Squid are cephalopods in the superorder Decapodiformes with elongated bodies, large eyes, eight arms and two tentacles. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, they are soft-bodied, like octopuses, but have a small internal skeleton in the form of a rod-like gladius or pen, made of chitin. Squid diverged from other cephalopods during the Jurassic and occupy a similar role to teleost fish as open water predators of similar size and behaviour, they play an important role in the open water food web. The two long tentacles are used to grab the eight arms to hold and control it; the beak cuts the food into suitable size chunks for swallowing. Squid are rapid swimmers, moving by jet propulsion, locate their prey by sight, they are among the most intelligent of invertebrates, with groups of Humboldt squid having been observed hunting cooperatively. They are preyed on by sharks, other fish, sea birds and cetaceans sperm whales. Squid can change colour for signalling.
Some species are bioluminescent, using their light for counter-illumination camouflage, while many species can eject a cloud of ink to distract predators. Squid are used for human consumption with commercial fisheries in Japan, the Mediterranean, the southwestern Atlantic, the eastern Pacific and elsewhere, they are used in cuisines around the world known as "calamari". Squid have featured in literature since classical times in tales of giant squid and sea monsters. Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea; the squid orders Myopsida and Oegopsida are in the superorder Decapodiformes. Two other orders of decapodiform cephalopods are called squid, although they are taxonomically distinct from squids and differ recognizably in their gross anatomical features, they are the bobtail squid of order Sepiolida and the ram's horn squid of the monotypic order Spirulida. The vampire squid, however, is more related to the octopuses than to any squid; the cladogram, not resolved, is based on Sanchez et al, 2018.
Their molecular phylogeny used nuclear DNA marker sequences. If it is accepted that Sepiidae cuttlefish are a kind of squid the squids, excluding the vampire squid, form a clade as illustrated. Orders are shown in boldface. Crown coleoids diverged in the Permian. Squid diverged during the Jurassic. Both the coleoids and the teleost fish were involved in much adaptive radiation at this time, the two modern groups resemble each other in size, habitat and behaviour, however some fish moved into fresh water while the coleoids remained in marine environments; the ancestral coleoid was nautiloid-like with a strait septate shell that became immersed in the mantle and was used for buoyancy control. Four lines diverged from this, the cuttlefishes, the squids and the octopuses. Squid have differentiated from the ancestral mollusc such that the body plan has been condensed antero-posteriorly and extended dorso-ventrally. What may have been the foot of the ancestor is modified into a complex set of appendages around the mouth.
The sense organs are developed and include advanced eyes similar to those of vertebrates. The ancestral shell has been lost, with pen, remaining; the pen, made of a chitin-like material, is a feather-shaped internal structure that supports the squid's mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. The cuttlebone or sepion of the Sepiidae is calcareous and appears to have evolved afresh in the Tertiary. Squid are soft-bodied molluscs whose forms have been modified to adopt an active predatory lifestyle; the head and foot of the squid are at one end of a long body, this end is functionally anterior, leading the animal as it moves through the water. The foot has been transformed into a set of eight arms and two distinctive tentacles, which surround the mouth; the suckers may be stalked. Their rims may contain minute toothlike denticles; these features, as well as strong musculature, a small ganglion beneath each sucker to allow individual control, provide a powerful adhesion to grip prey. Hooks are present on the arms and tentacles in some species.
The two tentacles are retractile. Suckers are limited to the spatulate tip of the tentacle, known as the manus. In the mature male, the outer half of one of the left arms is hectocotylised – and ends in a copulatory pad rather than suckers; this is used for depositing a spermatophore inside the mantle cavity of a female. A ventral part of the foot has been converted into a funnel through which water exits the mantle cavity; the main body mass is enclosed in the mantle. These fins are not the main source of locomotion in most species; the mantle wall is muscled and internal. The visceral mass, covered by a thin, membranous epidermis, forms a cone-shaped posterior region known as the "visceral hump"; the mollusc shell is reduced to an internal, longitudinal chitinous "pen" in the functionally dorsal part of the animal. On the functionally ventral part of the body is an opening to the m
Generation X or Gen X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Demographers and researchers use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid 1960s to the early 1980s. Generation Xers were children during a time of shifting societal values and as children were sometimes called the "latchkey generation", due to reduced adult supervision as children compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home; as adolescents and young adults, they were dubbed the "MTV Generation". In the 1990s they were sometimes characterized as slackers and disaffected; some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of grunge and hip hop music, indie films. In midlife, research describes them as active and achieving a work–life balance; the cohort has been credited with entrepreneurial tendencies. The term Generation X has been used at various times throughout history to describe alienated youth.
In the 1950s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up following World War II. The term acquired its modern definition after the release of Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, a 1991 novel written by Canadian author Douglas Coupland. In 1987, Coupland had written a piece in Vancouver Magazine titled "Generation X", "the seed of what went on to become the book". Coupland referenced Billy Idol's band Generation X in the 1987 article and again in 1989, but Coupland has stated that The book's title came not from Billy Idol's band, as many supposed, but from the final chapter of a funny sociological book on American class structure titled Class, by Paul Fussell. In his final chapter, Fussell named an "X" category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status and social climbing that so frames modern existence. Billy Idol had attributed the name of his band to the book Generation X, a 1965 book on popular youth culture written by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett.
Author William Strauss noted that around the time Coupland's 1991 novel was published the symbol "X" was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released in 1992, that the name "Generation X" ended up sticking. The "X" refers to a desire not to be defined. In the U. S. some called Generation Xers the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom. Author Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, "Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn't have a name. I think that's germane." The cohort had been referred to as Post-Boomers, Baby Busters, New Lost Generation, latchkey kids, MTV Generation, the 13th Generation. Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post–World War II baby boom, representing a generational change from the baby boomers. Many researchers and demographers use dates which correspond to the fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date of 1965, such as Pew Research Center which uses a range of 1965–1980, Australia's McCrindle Research Center which uses 1965–1979, Gallup which uses 1965–1979.
PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, describes Generation X employees as those born from 1965 to 1980. Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe define Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981, they argue that those born between 1961 and 1964 are part of Generation X rather than the Baby Boomers because they are distinct from the Boomers in terms of cultural identity and shared historical experiences. Some researchers use dates similar to Strauss and Howe's such as the University of Michigan's Generation X Report, a quarterly research report from The Longitudinal Study of American Youth, which defines Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981. Author Jeff Gordinier, in his 2008 book X Saves the World, defines Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1977 but as late as 1980. Canadian author and professor David Foot divides the post-boomer generation into two groups: Generation X, born between 1960 and 1966. Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as 1960 to as late as 1965, with the final birth year as late as 1984.
Due in part to the frequent birth-year overlap and resulting incongruence existing between attempts to define Generation X and Millennials, a number of individuals born in the late 1970s or early 1980s see themselves as being on the cusp "between" the two generations. Names given to those born on the Generation X/Millennial cusp years include Xennials, The Lucky Ones, Generation Catalano, the Oregon Trail Generation. A 2010 Census report counted 84 million people living in the U. S. who are defined by birth years ranging from the early 1960s to the early 80s. In a 2012 article for the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the "Census counted 82.1 million" Gen Xers in the U. S; the Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers and Millennials "cover equal 20-year age spans". Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of M
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. Its history can be traced back nearly 5,000 years to archeological discoveries in the Middle East in Iran, it is a two player game where each player has fifteen pieces which move between twenty-four triangles according to the roll of two dice. The objective of the game is to be first to bear off, i.e. move all fifteen checkers off the board. Backgammon is a member of one of the oldest classes of board games. Backgammon involves a combination of luck. While the dice may determine the outcome of a single game, the better player will accumulate the better record over series of many games, somewhat like poker. With each roll of the dice, players must choose from numerous options for moving their checkers and anticipate possible counter-moves by the opponent; the optional use of a doubling cube allows players to raise the stakes during the game. Like chess, backgammon has been studied with great interest by computer scientists. Owing to this research, backgammon software has been developed, capable of beating world-class human players.
Backgammon playing pieces may be termed checkers, stones, counters, discs, chips, or nips. The objective is for players to remove all their checkers from the board before their opponent can do the same. In the most often-played variants the checkers are scattered at first; as the playing time for each individual game is short, it is played in matches where victory is awarded to the first player to reach a certain number of points. Each side of the board has a track of called points; the points form a continuous track in the shape of a horseshoe, are numbered from 1 to 24. In the most used setup, each player begins with fifteen chips, two are placed on their 24-point, three on their 8-point, five each on their 13-point and their 6-point; the two players move their chips from the 24-point towards the 1-point. Points 1 through 6 are called the home board or inner board, points 7 through 12 are called the outer board; the 7-point is referred to as the bar point, the 13-point as the midpoint. To start the game, each player rolls one die, the player with the higher number moves first using the numbers shown on both dice.
If the players roll the same number, they must roll again. Both dice must land flat on the right-hand side of the gameboard; the players take alternate turns, rolling two dice at the beginning of each turn. After rolling the dice, players must, if possible, move their checkers according to the number shown on each die. For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3, the player must move one checker six points forward, another or the same checker three points forward; the same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: six and three, or three and six. If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice. For example, a roll of 5-5 allows the player to make four moves of five spaces each. On any roll, a player must move according to the numbers on both dice if it is at all possible to do so. If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and his or her turn ends. If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used.
If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory. In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point, unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers, it may land on a point occupied by one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface. A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. There is no limit to the number of checkers. Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made. A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the 24-point, a roll of 2 on the 23-point, so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the 19-point. Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on points occupied by a single opposing checker. More than one checker can be on the bar at a time.
A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board. If a player has checkers on the bar, but rolls a combination that does not allow any of those checkers to re-enter, the player does not move. If the opponent's home board is "closed", there is no roll that will allow a player to enter a checker from the bar, that player stops rolling and playing until at least one point becomes open due to the opponent's moves; when all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them. A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player may use that die to bear
Blenheim, New Zealand
Blenheim is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an urban population of 31,600; the surrounding area is well known as the centre of New Zealand's wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealand's sunniest climates, with warm dry summers and cool, crisp winters. Blenheim is named after the Battle of Blenheim, where troops led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated a combined French and Bavarian force; the sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small Māori population as early as the 12th century. Archaeological evidence dates Polynesian human remains uncovered at Wairau Bar to the 13th century; the rich sea and bird life of the area would have supported such small communities. As the Māori population of the area increased, they developed the land to sustain the growing population. In the early 1700s canals and waterways were dug among the natural river courses, allowing for the first forms of farming in the area including that of fish and native water fowl.
A total of 18 km of channels are known to have been excavated before the arrival of European settlers. Māori in the Marlborough Region cultivated crops, including kumara; the area is home to the first serious clash of arms between Māori and the British settlers after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The Wairau Affray which occurred in what is now the village of Tuamarina; the settlement was known to Europeans as The Beaver or Beaverton due to its frequent flooding. Although the early history of Marlborough was associated with the Nelson settlement, the people of Marlborough desired independence from Nelson. In 1859, nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement, the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, Marlborough became a separate province. Although gold was discovered in the province in the early 1860s the resulting boom did not last, while the gold rush helped to expand the region, it was the development of pastoralism which provided the greatest long-term benefits. Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterbury's sheep stations in size and wealth.
Situated on the Wairau Plain, the town is flat with only its southern most fringe rising to the base of the Wither Hills. As the plain is surrounded by mountains on all but the eastern flank, open to Cook Strait, it is well protected from the frequent southerly weather fronts occurring during winters; the area does however experience some high wind events during the course of the year from the west where the wind is funneled down the Wairau Valley directly at the town. Open and exposed areas in and around Blenheim are hit quite hard by winds blowing inland from Cook Strait. Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Ōpaoa rivers, it is in experiences several earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim; the climate is very settled due to the rainshadow effect of the mountain ranges to the west which shelter Blenheim from the heaviest of rains that hit the western part of the South Island. Summers are warm and dry while winters are cool and frosty with clear sunny days that follow.
Snowfall is rare. Thunderstorms are an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered climate. There is a higher likelihood in summer, when afternoon heating can generate a buildup of clouds above the ranges; the highest recorded temperature is 37.8C, Recorded on 7 February 1973. The lowest is −8.8C. At the 2006 census, Blenheim had a population of a change of 7.0 % since the 2001 census. The June 2018 estimate puts Blenheim's population at 31,600. Following the 2013 census, Blenheim became the country's 17th main urban area, after Statistics New Zealand promoted the town from a secondary urban area. 21.3 % of people were compared with 22.7 % for New Zealand. 16.7% of people were 65 and over, compared with 12.1% for New Zealand. 28.7% of people 15 and over had a post-secondary-school qualification, compared with 32% for New Zealand. Most residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish and Dutch descent. Small Māori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist. Ethnic diversity has increased in recent years with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans and Asians, who work in the expanding viticulture sector.
The 2006 New Zealand census found that of people in the Blenheim Urban Area who completed the census forms: 78.4% belonged to the European or Pākehā ethnic group 1.6% belonged to the Asian ethnic group 10.5% belonged to the Māori ethnic group 1.6% belonged to the Pacific Island ethnic group 0.5% belonged to the Middle Eastern/Latin American/African ethnic groups 16.1% belonged to Other ethnic group The region's economy is rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming providing a major source of income. The modern inhabitants, as their forebearers, continue to utilise the marine resources available. Lake Grassmere is the country's only salt works, producing 50% of the countries total salt requirement. Fishing and mussel farming are extremely important in the region. Viticulture has a large impact on the local economy both directly, by way of employment and servicing required, by way of'wine tourism'; the local cellars attracted hundreds of thousands of international tourists every year.
The area hosts the annual Marlborough Wine &
The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy line, it was first released on April 21, 1989 in Japan, followed by North America three months and in Europe nearly a year after. Designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games, it was created and published by Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combined features from both the NES and the Game & Watch; the console features a dot-matrix screen, five control buttons, a 2 voice speaker, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with the one of several games, including Super Mario Land and Tetris. Several accessories were developed for the Game Boy, including a carrying pouch and the Game Boy Printer. Despite being technically inferior to its competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability, outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks.
Together with its successor, the Game Boy Color, the handheld has sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide. It is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1980s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket and the Game Boy Light. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s, until it was discontinued following the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001; the original internal codename for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", these initials came to be featured on the final product's model number, "DMG-01". The internal reception of the device was very poor; the Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located.
The on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers. The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game; the port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer. The link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris.
However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri would use the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Still other instructions are unique to this particular flavor of 8080/Z80 CPU. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from 8080 instruction set also; the IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 kiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 kiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: Approximately 59.7 frames per second Vertical blank duration: Approx 1.1 ms Screen size: 66 mm diagonal Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter.
And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" campaign, known in Japan as Game Boy Bros. Specifications for this unit remain the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen; this new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for Nintendo handhelds. Play It Loud! units were manufactured in red, black, white and clear or sometimes called X-Ray in the UK. Most common are the yellow, red and black, Green is scarce but blue and white are the rarest. Blue was a Europe and Japan only release, White was a Japanese majority release with UK Toys R Us s
Heart of Darkness
Heart of Darkness is a novella by Polish-British novelist Joseph Conrad about a narrated voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State in the so-called heart of Africa. Charles Marlow, the narrator, tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames; this setting provides the frame for Marlow's story of his obsession with the ivory trader Kurtz, which enables Conrad to create a parallel between what Conrad calls "the greatest town on earth", Africa as places of darkness. Central to Conrad's work is the idea that there is little difference between so-called civilised people and those described as savages. Issued as a three-part serial story in Blackwood's Magazine to celebrate the thousandth edition of the magazine, Heart of Darkness has been re-published and translated into many languages, it provided the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film Apocalypse Now. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Heart of Darkness 67th on their list of the 100 best novels in English of the twentieth century.
In 1890, at the age of 32, Conrad was appointed by a Belgian trading company to serve on one of its steamers. While sailing up the Congo River from one station to another, the captain became ill and Conrad assumed command, he guided the ship up the tributary Lualaba River to the trading company's innermost station, Kindu, in Eastern Kongo. When Conrad began to write the novella, eight years after returning from Africa, he drew inspiration from his travel journals, he described Heart of Darkness as "a wild story" of a journalist who becomes manager of a station in the interior and makes himself worshipped by a tribe of savages. Thus described, the subject is not; the tale was first published as a three-part serial, in February and April 1899, in Blackwood's Magazine. In 1902, Heart of Darkness was included in the book Youth: a Narrative, Two Other Stories; the volume consisted of Youth: a Narrative, Heart of Darkness and The End of the Tether in that order. In 1917, for future editions of the book, Conrad wrote an "Author's Note" where he, after denying any "unity of artistic purpose" underlying the collection, discusses each of the three stories and makes light commentary on the character Marlow—the narrator of the tales within the first two stories.
He mentions how Youth marks the first appearance of Marlow. On 31 May 1902, in a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad remarked, I call your own kind self to witness... the last pages of Heart of Darkness where the interview of the man and the girl locks in—as it were—the whole 30000 words of narrative description into one suggestive view of a whole phase of life and makes of that story something quite on another plane than an anecdote of a man who went mad in the Centre of Africa. There have been many proposed sources for the character of Kurtz. Georges-Antoine Klein, an agent who became ill and died aboard Conrad's steamer, is proposed by scholars and literary critics as a basis for Kurtz; the principal figures involved in the disastrous "rear column" of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition have been identified as sources, including column leader Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, slave trader Tippu Tip and the expedition leader, Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley. Conrad's biographer Norman Sherry judged that Arthur Hodister, a Belgian solitary but successful trader, who spoke three Congolese languages and was venerated by the Congolese villagers among whom he worked to the point of deification, served as the main model, while scholars have refuted this hypothesis.
Adam Hochschild, in King Leopold's Ghost, believes that the Belgian soldier Léon Rom influenced the character. Peter Firchow mentions the possibility that Kurtz is a composite, modelled on various figures present in the Congo Free State at the time as well as on Conrad's imagining of what they might have had in common. Aboard the Nellie, anchored in the River Thames near Gravesend, Charles Marlow tells his fellow sailors about the events that led to his appointment as captain of a river steamboat for an ivory trading company; as a child, Marlow had been fascinated by "the blank spaces" on maps by the biggest, which by the time he had grown up was no longer blank but turned into "a place of darkness". Yet there remained a big river, "resembling an immense snake uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at rest curving afar over a vast country and its tail lost in the depths of the land"; the image of this river on the map fascinated Marlow "as a snake would a bird". Feeling as though "instead of going to the centre of a continent I were about to set off for the centre of the earth", Marlow takes passage on a French steamer bound for the African coast and into the interior.
After more than thirty days the ship anchors off the seat of government near the mouth of the big river. Marlow, with still some two hundred miles to go, takes passage on a little sea-going steamer captained by a Swede, he departs some thirty miles up the river. Work on the railway is going on. Marlow enters a narrow ravine to stroll in the shade under the trees, finds himself in "the gloomy circle of some Inferno": the place is full of diseased Africans who worked on the railroad and now await their deaths, their sickened bodies as thin as air. Marlow witnesses the scene "horror-struck". Marlow has to wait for ten days in the company's Outer Station, where he sleep