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The Barber of Seville

The Barber of Seville, or The Useless Precaution is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini with an Italian libretto by Cesare Sterbini. The libretto was based on Pierre Beaumarchais's French comedy Le Barbier de Séville; the première of Rossini's opera took place on 20 February 1816 at the Teatro Argentina, with designs by Angelo Toselli. Rossini's Barber has proven to be one of the greatest masterpieces of comedy within music, has been described as the opera buffa of all "opere buffe". After two hundred years, it remains a popular work. Rossini's opera recounts the events of the first of the three plays by French playwright Pierre Beaumarchais that revolve around the clever and enterprising character named Figaro, the barber of the title. Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro, composed 30 years earlier in 1786, is based on the second part of the Beaumarchais trilogy; the first Beaumarchais play was conceived as an opéra comique, but was rejected as such by the Comédie-Italienne. The play as it is now known was premiered in 1775 by the Comédie-Française at the Théâtre des Tuileries in Paris.

Other operas based on the first play were composed by Giovanni Paisiello, by Nicolas Isouard in 1796, by Francesco Morlacchi in 1816. Though the work of Paisiello triumphed for a time, only Rossini's version has stood the test of time and continues to be a mainstay of operatic repertoire. On 11 November 1868, two days before Rossini's death, the composer Constantino Dall'Argine premiered an opera based on the same libretto as Rossini's work, bearing a dedication to Rossini; the premiere was not a failure, but critics condemned the "audacity" of the young composer and the work is now forgotten. Rossini was well known for being remarkably productive, completing an average of two operas per year for 19 years, in some years writing as many as four. Musicologists believe that, true to form, the music for Il barbiere di Siviglia was composed in just under three weeks, although the famous overture was recycled from two earlier Rossini operas, Aureliano in Palmira and Elisabetta, regina d'Inghilterra and thus contains none of the thematic material in Il barbiere di Siviglia itself.

The premiere of Rossini's opera at the Teatro Argentina in Rome was a disaster: the audience hissed and jeered throughout, several on-stage accidents occurred. Furthermore, many of the audience were supporters of one of Rossini's rivals, the veteran Giovanni Paisiello, who played on mob mentality to provoke the rest of the audience to dislike the opera. Paisiello had composed The Barber of Seville and took Rossini's new version to be an affront to his version. In particular and his followers were opposed to the use of basso buffo, common in comic opera; the second performance, was successful. The original French play, Le Barbier de Séville, had a similar story: poorly received at first, only to become a favorite within a week; the opera was first performed in England on 10 March 1818 at the King's Theatre in London in Italian, soon followed on 13 October at the Covent Garden Theatre by an English version translated by John Fawcett and Daniel Terry. It was first performed in America on 3 May 1819 in English at the Park Theatre in New York.

It was given in French at the Théâtre d'Orléans in New Orleans on 4 March 1823, became the first opera to be performed in Italian in New York, when Manuel Garcia and his Italian troupe opened their first season there with Il barbiere on 29 November 1825 at the Park Theatre. The cast of eight had three other members of his family, including the 17-year-old Maria-Felicia known as Maria Malibran; the role of Rosina was written for a contralto. According to music critic Richard Osborne, writing in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, "it is important to record the degree to which singers have sometimes distorted Rossini's intentions; the most serious distortion has been the upward transposition of the role of Rosina, turning her from a lustrous alto into a pert soprano." However, it has been noted that Rossini, who altered his music for specific singers, wrote a new aria for the second act for Joséphine Fodor-Mainvielle, a soprano who had sung Rosina in the 1818 London premiere, sang the new aria c. 1820 at the Théâtre-Italien in Paris, where it was published.

The singing lesson in act 2 has been turned into "a show-stopping cabaret." Adelina Patti was known to include Luigi Arditi's "Il bacio", the Bolero from Verdi's I vespri siciliani, the Shadow Song from Meyerbeer's Dinorah, Henry Bishop's "Home! Sweet Home!". Nellie Melba followed suit. Pauline Viardot began the practice of inserting Alexander Alyabyev's "Nightingale". Maria Callas sang a cut-down version of Rossini's own "Contro un cor." Once after Patti had sung a florid rendition of the opera's legitimate aria,'Una voce poco fa', Rossini is reported to have asked her: "Very nice, my dear, who wrote the piece you have just performed?"The piece is a staple of the operatic repertoire Because of a scarcity of true contraltos, the role of Rosina has most been sung by a coloratura mezzo-soprano, has in the past, in more recent times, been sung by coloratura sopranos such as Marcella Sembrich, Maria Callas, Roberta Peters, Gianna D'Angelo, Victoria de los Ángeles, Beverly Sills, Lily Pons, Diana Damrau, Edita Gruberová

Passion (Pendragon album)

Passion is the ninth studio album by English neo-progressive rock group Pendragon. It was released as a special edition in April 11, 2011 on Madfish, a division label of Snapper Music and in regular form through Toff Records, the band's own imprint. Two packaging formats of the Madfish album exist, digi-book and super jewel case both accompanied by a DVD featuring a behind-the-scenes footage titled'Progumentary', filmed by the band themselves during the recording of the album. There is a two-disc, three sided orange coloured vinyl edition with gatefold sleeve; the global impression of the album was positive, with a 4.04 out of 5 stars score in Prog Archives, across 123 given ratings as for May 22, 2011. Dangerdog website gave it a 4 out of 5 score, describing it as "intriguing and entertaining" and remarking "those who were persuaded by Pendragon's talent and creativity on Pure will be pleased with Passion. Sea of Tranquility advises "in comparison to the light-hearted, feel-good symphonic prog of their albums from the early 1990s, this may feel like a radical departure for some", giving it 3.5 out of 5 stars.

A more enthusiastic Rock Report states that "because of the diversity and continuous change of atmospheres, it’s hard to point out the highlights" and "maybe it means that the whole album is a highlight". John O'Boyle at DPRP gives it a 9 out of 10 score and thinks "smartly the band haven’t alienated anyone, they have appealed to the old vanguard as well as exploring a more contemporary approach" and concludes "this is an album that the band have created where they haven’t pandered to things in the past, they have taken large steps forward in developing as a band and Passion may as I said just be the album of their career so far?", while Edwin Roosjen points out "Passion is the next logical step after Pure" and gives it 9.5 out of 10. CD All tracks are written by Nick Barrett. DVD "Progumentary" Side 1 "Passion" "Empathy"Side 2 "Feeding Frenzy" "This Green And Pleasant Land"Side 3 "It's Just A Matter Of Not Getting Caught" "Skara Brae" "Your Black Heart " Nick Barrett: guitars, lead vocals, programming Clive Nolan: keyboards, backing vocals Peter Gee: bass Scott Higham: drums, backing vocals Pendragon's official website Passion mini-site Passion review on Prog Sphere


Umingmaktok is a now abandoned settlement located in Bathurst Inlet in the Kitikmeot Region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. The community was known as Bay Chimo and the Inuit refer to the community as Umingmaktuuq; the traditional language of the area was Inuinnaqtun and is written using the Latin alphabet rather than the syllabics of the Inuktitut writing system. Like Cambridge Bay, Bathurst Inlet and Kugluktuk syllabics are seen and used by the Government of Nunavut. Situated at the site of a deserted Hudson's Bay Company post, the community was formed as an outpost camp by Inuit families that wanted to live a more traditional lifestyle; the area around Umingmaktuuq is said to be rich in wildlife such as the Arctic fox, fur seals, barren-ground caribou, Arctic char and muskox. As of the 1996 Census, there were 51 people living in Umingmaktuuq; as of the 2016 census the population was 0 as opposed to 5 people in the 2011 census. With less than two dozen residents, Umingmaktuuq is one of the smallest permanent non-military communities in Nunavut.

At one time the community had a school that provided education up to Grade 6. Today, any students are flown to Cambridge Bay and return to the community only for the summer and Christmas; the community has no electricity other than that provided by portable generators, communication with the outside world is by satellite phone. The only access to the community is by chartered aircraft, the landing strip divides Umingmaktuuq in half. On one side is the Co-op store. On the other side is the main residential area. List of communities in Nunavut Regional Analysis of the West Kitikmeot Nunavut Handbook - Joe Otokiak Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut - PDF Dialect Map Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut - Writing systems E-mail in Bay Chimo

Coast to Coast Walk

The Coast to Coast Walk is a 182-mile unofficial and unsignposted long-distance footpath in Northern England. Devised by Alfred Wainwright, it passes through three contrasting national parks: the Lake District National Park, the Yorkshire Dales National Park, the North York Moors National Park. Wainwright recommends that walkers dip their booted feet in the Irish Sea at St Bees and, at the end of the walk, in the North Sea at Robin Hood's Bay; the Coast to Coast was described by Alfred Wainwright in his 1973 book A Coast to Coast Walk. Wainwright's book has since been revised a number of times in recent years with updates to the recommended route. Wainwright's book describes the route in 12 stages, each of which ends at a settlement with at least some overnight accommodation nearby. If one stage is walked per day, with one or two rest days, the route makes a two-week holiday, web logs of coast-to-coasters seem to indicate that this is the most common way of walking the route. However, Wainwright explicitly states that he did not intend people to stick to these daily stages, or to his route.

For instance, the majority of Wainwright's stages start and end at low level with a single up-down during the day: many walkers split the Borrowdale–Patterdale stage at Grasmere in order to maintain this pattern and avoid having two major uphill sections in one day. Splitting two or three more of the longer stages, adding a further one or two rest days, reduces the average day-length to 10 or 12 miles and makes the walk a much easier three-week trip with time to "stand and stare", an activity much approved of by Wainwright. Although unofficial, the Coast to Coast Walk uses public rights of way, permissive paths and access land. Despite this it does not have National Trail status. In 2004 the walk was named as the second-best walk in the world according to a survey of experts. Harveys publish two dedicated strip maps at 1:40,000 scale; the description in this article is given from west to east. This is the more popular direction, the one given in the original and most of the current guides, is the direction which keeps the prevailing wind and rain at one's back, the evening sun out of one's eyes.

Some walkers do start from the east coast, either because they wish to have the Lake District as the climax of their walk or because they have walked the route in the conventional direction. Wainwright's route begins on the Irish Sea, it crosses the West Cumbrian coastal plain and the Lake District, enters North Yorkshire as it crosses the Pennines. It crosses the Yorkshire Dales, the Vale of York and the North York Moors to reach the North Sea coast at Robin Hood's Bay. From the small seaside town of St Bees, where there is a "C to C" monument by the lifeboat station, the route follows the cliffs of St Bees Head north for a few miles before turning inland to pass through the villages of Sandwith, Moor Row and Cleator in the West Cumberland Plain, it climbs its first hill, follows its first valley before reaching Ennerdale Bridge. The path goes up the valley of Ennerdale along the edge of Ennerdale Water and past the Black Sail Hut youth hostel, it climbs alongside Loft Beck to the fells north of Great Gable, passes the disused slate workings and mountain tramway of Honister, descends to Rosthwaite in Borrowdale.

To leave Borrowdale, the route passes Stonethwaite and follows the stream up to Greenup Edge, before travelling along the Helm Crag ridge and down to Grasmere village. From Grasmere the route ascends to the pass of Grisedale Hause from where Wainwright offers a choice of three routes: via either of the mountains of Helvellyn or St Sunday Crag, or an easier descent along the valley of Grisedale, the three options reuniting at Patterdale village. From Patterdale, a stiff climb leads to Angle Tarn and Kidsty Pike — at 2,560 feet the highest point on the walk. There is a steep drop to Haweswater from where the route follows the north shore of the lake before leaving the Lake District and visiting Shap Abbey and the village of Shap itself. From Shap the route crosses the limestone pavement of the Westmorland limestone plateau to the village of Orton, on to Kirkby Stephen; the route climbs to the main west/east watershed of England on the ridge of Nine Standards Rigg, from where moorland trails and upland streams lead down into Swaledale.

To help mitigate the effects of erosion, there are alternative routes at different times of the year. At exactly its halfway point, the Coast to Coast crosses the Pennine Way at Keld. After Keld, there is a choice of two routes, both of which lead to Reeth. In lower Swaledale, the route passes Marrick Priory, through wooded hillside to the market town of Richmond. After Richmond, the route runs close to the River Wiske across the flat farming land of the Vale of Mowbray to the village of Danby Wiske, on to Ingleby Cross; the route climbs up to the western edge of the North York Moors to join the Cleveland Way and Lyke Wake Walk and is coincident with these routes over the major summits of the Cleveland Hills as it rises and falls to Clay Bank Top. The route continues with the Cleveland Way & Lyke Wake Walk, crossing U

Privacy software

Privacy software is software built to protect the privacy of its users. The software works in conjunction with Internet usage to control or limit the amount of information made available to third parties; the software can apply encryption or filtering of various kinds. Privacy software can refer to two different types of protection. One type is protecting a user's Internet privacy from the World Wide Web. There are software products that will mask or hide a user's IP address from the outside world in order to protect the user from identity theft; the second type of protection is hiding or deleting the users Internet traces that are left on their PC after they have been surfing the Internet. There is software that will erase all the users Internet traces and there is software that will hide and encrypt a user's traces so that others using their PC will not know where they have been surfing. One solution to enhance privacy software is whitelisting. Whitelisting is a process in which a company identifies the software that it will allow to and does not try to recognize malware.

Whitelisting permits acceptable software to run and either prevents anything else from running or lets new software run in a quarantined environment until the can verify its validity. Whereas whitelisting allows nothing to run unless it is on the whitelist, blacklisting allows everything to run unless it is on the black. A blacklist includes certain types of software that are not allowed to run in the company environment. For example, a company might blacklist peer-to-peer file sharing on its systems. In addition to software, people and web sites can be whitelisted or blacklisted. Intrusion detection systems are designed to detect all types of malicious network traffic and computer usage that cannot be detected by a firewall; these systems capture all network traffic flows and examine the contents of each packet for malicious traffic. Encryption is another form for privacy security; when organizations do not have secure channel for sending information, they use encryption to stop unauthorized eavesdroppers.

Encryption is the process of converting an original message into a form that cannot be read by anyone except the intended receiver. Steganography is sometimes used to hide messages from e-surveillance. Compared to using cryptography, that translates the text itself to another format, stenography hides the data rather than converting it. According to the company Privacy Canada, by using Steganography, they ensure that messages can be hidden from being exposed. Similar to cryptography, the message is encoded for protection in various ways: Text, Audio and Network Steganography, it is a substitute for cryptography. Privacy is different from anonymity in its usage. Anonymity is subordinate to privacy and might be desired for the exchange, retrieval or publication of specific information. Uses of privacy software are not free from legal issues. For instance, there are regulations for export of cryptography from the United States. Key disclosure law requires individuals to surrender cryptographic keys to law enforcement agencies.

Encryption laws in India carry many legal restrictions in diverse situations. Talks are in pipeline to include cyber security technologies, like encryption related software, under the Wassenaar Arrangement thereby making its export more cumbersome. Information privacy Internet privacy Encryption Privacy Proxy server Metadata removal tool Privacy engineering Privacy-enhancing technologies GNU Privacy Guard Pretty Easy privacy Portable Firefox Pretty Good Privacy Secure Shell I2P Tor uProxy Reset The Net PRISM Break ISO IEC 27701 Privacy Vendors Privacy Tools NIST Tutorials for privacy tools, by CryptoParty

9th Mechanized Brigade (Romania)

The 9th Mechanized Brigade "Mărășești" is a mechanized infantry brigade of the Romanian Land Forces. The unit was formed in 1879, after the Romanian War of Independence, as Divizia Activă de Dobrogea. In 1903 it was renamed to 9th Infantry Division, designation under which it participated in both world wars. In World War I it fought during the Battle of Mărăşeşti where it defended the most difficult sector, being under constant attacks for two weeks. For its heroic actions in this battle, the 9th Infantry Division received the honorific name "Mărăşeşti". In the Second World War, the division fought on both the Eastern Front, where it took part in the Battle of Stalingrad, on the Western Front, participating in the liberation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia. After World War II, the division went through some changes becoming the IXth Army Corps and the 9th Mechanized Division before being deactivated. Vasile Milea commanded the division in 1957-58. In 2004 the 34th Mechanized "Vasile Lupu" brigade was dissolved, with the remaining units passing to the Light Infantry Brigade headquartered at Clinceni.

The land occupied by the headquarters of the 34th Mechanized was given to the US army for a new base near the Mihail Kogălniceanu airport. In accordance with the transformation strategy of the Romanian Army, the 34th was reactivated on 1 October 2009 as 9th Mechanized Brigade "Mărăşeşti", taking over control of all units in Dobruja from the former 34th Mechanized Brigade. 9th Mechanized Brigade - Constanța 912th Tank Battalion - Murfatlar 341st Infantry Battalion - Topraisar 911th Infantry Battalion - Medgidia 345th Artillery Battalion - Medgidia 348th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion - Basarabi 168th Logistic Battalion - Constanța The 341st Infantry Battalion, "White Sharks", is the most experienced unit of the new brigade, with numerous international deployments, including Kosovo and Iraq. After the 34th Mechanized Brigade "Vasile Lupu" was reorganized in 2004 as the Light Infantry Brigade, the White Sharks were the component battalion that maintained the highest readiness, the only large military unit based in Dobruja