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The Birds of America

The Birds of America is a book by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, containing illustrations of a wide variety of birds of the United States. It was first published as a series in Edinburgh and London. Not all of the specimens illustrated in the work were collected by Audubon himself, some were sent to him by John Kirk Townsend who had collected them on Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth's 1834 expedition with Thomas Nuttall; the work consists of 435 hand-coloured, life-size prints, made from engraved plates, measuring around 39 by 26 inches. It includes images of six now-extinct birds: Carolina parakeet, passenger pigeon, Labrador duck, great auk, Eskimo curlew, pinnated grouse. Art historians describe Audubon's work as being of high quality and printed with "artistic finesse." The plant life backgrounds of some 50 of the bird studies were painted by Audubon's assistant Joseph Mason but he is not credited for his work in the book. He shot many specimen birds as well as maintaining supplies for Audubon.

Audubon authored the companion book Ornithological Biographies. About 1820, around the age of 35, Audubon declared his intention to paint every bird in North America. In his bird art, he forsook oil paint, the medium of serious artists of the day, in favour of watercolours and pastel crayons; as early as 1807, he developed a method of using wires and threads to hold dead birds in lifelike poses while he drew them. In 1823, Audubon went to Philadelphia and New York, looking for financial support using subscriptions to enable him to publish his artwork, he sold the copper engraving plates through on a subscription basis in North Europe. Those subscribed obtained five plates at a time; each subscriber received prints of a larger bird and a mid-sized bird. The prints were produced from 1827 to 1838 that cost each subscriber around $1,000, it is thought. Each set consists of 435 individual plates; each plate was engraved and hand colored by Robert Havell of London. While William Lizars, of Edinburgh, engraved the first ten plates, Havell finished some of those.

Audubon found support lacking. As a result, in 1826, he set sail for the United Kingdom with 250 of his original illustrations, looking for the financial support of subscribers and the technical abilities of engravers and printers. After exhibiting his drawings in Liverpool and Manchester, he journeyed to Edinburgh, where he met the accomplished engraver William H. Lizars. Lizars engraved up to ten of the first plates but was unable to continue the project when his colourists went on strike. In 1827, Audubon engaged the noted London animal engraver Robert Havell Jr. and his father, Robert Havell Sr. Havell Jr. oversaw the project through to its completion in 1838. The original edition of The Birds of America was printed on handmade paper 39.5 inches tall by 28.5 inches wide. The principal printing technique was copperplate etching, but engraving and aquatint were used. Colorists applied each color in assembly-line fashion. Audubon funded the costly printing project through a pay-as-you-go subscription.

From 1826 to 1829, he travelled around the UK and to Paris, lecturing on ornithology and frontier American life in an effort to entice wealthy patrons to subscribe to the series of prints. Subscribers included the French king Charles X, the British queen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Lord Spencer, the Americans Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Prints were issued in sets of five every month or two in tin cases and each set included one large bird, one medium-sized bird, three small birds; the plates were published unbound and without any text to avoid having to furnish free copies to the public libraries in England. It is estimated that not more than 200 complete sets were compiled. An accompanying text, issued separately, was written by Audubon and the Scottish naturalist and ornithologist William MacGillivray and published in five volumes in Edinburgh between 1831 and 1839, under the title Ornithological Biography, or, An account of the habits of the birds of the United States of America; the additional cost of the five volumes of text brought the total cost of plates and text to about $1000.

After the folio edition was completed, Audubon decided to produce a more affordable edition and employed a lithographer from Philadelphia named J. T. Bowen. Bowen and his team created a smaller Royal Octavo edition, issued to subscribers in seven volumes and completed in 1844. Five more octavo editions were completed through 1877; the octavo edition used the text of the Ornithological biography but increased the number of plates to 500, separating some birds which had appeared together. Some new drawings were included by Audubon's youngest son John Woodhouse Audubon, though Audubon and members of Bowen's team contributed; the Bien Edition, was a full-sized reissue published in 1858 by Roe Lockwood in New York under the supervision of John Woodhouse Audubon. Due in part to the Civil War, the edition was never finished; this edition included none of the original text. Fewer than 100 subscriptions were sold. Audubon's practice of obtaining his subjects has been described as:"Audubon used what we like to call today as the barrel-of-the-shotgun method...

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List of Roman Catholic churches in Metro Manila

This is a list of Roman Catholic churches in Metro Manila, Philippines. The Ecclesiastical Province of Manila covers the Archdiocese of Manila and its eight sub-dioceses in Metro Manila and surrounding areas of the Greater Manila Area. City of Manila Chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament Holy Family Parish Immaculate Conception Parish Most Holy Trinity Parish Our Lady of the Assumption Parish Our Lady of Fatima Parish Church Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage Parish Church Our Lady of Peñafrancia Parish Church Our Lady of Perpetual Help Parish Church Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish Saint Anthony of Padua Parish Saint Anthony of Padua shrine Saint John Bosco Parish Saint Mary Goretti Parish Saint Peter the Apostle Parish Saint Pius X Parish Church San Roque de Manila Parish San Roque de Sampaloc Parish Santa Monica Parish Santisimo Rosario Parish | UST Chapel Nuestra Señora de Salvacion De Manila Parish Santo Niño Parish Church Shrine of Saint Lazarus Shrine of the Holy Face of Jesus Caloocan Birhen ng Lourdes Parish Church Our Lady of Lujan Parish San Jose Parish Church San Pancracio Parish Church Las Piñas Our Lady of Fatima Parish Christ The King Parish Church Holy Family Parish Church Last Supper Of Our Lord Parish Church Mary Immaculate Parish Church Our Lady Of The Pillar Parish Makati Holy Cross Parish Church Holy Family Parish Church Mary, Mirror of Justice Parish Church Mater Dolorosa Parish Church Our Lady of La Paz Parish Church Saint Alphonsus Mary de Liguori Parish Church Malabon Immaculate Conception Parish Church Santo Rosario de Malabon Parish Church Mandaluyong Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish Church Our Lady of Fatima Parish Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish Church Saint Dominic Savio Parish Church Saint Francis of Assisi Parish Church Marikina Holy Family Parish Church Immaculate Conception Parish Church Saint Gabriel of Our Lady Of Sorrows Parish Church Saint Paul of The Cross Parish Church San Jose Manggagawa Parish Church Muntinlupa Chapel of the Forgiving Lord Immaculate Heart of Mary Chapel Ina ng Awa Parish L'Annunziata Parish Mary, Cause of Our Joy Parish Church Mary, Mother of God Parish Archdiocesan Shrine Our Lady of Star Chapel Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish Church Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish Saint Benedict Chapel Saint James The Great Parish Church Saint Jerome Emiliani and Santa Susana Parish Saint Peregrine Laziosi Parish San Nicolas de Tolentino Parish San Pedro Calungsod Quasi-Parish San Roque Parish Sto.

Niño Chapel Navotas San Roque Parish Church Parañaque El Shaddai House of Prayer Holy Eucharist Parish Church Jesus The Divine Healer Parish Church Mary Help of Christians National Shrine Mary Queen of Apostles Parish Our Lady of Beautiful Love Parish Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish Our Lady of Unity Parish Church Our Lady of Peace Parish Church Presentation of The Child Jesus Parish Church Resurrection of Our Lord Parish Church San Antonio de Padua Parish Church San Agustin Parish Church Santo Niño Parish Church Santo Rita de Cascia Parish Church St. Joseph Parish Church Pasay Our Lady of The Airways Parish Church San Juan Nepomuceno Parish San Rafael Parish Church San Roque Parish Church Santa Clara de Montefalco Church Santa Rita de Cascia Parish Church San Isidro Labrador Parish Church Our Lady of Fatima Parish Church Our Lady of Sorrows Parish Church Archdiocesan Shrine of Jesus the Way, the Truth and the Life Mary Comforter of the Afflicted Parish Church Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament Parish Church Pasig Holy Family Parish Church Immaculate Conception Parish Church San Antonio Abad Parish Church Santa Lucia Parish Church Santa Rosa de Lima Parish Church Quezon City Christ The King Parish Church Holy Cross Parish Church Holy Family Parish Church Holy Family Parish Church Holy Family Quasi-Parish Church Holy Spirit Parish Church Immaculate Conception Parish Church Immaculate Conception Parish Church Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish Church Mary, The Immaculate Conception Parish Church Most Holy Redeemer Parish Church Nativity of Our Lord Parish Church Our Lady of Consolation Parish Church Our Lady of Fatima Parish Church Our Lady of Hope Parish Church Our Lady of Mercy Parish Church Our Lady of The Miraculous Medal Parish Church Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish Church Our Lady of Pentecost Parish Church Our Lady of Perpetual Help Parish Church Our Lady of Perpetual Help Parish Church Resurrection of Our Lord Parish Church Saint Jude Quasi-Parish Church Saint Pa

List of Jacksonville Jaguars seasons

This is a list of seasons completed by the Jacksonville Jaguars American football franchise of the National Football League. The list documents the season-by-season records of the Jaguars' franchise from 1995 to present, including postseason records, league awards for individual players or head coaches; the Jaguars, along with the Carolina Panthers, joined the NFL as 1995 expansion teams. Jacksonville is one of four teams to have never played in a Super Bowl, they have played in the AFC Championship in the 1996, 1999, 2017 seasons. "Jacksonville Jaguars History". CBS Sports. Retrieved January 28, 2008. " – History – Yearly Standings". Retrieved January 28, 2008. "Pro Football Hall of Fame – Jacksonville Jaguars". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 28, 2008. "Jacksonville Jaguars". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2008. "Jacksonville Jaguars". Sports E-Cyclopedia. Retrieved January 28, 2008. "Jacksonville Jaguars History".

Retrieved January 28, 2008. "History – Jacksonville Jaguars". Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2008

Castaway (film)

Castaway is a 1986 British biographical-drama film starring Amanda Donohoe and Oliver Reed, directed by Nicolas Roeg. It was adapted from the eponymous 1984 book by Lucy Irvine, telling of her experiences of staying for a year with writer Gerald Kingsland on the isolated island of Tuin, between New Guinea and Australia. In 1980, Lucy Irvine responded to an advert placed by writer Gerald Kingsland and they became self-imposed castaways for a year on the isolated and uninhabited island of Tuin, in the Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia. Chosen by Kingsland from over 50 applicants, Irvine agreed to marry him to satisfy immigration restrictions before they travelled to Tuin, she was 25 and Kingsland 49. After a year they returned home and in 1983 she published her account of the experience in Castaway, used as the basis for the 1986 film. In 2011, Donohoe recalled her experience working with Reed, stating: "Well, naked on a desert island with Oliver Reed – it was a tabloid fantasy, wasn't it?

He was an alcoholic and his behaviour was erratic. His personal life wasn't working but he never crossed any lines professionally." The film opens with a song by English artist Kate Bush, "Be Kind to My Mistakes". A edited version appeared on the 1997 re-release of her album Hounds of Love; the soundtrack begins with a different version of the same song, released as a 7-inch single, but never on CD. The rest of the soundtrack album is instrumental, composed by Stanley Myers. Castaway on IMDb Castaway at AllMovie Castaway at Rotten Tomatoes

Yoo Eun-hae

Yoo Eun-hae is a South Korean politician serving as the Minister of Education and ex officio Deputy Prime Minister of South Korea since her appointment by President Moon Jae-in in October 2018 as well as a two-term parliamentarian of ruling party. She is the first woman to serve as a Deputy Prime Minister in South Korea. While studying at Sungkyunkwan University, she joined pro-democracy movement against authoritarian regime of then-president Chun, she has bachelor's degree in Eastern Philosophy from Sungkyunkwan University and Master's degree in public policy from Ewha Woman's University. She first met Moon when he then-lawyer helped her family to receive benefits from her father's overwork death, she was the spokesperson of Moon's second presidential campaign in 2017. Minister of Education

Lieutenant Governor of Alberta

The Lieutenant Governor of Alberta is the viceregal representative in Alberta of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. The Lieutenant Governor of Alberta is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties; the present, 18th, Lieutenant Governor of Alberta is Lois Mitchell, who has served in the role since 12 June 2015. The Lieutenant Governor of Alberta is vested with a number of governmental duties and is expected to undertake various ceremonial roles; the lieutenant governor, him or herself a member and Chancellor of the order, will induct deserving individuals into the Alberta Order of Excellence and, upon installation, automatically becomes a Knight or Dame of Justice and the Vice-Prior in Alberta of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. The viceroy further presents other provincial honours and decorations, as well as various awards that are named for and presented by the lieutenant governor.

These honours are presented at official ceremonies, which count amongst hundreds of other engagements the lieutenant governor partakes in each year, either as host or guest of honour. At these events, the lieutenant governor's presence is marked by the lieutenant governor's standard, consisting of a blue field bearing the escutcheon of the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Alberta surmounted by a crown and surrounded by ten gold maple leaves, symbolizing the ten provinces of Canada. Within Alberta, the lieutenant governor follows only the sovereign in the province's order of precedence, preceding other members of the Canadian Royal Family and the Queen's federal representative; the office of Lieutenant Governor of Alberta came into being in 1905, upon Alberta's entry into Canadian Confederation, evolved from the earlier position of Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories. Since that date, 17 lieutenant governors have served the province, amongst whom were notable firsts, such as Norman Kwong—the first Asian-Canadian Lieutenant Governor of Alberta—and Helen Hunley—the first female lieutenant governor of the province.

The shortest mandate by a Lieutenant Governor of Alberta was Philip Primrose, from 1 October 1936 to his death on 17 March 1937, while the longest was John C. Bowen, from 23 March 1937 to 1 February 1950. In 1956, following his appointment, Lieutenant Governor John J. Bowlen became the first provincial viceroy in Canada to be granted an audience with the Canadian monarch, starting a tradition that continues today for all of Canada's lieutenant governors. One of the few examples in Canada of a viceroy exercising the Royal Prerogative against or without ministerial advice came in 1937, when John Bowen denied Royal Assent to three bills passed through the Legislative Assembly. All three bills were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Canada and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, though, in retaliation for this move by Bowen, his premier, William Aberhart, closed the viceregal residence, removed the Lieutenant Governor's secretary and support offices, took away his official car.

Nearly seven decades Lois Hole, who served as lieutenant governor from 2000 until her death in 2005, publicly stated that she wished to discuss with her premier, Ralph Klein, the proposed Bill 11, meant to allow private health care to compete with the public health care system. From this it was suspected; the province's vice-regal no longer has a home provided as their residence during their term. From 1913 to 1938, the title holder resided at Government House and from 1966 to 2004 at 58 St. George's Crescent in Westmount; the former home is now Alberta Government Conference Centre, the latter was demolished in 2005. The federal expenses of the lieutenant governor in the exercise of her official duties for fiscal year 2017–2018 were: Travel and accommodation: $21,487 Hospitality: $57,104 Operational and administrative expenses: $10,119 Total: $88,710 Monarchy in the Canadian provinces Government of Alberta Lieutenant Governors of Canada Munro, The Maple Crown in Alberta: The Office of Lieutenant Governor, Victoria: Trafford, ISBN 1-4120-5317-X Lieutenant Governor of Alberta Lieutenant Governor - The Canadian encyclopedia The office of Lieutenant Governor of Alberta - Legislative Assembly of Alberta CBC - Lieutenant Governor of Alberta Lois Mitchell Canadian Parliamentary Review