to the top of the profession when he won the contract for Toronto City Hall in 1886. His caricature can be carved in stone on the facade of the Old City Hall—hes the one with the handlebar moustache. Many of his buildings were designed in the Richardson Romanesque style and this style of house is indigenous to Toronto and blends elements of Romanesque with that of Queen Anne style architecture.
Later in his career he served as commissioner of the Toronto Transit Commission from 1923-1929, a small residential street called E. J. Lennox Way is named for him in Unionville, Ontario behind the former Unionville Congregational Church, Marilyn M. Edward James Lennox, Builder of Toronto
Hungarians, known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 13. 1–14.7 million Hungarians, of whom 8. 5–9.8 million live in todays Hungary, the Hungarians own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The Magyars/Hungarians probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority, in the Early Middle Ages the Hungarians had many names, including Ungherese and Hungarus. The H- prefix is an addition of Medieval Latin, another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian Yugra. It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the borders of Europe. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym Magyar rather than Hungarian, Magyar is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian mogyër. Magyar possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole.
Magyar may derive from the Hunnic Muageris or Mugel, the Greek cognate of Tourkia was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD950, though in his use, Turks always referred to Magyars, the historical Latin phrase Natio Hungarica had a wider meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central, some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai.
In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241. The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate and their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i. e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes, the names of the seven tribes were, Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate, as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River. The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, the new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs.
In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians, the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin