Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Washington Square (novel)
Washington Square is a short novel by Henry James. The plot of the novel is based upon a story told to James by his close friend. The book is often compared with Jane Austens work for the clarity and grace of its prose, James was not a great fan of Washington Square itself. He tried to read it over for inclusion in the New York Edition of his fiction but found that he could not, other readers, have sufficiently enjoyed the book to make it one of the more popular works of the Jamesian canon. The novel is told from an omniscient point of view. The narrator often offers his comments directly to the reader The novella begins at a distance from the characters and it recounts in detail the story of Catherines romance with Morris Townsend. When Morris jilts her, the focus back to a long view. As James puts it, Our story has moved with very short steps. The final few chapters are taken more in short steps. The bitterest irony in the story is that Dr. Sloper, a brilliant and successful physician, is right about Morris Townsend.
If the doctor had been incorrect in his appraisal of the worthless Townsend, as it is, the doctors head functions perfectly but his heart has grown cold after the death of his beautiful and gifted wife. Catherine gradually grows throughout the story, ultimately gaining the ability to judge her situation accurately, as James puts it, From her point of view the great facts of her career were that Morris Townsend had trifled with her affection, and that her father had broken its spring. Nothing could ever alter these facts, they were there, like her name, her age. Nothing could ever undo the wrong or cure the pain that Morris had inflicted on her, Catherine will never be brilliant, but she learns to be clear-sighted. Everybody likes Washington Square, even the denigrators of Henry James, wrote critic Donald Hall, even the rusty plot revolving around the will has charmed many critics with its old-fashioned simplicity. Catherines slow but unmistakable development into independence and wisdom is a success for James and has been much appreciated by critics.
The play was adapted for film in 1949, and starred Olivia de Havilland as Catherine, Ralph Richardson as Dr. Sloper and it was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won four. Both play and movie hewed closely to the novel and cribbed many of the best lines directly from James dialogue, in 1972 Mexican director Jose Luis Ibañez made a movie version of this novel called Victoria and starred Julissa, Enrique Alvarez Félix, Guillermo Murray and Rita Macedo
Paulo Betti is a Brazilian stage and television actor. He works occasionally as a producer and director. Paulo Sérgio Betti was born on September 10,1952 in Rafard, in over thirty years of career, Betti has acted in over 20 telenovelas and in 21 feature films. His most notable role was as the revolutionary Captain Carlos Lamarca in Lamarca and Zuzu Angel, for his role in Lamarca, he won the São Paulo Association of Art Critics Award for Best Film Actor in 1995. He hosted the show Novos Nomes em Cena of Canal Brasil, Betti was married to actress Eliane Giardini between 1973 and 1997. The couple had two daughters and Mariana and he was married to actress Maria Ribeiro, mother of his only son João. In 1989 Betti was one of the producers of the video for the famous jingle Lula Lá for the presidential candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from the Workers Party. In this video, several artists of the time sing the jingle. as TV director 1995 - Biu
The Screaming Skull
The Screaming Skull is a 1958 independently made American black-and-white horror film, produced by John Kneubuhl, T. Frank Woods, and John Coots, directed by Alex Nicol, that stars John Hudson, Peggy Webber, Russ Conway, the Screaming Skull marked Nicols directorial debut, he decided to try it because he felt that he was not acting in the roles which he wanted. The film was distributed by American International Pictures on a bill in different locations with either Earth vs. the Spider or Terror from the Year 5000. The films storyline concerns a neurotic newlywed woman who believes she is being haunted by the ghost of her new husbands previous wife, inside the coffin is a card that reads Reserved for You. Newlyweds Jenni and Eric move into Erics palatial country home, Jenni is Erics second wife, his first wife Marion died when she accidentally slipped and hit her head on the edge of a decorative pond on the estate. At the home they meet Erics friends, the Reverend Snow and his wife, as well as Mickey, the developmentally disabled gardener.
Eric privately mentions to the Snows that Jenni spent time in a following the sudden death of both her parents, and Mrs. Snow reveals that Jenni is very wealthy. Jenni is disturbed both by Mickeys belief that Marions ghost wanders the estate and by Marions self-portrait inside the house, when she begins to hear unexplained screaming noises and see skulls around her house, she believes that Marion is haunting her. Though Eric speculates to Jenni that Mickey, who was a friend of Marion and thus dislikes Jenni, may be behind the trickery. Eric suggests to remove Marions self-portrait from the home and Jenni take the painting outside and burn it. While they clean up the remains of the painting, a skull emerges from the ashes, while Jenni panics at the sight of the skull, Eric denies that the skull is there. Jenni faints and Eric withdraws the skull and hides it, revealing that he was responsible for the trickery all along in an effort to get hold of her wealth, believing she has finally lost her sanity, Jenni resolves to be committed.
She tells Eric that the property will be meticulously searched for the skull as a last resort. Before Eric can retrieve it, Mickey secretly steals the skull and brings it to the Reverend and that night, Eric prepares to murder Jenni and stage it as a suicide. Jenni sees Marions ghost in Mickeys greenhouse and flees back to the house, when she enters, Eric begins throttling her. The ghost appears and chases Eric outside and about the property, it finally corners and attacks him, after Jenni regains consciousness, the Snows arrive. Mrs. Snow comforts a hysterical Jenni and the Reverend discovers Erics body in the pond, some undisclosed time later and the Snows depart from the house. Reverend Snow declares whether or not Marions death was an accident will remain a mystery and he decided to try directing a film, as he felt that he had not been performing the roles that he desired
The Altar of the Dead
The Altar of the Dead is a short story by Henry James, first published in his collection Terminations in 1895. He meets a woman who shares his ideals, only to find that the past places what seems to be a barrier between them. Although James was not religious in any sense, the story shows a deep spirituality in its treatment of mortality. Aging George Stransom holds sacred the memory of the love of his life, Mary Antrim. One day Stransom happens to read of the death of Acton Hague, Stransom starts to dwell on the many friends and acquaintances he is now losing to death. He begins to light candles at an altar in a Catholic church, one for each of his Dead. Later he notices a woman who appears at the church. He intuitively understands that she too honours her Dead, and they gradually become friends. However Stransom discovers that her Dead number only one, Acton Hague, Hague had wronged her too, but she has forgiven him. When his friend realises Stransoms feelings about Hague, she declares that she can no longer honour Hague at Stransoms altar, Stransom cannot bring himself to resolve the issue by forgiving Hague and adding a candle for him.
This disagreement drives the two friends apart, Stransoms friend ceases visiting the altar, and Stransom himself can find no peace there. Months later, now dying, visits his altar one last time and it suddenly made him contrast that very rapture with the bliss he had refused to another. This breath of the passion immortal was all other had asked. He turns and sees his friend, who has become reconciled to him, having decided to visit the altar to honour not her own Dead. Stransom, tries to tell her that he is ready to add a candle for Hague, the story ends with his face showing the whiteness of death. Thus Stransoms last words are rendered ambiguous and his Notebooks show this idea crystallizing into the story of a man who would make an actual private religion of remembrance of his dead. But the story is far from a morbid, obsessive essay on death, the relationship between Stransom and his fellow-worshipper shows how forgiveness and love can overcome the wrongs of the past. The story is a parable for the even more than an homage to the dead
The Princess Casamassima
The Princess Casamassima is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly in 1885-1886 and as a book in 1886. It is the story of an intelligent but confused young London bookbinder, Hyacinth Robinson, who involved in radical politics. The book is unusual in the Jamesian canon for dealing with such a violent political subject, but it is often paired with another novel published by James in the same year, The Bostonians, which is concerned with political issues, though in a much less tragic manner. Amanda Pynsent, a seamstress, has adopted Hyacinth Robinson, the illegitimate son of her old friend Florentine Vivier, a Frenchwoman of less than sterling repute. Florentine had stabbed her lover to death several years ago, Hyacinth eventually learns that the dying woman is his mother and that she murdered his father. Hyacinth, now a man and a skilled bookbinder, meets revolutionary Paul Muniment. Hyacinth has a coarse but lively girlfriend, Millicent Henning, there Hyacinth meets the radiantly beautiful Princess Casamassima.
The Princess has become a revolutionary herself and now apart from her dull husband. Meanwhile, Hyacinth has committed himself to carrying out a terrorist assassination, though the exact time, Hyacinth visits the Princess at her country home and tells her about his parents. When he returns to London, Hyacinth finds Pinnie dying and he comforts her in her final days, travels to France and Italy on his small inheritance. This trip completes Hyacinths conversion to a love for the sinful but beautiful world, still, he does not attempt to escape his vow to carry out the assassination. But when the comes, he turns the gun on himself instead of its intended victim. At first glance, this seems very different from James usual work because of its concentration on radical politics. And its true that the book comes closer to classic Naturalism than any other fiction in the Jamesian canon. The influence of French Naturalists like Émile Zola is evident in the scenes, the depiction of the revolutionary movement.
But the novel explores themes familiar from James other work. Hyacinth always seems to be an outsider, unable to participate fully in the life around him and he commits himself to the revolution and wavers. He is attracted to the beauty of the world, but cant enjoy it completely because he sees how it is purchased at the cost of so much human suffering
Watch and Ward
Watch and Ward is a short novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly in 1871 and as a book in 1878. This was James first attempt at a novel, though he virtually disowned the book in life, James was still in his apprentice stage as a writer, and Watch and Ward shows predictable immaturity. Its an odd, sometimes melodramatic tale of how protagonist Roger Lawrence adopts an orphaned girl, Nora Lambert. But complications ensue, sometimes in a bizarre manner, James called Roderick Hudson his first novel instead of Watch and Ward. Wealthy and leisured Roger Lawrence adopts twelve-year-old Nora Lambert after her father kills himself in the room next to Lawrences. Roger had refused financial assistance to the man, and he feels remorse, Nora is not a pretty child but she soon starts to develop, as does Rogers idea of eventually marrying her. Unfortunately for Roger, once Nora matures into a young woman. After various adventures Nora winds up in the clutches of Fenton in New York City and Nora marry in a conventional happy ending.
The melodramatic doings in Watch and Ward probably caused James some embarrassment in years, many critics have pointed out that melodrama always held a certain fascination for James. Watch and Ward is only a particularly gauche example, James technique is primitive at such an early stage of his career. Noras development into the beautiful swan from the ugly duckling is told rather than shown, hints of the master-to-be are apparent from the well-described scenes of New York low life and the charm that Nora eventually displays. A humorous side note is some of the language that James slips into the novel. At one point Roger caught himself wondering whether, at the worst, William James and William Dean Howells were uncomfortable with such imagery, though Henry might have enjoyed their uneasiness. Critics have almost unanimously agreed with James disowning of Watch and Ward as his first novel in favor of the more substantial. While Nora gets kudos as a pleasant enough ingénue, the characters are forgettable.
James did revise Watch and Ward for book publication in 1878, but he dropped the novel from his 1883 collective edition and soon seemed to want to forget about it completely
Confidence is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in Scribners Monthly in 1879 and as a book the same year. This light and somewhat awkward comedy centers on artist Bernard Longueville, scientist Gordon Wright, the plot rambles through various romantic entanglements before reaching an uncomplicated, but still believable happy ending. While sketching in Siena, Bernard Longueville meets Angela Vivian and her mother, Bernards friend and self-proclaimed mad scientist Gordon Wright calls Longueville to Baden-Baden to pass judgment on whether he should marry Angela. Bernard recommends against it, based on his belief that Angela is something of a mysterious coquette, so Gordon marries the lightweight Blanche Evers. After a couple years Longueville again meets Angela at a French beach resort and they get engaged, and Angela tells Bernard that she had refused Gordon when he proposed to her. Eventually Angela manages to reconcile Gordon and Blanche, who were becoming estranged due to an extramarital affair Blanche had.
It may well be futile to look for themes in this account of rather entangled romances, the book only seems to say that people can always deceive themselves and life cant be regulated on scientific principles, which falls on the shoulders of Gordon as a main character. Some have suggested that the contrast between scientist Wright and artist Longueville reflects the difference between William and Henry James, thats always a possibility, of course, but the book makes little of the comparison, instead preferring to make new connections between the two heroes. Angelas interventions at the conclusion, where she tidies up everybodys lives and makes things just perfect
Author, Author (novel)
Author, Author is a novel by David Lodge, written in 2004. The book is based on the life of the author Henry James and it was released at about the same time as The Master by Colm Tóibín and other books about James, and Lodge wrote The Year of Henry James, The Story of a Novel about this. Lodge populates his novel with several of the most famous figures of English literature from the time of the setting in the late nineteenth century. The novel opens with a framing device wherein we are shown what is happening in the London home of the dying novelist at the beginning of World War I. This story, whose hero is obsessed by a belief that his life will be marked by an unknown catastrophe. Now we proceed back in time to the years of James life and are introduced to a large. Among those we meet are George du Maurier, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and he is finally driven to write fiction himself and he astonishes James and the entire literary world by producing the bestselling novel Trilby. Much of Lodges book is built upon James own obsession with attracting a larger readership than his books have yet garnered.
Meanwhile, James is writing prolifically himself with little financial or critical success. We are given a long and funny account of James humiliating quest to write a play for the London stage. There is an ironic and entertaining distance set up here between James feelings of failure and inadequacy and what we now know about his final reputation. In this sense, the novel can be seen as both an homage and as an attempt to rescue the historical James from his own feeling of obscurity. The book includes a portrait of the friendship that James formed during this time with the American author Constance Fenimore Woolson, Lodge suggests that their relationship had a romantic dimension. As in real life, Woolson commits suicide while traveling in Italy, Lodges depiction of their relationship allows him subtly to explore James alleged lifelong virginity and to conjecture somewhat about his notorious prudishness. Alan Hollinghursts review in the Guardian
Sylvia Plath was an American poet and short story writer. Born in Boston, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the University of Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a poet and she was married to fellow poet Ted Hughes from 1956 until they separated in September 1962. They lived together in the United States and in England and had two children and Nicholas, Plath was clinically depressed for most of her adult life, which was treated multiple times with electroconvulsive therapy. Plath is credited with advancing the genre of poetry and is best known for her two published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel. She wrote The Bell Jar, a novel published shortly before her death. In 1982, she won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for The Collected Poems, Plath was born on October 27,1932, in Bostons Jamaica Plain neighborhood. Her mother, Aurelia Schober Plath, was a second-generation American of Austrian descent, Plaths father was an entomologist and a professor of biology at Boston University who authored a book about bumblebees.
On April 27,1935, Plaths brother Warren was born, Plaths mother, had grown up in Winthrop, and her maternal grandparents, the Schobers, had lived in a section of the town called Point Shirley, a location mentioned in Plaths poetry. While living in Winthrop, eight-year-old Plath published her first poem in the Boston Heralds childrens section, over the next few years, Plath published multiple poems in regional magazines and newspapers. At age 11, Plath began keeping a journal, in addition to writing, she showed early promise as an artist, winning an award for her paintings from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1947. Even in her youth, Plath was ambitiously driven to succeed, Otto Plath died on November 5,1940, a week and a half after Plaths eighth birthday, of complications following the amputation of a foot due to untreated diabetes. He had become ill shortly after a friend died of lung cancer. Comparing the similarities between his friends symptoms and his own, Otto became convinced that he, had lung cancer, raised as a Unitarian Christian, Plath experienced a loss of faith after her fathers death and remained ambivalent about religion throughout her life.
Her father was buried in Winthrop Cemetery, Massachusetts, a visit to her fathers grave prompted Plath to write the poem Electra on Azalea Path. After Ottos death, Aurelia moved her children and her parents to 26 Elmwood Road, Massachusetts in 1942. In one of her last prose pieces, Plath commented that her first nine years sealed themselves off like a ship in a bottle—beautiful inaccessible, Plath attended Bradford Senior High School in Wellesley, graduating in 1950. Just after graduating high school, she had her first national publication in the Christian Science Monitor. In 1950, Plath attended Smith College and excelled academically and she wrote to her mother, The world is splitting open at my feet like a ripe, juicy watermelon
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible or a physical object, authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities, Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature. As an illustration, one given by Dr. E. Theories of creativity have focused on a variety of aspects, the dominant factors are usually identified as the four Ps — process, product and place. A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms, theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking, or those describing the staging of the creative process are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity, the psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it involves the ability to produce more. A focus on the nature of the person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, expertise, exploratory behavior.
A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility. The lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō to create, the word create appeared in English as early as the 14th century, notably in Chaucer, to indicate divine creation. However, its meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment. Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece, Ancient China, the ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to to create or creator except for the expression poiein, which only applied to poiesis and to the poietes who made it. Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation, asked in The Republic, Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something. He answers, Certainly not, he merely imitates and it is commonly argued that the notion of creativity originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration.
According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin, the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis, this is not creativity in the modern sense, which did not arise until the Renaissance. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the province of God. A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture, for instance and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative daemon or genius, linked to the sacred or the divine. However, none of these views are similar to the concept of creativity. It was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen, not as a conduit for the divine, the rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West probably until the Renaissance and even later
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions