JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now includes books and other primary sources, current issues of journals, it provides full-text searches of 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR. JSTOR's revenue was $86 million in 2015. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR in 1995. JSTOR was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a comprehensive collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term. Online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen considered using CD-ROMs for distribution.
However, Ira Fuchs, Princeton University's vice-president for Computing and Information Technology, convinced Bowen that CD-ROM was becoming an outdated technology and that network distribution could eliminate redundancy and increase accessibility. JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its initial sites, it became a searchable index accessible from any ordinary web browser. Special software was put in place to make graphs clear and readable. With the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals, they met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665. The work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000; the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially.
Until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR merged with the nonprofit Ithaka Harbors, Inc.—a nonprofit organization founded in 2003 and "dedicated to helping the academic community take full advantage of advancing information and networking technologies". JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers; the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is uniquely identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the main site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service; this site offers a search facility with graphical indication of the article coverage and loose integration into the main JSTOR site. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and basic metadata.
They may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, subject to a non-disclosure agreement. JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. JSTOR Plant Science provides access to content such as plant type specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, related materials and aimed at those researching, teaching, or studying botany, ecology and conservation studies; the materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are accessible only to JSTOR and GPI members. Two partner networks are contributing to this: the African Plants Initiative, which focuses on plants from Africa, the Latin American Plants Initiative, which contributes plants from Latin America. JSTOR launched its Books at JSTOR program in November 2012, adding 15,000 current and backlist books to its site; the books are linked from citations in journal articles. In September 2014, JSTOR launched JSTOR Daily, an online magazine meant to bring academic research to a broader audience.
Posted articles are based on JSTOR entries, some entries provide the backstory to current events. JSTOR is licensed to academic institutions, public libraries, research institutions and schools. More than 7,000 institutions in more than 150 countries have access. JSTOR has been running a pilot program of allowing subscribing institutions to provide access to their alumni, in addition to current students and staff; the Alumni Access Program launched in January 2013. Individual subscriptions are available to certain journal titles through the journal publisher; every year, JSTOR blocks 150 million attempts by non-subscribers to read articles. Inquiries have been made about the possibility of making JSTOR open access. According to Harvard Law professor Lawrence Lessig, JSTOR had been asked "how much would it cost to make this available to the whole world, how much would we need to pay you? The answer was $250 million". In late 2010 and early 2011, Internet activist Aaron Swartz used MIT's data network to bulk-download a substantial portion of JSTOR's collection of academic journal articles.
Library Journal is an American trade publication for librarians. It was founded in 1876 by Melvil Dewey, it reports news about the library world, emphasizing public libraries, offers feature articles about aspects of professional practice. It reviews library-related materials and equipment, its "Library Journal Book Review" does pre-publication reviews of several hundred popular and academic books each month. Library Journal has the highest circulation of any librarianship journal, according to Ulrich's — 100,000. Library Journal's original publisher was Frederick Leypoldt. Reed International purchased Bowker in 1985. Founded in 1876 by Melvil Dewey, Library Journal declared itself to be the "official organ of the library associations of America and of the United Kingdom." Indeed, the journal's original title was American Library Journal, though "American" was removed from the title after the first year. Its early issues focused on the growth and development of libraries, with feature articles by such prominent authors as R. R. Bowker, Charles Cutter, Melvil Dewey, focusing on cataloging and lending schemes.
In its early issues, Bowker discussed cataloging principles. Library Journal did not review books unless they related to librarians' professional interests, but like now, the journal ran articles on collection development and ads from publishers recommending their forthcoming books for libraries to purchase. Early issues of Library Journal were a forum for librarians throughout Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States to share news, discussions of their libraries' ideas and practices, reports of professional activities such as meetings and conferences. In an 1878 prospectus, the journal stressed its importance by noting that small libraries, in particular, could gain the "costly experience and practical advice" of the largest libraries. Regular reading of Library Journal, the prospectus declared, would make "the librarian worth more to the library, the library worth more to the people." In the Notes and Queries section, librarians shared reports of how their library managed common problems, they maintained a constant exchange of questions and answers about authorship and reader's advisory.
Two prominent sections, the Bibliography and Pseudonyms and Antonyms, served as reference resources for librarians. The latter contained an ongoing list of titles of untitled works and real names of authors who were anonymous or used pseudonyms, with an index compiling all of them in the December issue; the print edition of Library Journal contains the following sections: January Librarian of the Year: 2011's Librarian of the Year was Seattle public librarian Nancy Pearl, 2012's winner was Luis Herrera, 2013's winner was Jo Budler, 2014's winner was Corinne Hill. The winner for 2015 was Siobhan A. Reardon. February Best Small Library in America: 2010's Best Small Library in America was Glen Carbon Centennial Library in Glen Carbon, Illinois, 2011's winner was Naturita Community Library in Naturita, Colorado, 2012's winner was The Independence Public Library in Independence, Kansas, 2013's winner was Southern Area Public Library in Lost Creek, West Virginia, 2014's winner was Pine River Library in Bayfield, Colorado.
2015's winner was the Belgrade Community Library in Montana. March Paraprofessional of the Year: 2010's Paraprofessional of the Year was Allison Sloan, Senior Library Associate at Reading Public Library in Reading, Massachusetts, 2011's winner was Gilda Ramos from Patchogue-Medford Library in New York, 2012's winner was Linda Dahlquist from Volusia County Public Library in Florida, 2013's winner was Laura Poe from Athens-Limestone Public Library in Athens, 2014's winner was Clancy Pool from St. John Branch of Washington State’s Whitman County Rural Library District. In 2015, Tamara Faulkner Kraus was named the Paralibrarian of the Year. Movers & Shakers recognizes numerous influential and innovative North American library and information professionals. June Library of the Year: 2010's Library of the Year was Columbus Metropolitan Library in Columbus, Ohio, 2011's winner was King County Library System in King County, Washington, 2012's winner was San Diego County Library in San Diego, California, 2013's winner was Howard County Library in Howard County, 2014's winner was Edmonton Public Library, the first Canadian Library to win this award.
2015's award went to Ferguson Municipal Public Library, Missouri, 2018's award went to the San Francisco Public Library. November LJ Teaching Award: 2010's LJ Teaching Award winner was Steven L. MacCall of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 2011's winner was Martin B. Wolske from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012's winner was Lilia Pavlovsky from Rutgers University, New Jersey, 2013's winner was Suzie Allard from University of Tennessee, 2014's winner was Paul T. Jaeger from University of Maryland. Patricia K. Galloway of the University of Texas at Austin was named the 2015 winner. LibraryJournal.com, the Library Journal website, provides both subscribers and non-subscribers full access to all print content as well as recent archives. Visitors can sign up for email newsletters such as "BookSmack", "Library
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Paul Gilroy FBA is a British historian and academic, Professor of American and English Literature at King's College, London. Gilroy is the 2019 winner of the €660,000 Holberg Prize, for "his outstanding contributions to a number of academic fields, including cultural studies, critical race studies, history and African-American studies". Gilroy was born in the East End of London to English parents, he was educated at University College School and obtained his bachelor's degree at the University of Sussex in 1978. He moved to Birmingham University, where he completed his PhD in 1986. Gilroy is a scholar of Cultural Studies and Black Atlantic diasporic culture with interests in the "myriad manifestations of black British culture", he is the author of There Ain't no Black in the Union Jack, Small Acts, The Black Atlantic, Between Camps, After Empire, among other works. Gilroy was co-author of The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 1970s Britain, a path-breaking, collectively produced volume published under the imprint of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University, where he was a doctoral student working with the Jamaican intellectual Stuart Hall.
Other members of the group that produced The Empire Strikes Back include Valerie Amos, Hazel Carby and Pratibha Parmar. Gilroy taught at South Bank University, Essex University, for many years at Goldsmiths, University of London, before taking up a tenured post in the US at Yale University, where he was the chair of the Department of African American Studies and Charlotte Marian Saden Professor of Sociology and African American Studies, he was the first holder of the Anthony Giddens Professorship in Social Theory at the London School of Economics before he joined King's College, London in September 2012. Gilroy worked for the Greater London Council for several years in the 1980s before becoming an academic. During that period, he was associated with The Wire. Other publications he wrote for during this period include New Musical Express, The New Internationalist and New Statesman and Society. Gilroy is known as a path-breaking scholar and historian of the music of the Black Atlantic diaspora, as a commentator on the politics of race and racism in the UK, as an archaeologist of the literary and cultural lives of blacks in the western hemisphere.
According to the US Journal of Blacks in Higher Education he has been among the most cited black scholars in the humanities and social sciences. He held the top position in the humanities rankings in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Gilroy was awarded an honorary doctorate of the University of London by Goldsmiths College in September 2005. In Autumn 2009 he served as Treaty of Utrecht Visiting Professor at the Centre for Humanities, Utrecht University. Gilroy was awarded a 50th Anniversary Fellowship of Sussex University in 2012. In 2014 he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and social sciences, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Liège in 2016. In the same year, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. University of Sussex awarded him an honorary doctorate in July 2017, he was elected an international honorary member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in April 2018. He is married to the writer and academic Vron Ware.
The couple live in North London, have two children and Cora. Gilroy's 1993 book The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness marks a turning point in the study of diasporas. Applying a cultural studies approach, he provides a study of African intellectual history and its cultural construction. Moving away from all cultural forms that could be deemed ethnic absolutism, Gilroy offers the concept of the Black Atlantic as a space of transnational cultural construction. In his book, Gilroy makes the peoples who suffered from the Atlantic slave trade the emblem of his new concept of diasporic peoples; this new concept breaks with the traditional diasporic model based on the idea that diasporic people are separated by a communal source or origin, offering a second model that privileges hybridity. Gilroy's theme of Double Consciousness involves Black Atlantic striving to be both European and Black through their relationship to the land of their birth and their ethnic political constituency being transformed.
Rather than encapsulating the African-American tradition within national borders, Gilroy recognizes the actual significance of European and African travels of many African-American writers. To prove his point, he re-reads the works of African-American intellectuals against the background of a trans-Atlantic context. Gilroy's concept of the Black Atlantic fundamentally disrupts contemporary forms of cultural nationalism and reopens the field of African-American studies by enlarging the field's interpretive framework. Gilroy uses the transatlantic slave trade to highlight the influence of "routes" on black identity, he uses the image of a ship to represent how authentic black culture is composed of cultural exchanges since the slave trade stifled blacks' ability to connect to a homeland. He claims that there was a cultural exchange as well as a commodity exchange that defines the transatlantic slave trade and thus black culture. In addition, he discusses how Black people and Black cultures were written out of European countries and cultures via the