Florence Elizabeth Chandler Maybrick was an American woman convicted in Great Britain of murdering her husband, James Maybrick. She was born Florence Elizabeth Chandler in Mobile, the daughter of William George Chandler, a partner in the banking firm of St. John Powers and Company, at one time mayor of Mobile, her father died, her mother Caroline Chandler Du Barry, née Holbrook, remarried a third time in 1872 to Baron Adolph von Roques, a cavalry officer in the Eighth Cuirassier Regiment of the German Army. While travelling to Britain with her mother, she met cotton broker James Maybrick on board ship. Other passengers were either amused or shocked by a 19-year-old girl spending so much time alone in the company of Maybrick, 23 years her senior. On 27 July 1881, they were married at Piccadilly, in London, they settled in Aigburth, a suburb of Liverpool. Florence made quite an impression on the social scene in Liverpool, the Maybricks were to be found at the most important balls and functions, the picture of a happy, successful couple.
But all was. Maybrick, a hypochondriac, was a regular user of arsenic and patent medicines containing poisonous chemicals and had a number of mistresses, one of whom bore him five children. Florence meanwhile unhappy in her marriage, entered into several liaisons of her own. One was with Alfred Brierley, which her husband was told about, she was suspected of having an affair with one of her brothers-in-law, Edwin. A violent row ensued after Maybrick heard reports of Florence's relationship with Brierley, during which Maybrick assaulted her and announced his intention of seeking a divorce; the wish for divorce seemed mutual. In her memoir, Mrs. Maybrick's Own Story: My Fifteen Lost Years, Maybrick describes the following, as she kneeled down by her late husband's bedside: Death had wiped out the memory of many things. I was thankful to remember that I had stopped divorce proceedings, that we had become reconciled for the children's sake. In April 1889, Florence Maybrick bought flypaper containing arsenic from a local chemist's shop and soaked it in a bowl of water.
At her trial, she claimed. James Maybrick was taken ill on 27 April 1889 after self-administering a double dose of strychnine, his doctors treated him for acute dyspepsia. On 8 May, Florence Maybrick wrote a compromising letter to Brierley, intercepted by Alice Yapp, the nanny. Yapp passed it to James Maybrick's brother, staying at Battlecrease. Edwin, himself by many accounts one of Florence's lovers, shared the contents of the letter with his brother Michael Maybrick, the head of the family. By Michael's orders Florence was deposed as mistress of her house and held under house arrest. On 9 May, a nurse reported that Mrs Maybrick had surreptitiously tampered with a Valentine's Meat Juice bottle, afterwards found to contain a half-grain of arsenic. Mrs Maybrick testified that her husband had begged her to administer it as a pick-me-up. However, he never drank its contents. James Maybrick died at his home in Aigburth on 11 May 1889, his brothers, suspicious as to the cause of death, had his body examined.
It was found to contain slight traces of arsenic, but not enough to be considered fatal. It is uncertain whether this was administered by another person. After an inquest held in a nearby hotel, Florence Maybrick was charged with his murder and stood trial at St George's Hall, before Mr. Justice Stephen, where she was convicted and sentenced to death. After a public outcry, Henry Matthews, the Home Secretary, Lord Chancellor Halsbury concluded'that the evidence establishes that Mrs Maybrick administered poison to her husband with intent to murder; the death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment as punishment for a crime with which she was never charged. During the 1890s, new evidence was publicized by her supporters, but there was no possibility of an appeal, the Home Office was not inclined to release her, in spite of the strenuous efforts of Lord Russell of Killowen, the Lord Chief Justice; the case was something of a cause célèbre and attracted considerable newspaper coverage on both sides of the Atlantic.
Arsenic was regarded by some men as an aphrodisiac and tonic, James Maybrick had taken it on a regular basis. A city chemist confirmed that he had supplied Maybrick with quantities of the poison over a lengthy period and a search of Battlecrease House turned up enough to kill at least fifty people. Although her marriage was over in all but name, Florence had little motive to murder her husband; the financial provision Maybrick had made for her and his children in his will was paltry and she might have been far better off with him alive but separated from her. Many people held the view that Florence had poisoned her husband because he was about to divorce her which, in Victorian society, would see her ruined. An more compelling motive might have been the prospect of losing the custody of her beloved children. After 15 years of research and film director Bruce Robinson, published They All Love Jack: Busting the Ripper, a massive study of Jack the Ripper, in which he makes a case that Florence and her husband James were the victims of her brother-in-law, the Ripper.
Michael, like James, was a Freemason and the idea is that he relie
Madeleine Hamilton Smith was a 19th-century Glasgow socialite, the accused in a sensational murder trial in Scotland in 1857. Smith was the first child of an upper-middle-class family in Glasgow; the family lived at No 7, Blythswood Square and had a country property, "Rowaleyn", near Helensburgh. Smith broke the strict Victorian conventions of the time when, as a young woman in early 1855, she began a secret love affair with Pierre Emile L'Angelier, an apprentice nurseryman who came from the Channel Islands; the pair would meet late at night, at Smith's bedroom window and engaged in voluminous correspondence. During one of their infrequent meetings alone, she lost her virginity to L'Angelier. Smith's parents, unaware of the affair with L'Angelier found a suitable fiancé for her within the Glasgow upper-middle class, William Harper Minnoch. Smith attempted to break her connection with L'Angelier and, in February 1857, asked him to return the letters she had written to him. Instead, L'Angelier threatened to use the letters to force her to marry him.
She was soon observed in a druggist's office, ordering arsenic, which she signed for as M. H. Smith. Early on the morning of 23 March 1857, L'Angelier died from arsenic poisoning, he is buried in the Ramshorn Cemetery on Ingram Street in Glasgow. After his death, Madeleine Smith's numerous letters were found in the house where he lodged, she was arrested and charged with his murder. At trial, Smith was defended by Lord Glencorse. Toxicological evidence, confirming that the victim had died of arsenic poisoning, was given by Andrew Douglas Maclagan. Although the circumstantial evidence pointed towards her guilt the jury returned a verdict of "not proven", i.e. the jury was unconvinced that Smith was innocent, but the prosecution had produced insufficient evidence to the contrary. Crucial to the case was the chronology of certain letters from Smith to l'Angelier, as the letters themselves were undated, the case hinged to some extent on the envelopes. One letter in particular depended on the correct interpretation of the date of the postmark, illegible, attracted some caustic comments from the judge.
It transpired that when the police searched L'Angelier's room, many of Smith's letters were found without their envelopes and were hurriedly collected and stuck into whichever envelopes came to hand. The notoriety of the alleged crime and trial were scandalous enough for Smith to leave Scotland. On 4 July 1861 she married an artist named William Morris's business manager, they had one daughter. For a time she became involved with the Fabian Society in London, sometimes made the coffee at meetings; as she was known by her new married name not everyone knew who she was. After many years of marriage and her husband separated in 1889 and Madeleine moved to New York City. Around 1916, she married a second time to William A. Sheehy and this marriage lasted until his death in 1926, she was buried under the name of Lena Wardle Sheehy. As in the case of Lizzie Borden and amateur criminologists have spent decades going over the minutiae of the case. Most modern scholars believe that Smith committed the crime and the only thing that saved her from a guilty verdict and a death sentence was that no eyewitness could prove that Smith and l'Angellier had met in the weeks before his death.
After the trial, The Scotsman ran a small article stating that a witness had come forward claiming that a young male and female were seen outside Smith's house on the night of l'Angellier's death. However, the trial was in progress, the witness could not be questioned during it. Smith's story was the basis for the David Lean film Madeleine. Jack House's book Square Mile of Murder, which contains a section on Smith, formed the basis for a BBC television version in 1980. A television play based upon the case, Killer in Close-Up: The Trial Of Madeleine Smith, written by George F. Kerr, was produced by Sydney television station ABN-2, broadcast on 13 August 1958; the case was an inspiration for Wilkie Collins' novel The Law and the Lady, though the only main similar features were the problem of the Scottish "Not Proven" verdict and arsenic poisoning as a means for murder. In the early 1930s. MGM starred Joan Crawford, Nils Asther and Robert Montgomery in a film called "Letty Lynton", based on a 1931 novel of the same title by Marie Adelaide Belloc Lowndes.
This film followed closely along Madeleine's story. In the film version, Crawford's character is never charged with murder, and, in a classic example of pre-code Hollywood, gets away with murder. Letty is only available as a bootleg due to a copyright suit filed shortly after the film's release in 1932. For those that have seen it, the parallels are much obvious and it remains a sought after piece of history; the case was again dramatized in 1952 for Mutual Radio in an episode of The Black Museum titled "The Small White Boxes". Other novels based on the case include The House in Queen Anne's Square by William Darling Lyell, Lovers All Untrue by Norah Lofts, Alas, for Her That Met Me! by Mary Ann Ashe (pseudonym of Christ
Mirro Aluminum Company
The Mirro Aluminum Company was an aluminum cookware company that existed in Manitowoc, from 1909 to 2003. It was colloquially referred to as Mirro; the roots of the company can be traced to the founding of three companies: the Aluminum Manufacturing Company founded by Joseph Koenig in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in 1895. In 1909, the three companies merged, the resulting company was renamed the Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Company, it was headed by Vits as president and Koenig as vice president. In 1910, in a $200,000 deal between George Vits and the eastern capitalists, all offices and manufacturing were moved to Manitowoc; the company received its first government contract in 1911, winning an $80,000 contract to build aluminum canteens developed by Joseph Koenig for the army. Koening filed for a patent in April 1911 and was granted patent US1062716 in May 1913. By 1914, the company reported that its employment was over 400 and building space had grown to 90,000 sq ft. In 1915 the company acquired the facilities of the Standard Aluminum Company, another manufacturer in Two Rivers.
For the next two years the company concentrated on the production of cooking utensils. The Mirro brand was introduced in 1917; the company continued to grow and by 1920 had increased its capital to $12,000,000. During World War II Mirro retooled its factories to make aluminum products for the military; when the war ended in 1945, the company expanded into aluminum toys, making the popular Sno-Coaster saucer shaped sled. In 1957 shareholders approved a name change to the Mirro Aluminum Company. In 1958, Mirro began manufacturing a line of 16 ft aluminum boats under the Mirro-Craft name; the boats, introduced at the Chicago National Boat Show in February of that year, were designed by naval architect David Beach. Shipment of production boats did not start until January 1959. In late 1971, Mirro purchased Cruisers, Inc. of Oconto, Wisconsin, a manufacturer of Fiberglass boats ranging in length from 16 ft to 25 ft. At its peak, Mirro was the world's largest manufacturer of aluminum cooking utensils, over time it had as many as eight plants in three states, with products ranging from pots and pans to small boats and aluminum siding.
In 1982 the boat business was divested. It was purchased by employees and moved to Gillett, Wisconsin, to a plant owned by Mirro; the new company was named Inc.. The MirroCraft tradename was transferred to the new company. In 2003 Northport was purchased by Weeres pontoons of Minnesota; the fiberglass boat portion was sold to Incorporated of Oconto, Wisconsin. This company is now known as Cruisers Yachts. Mirro was acquired by The Newell Companies in 1983. Facing competition from other manufacturers, Newell had moved most of its Manitowoc area operations out of the country by 2001, shuttered the most modern of the area Mirro plants in 2003. Mirro closed its administrative offices in Manitowoc at that time, ending the company's 118-year history in the area; the manufacturing facility in the industrial park on Mirro Drive on the northeast of Manitowoc, was purchased by Koenig & Vits, Inc. when it closed. They formed an alliance in 2005 with Tramontina, a Brazil-based cookware and cutlery manufacture to manufacture cookware in Manitowoc at the plant.
As of 2014 the company is still manufacturing cookware in Manitowoc. The current owner of the plant, Skana Aluminum, was incorporated in 2009; the plant is operated as a contract custom aluminum rolling mill. As of July 2014, The trademark name Mirro was registered to Groupe SEB; the trademark for MIRRO CRAFT was renewed in 2009 by Northport Marine LLC of Wisconsin. The part of the old plant in the downtown location, bounded by 15th, 16th, Franklin and Washington streets, is being demolished; the current owner of this parcel is EJ Spirtas Manitowoc LLC. Plans for redevelopment of the remaining portion of the building occupying the south third of the block into the Mirro Shops, are on hold; the former 250,000 sq. ft. distribution center next to the plant on Mirro Drive was sold to Orion Energy Systems by Koenig & Vits in 2004. The newer downtown building in the next block west bounded by 16th and 17th streets is owned by LVR Properties LLC Groupe SEB Skana Aluminum corporate website 60th Anniversary "Mixing Bowl" publication from the Mirro Aluminum Company in 1955, hosted by the Wisconsin Historical Society Laid Off Workers Buy Factory, from NPR Tramontina official site
August Sangret was a French-Canadian soldier and subsequently hanged for the September 1942 murder of 19-year-old Joan Pearl Wolfe in Surrey, England. This murder case is known as the Wigwam Murder; the murder of Joan Pearl Wolfe became known as "the Wigwam Murder" due to the fact the victim had become known among locals as "the Wigwam Girl" through her living in two separate, improvised wigwams upon Hankley Common in the months preceding her murder, that these devices proved to have been constructed by her murderer."The Wigwam Murder" marked the first occasion in British legal history in which a murder victim's skull was introduced as evidence at trial, has been described by true crime author Colin Wilson as "The last of the classic cases." August Sangret was born in Battleford, Saskatchewan, on 28 August 1913. He was of mixed race. Little is known of Sangret's early life, but his family was poor, his early years were blighted with illness, at least one of his siblings died at an early age from tuberculosis.
Sangret received no schooling in his childhood, was unable to read, or to write beyond signing his own name. Nonetheless, he has been described as being modestly intelligent, in possession of an excellent memory. In addition to English, Sangret spoke the Cree language fluently, learned some of the traditional skills of his ancestors in his youth, some of which were honed throughout the years he worked as a farm labourer in the town of Maidstone in the 1920s; as a result of this outdoor work, Sangret developed a muscular physique. At the age of 17, Sangret received the first of many diagnoses that he had contracted a venereal disease. On this first occasion, upon medical advice, he had unsuccessfully attempted to cure himself using a potassium permanganate solution, before admitting himself to a Battleford hospital to undergo extensive treatment for a bladder obstruction; this would prove to be the first of at least six occasions in which Sangret would receive treatment for a contracted venereal disease, attesting to his sexual promiscuity, although the remaining five instances would occur between 1938 and 1942.
Throughout the 1930s, Sangret accrued an extensive criminal record, which included six months served in gaol for a violent assault committed in 1932, a three-month sentence served in 1938 for threatening to shoot a woman, numerous convictions for both vagrancy and theft. He was unemployed, enlisted to serve in the Battleford Light Infantry in 1935; this militia regiment trained for just two weeks each year, Sangret served with this regiment until 1939. Joan Pearl Wolfe was born in Tonbridge, Kent, on 11 March 1923, the oldest of three children born to Edith and Charles Wolfe. Throughout her childhood, Wolfe lived modestly with her parents in a strict Catholic household in this market town. In 1928, she and her family moved from Tonbridge to Tunbridge Wells. While the family resided in Tunbridge Wells, Joan attended a convent school in nearby Mark Cross, with her tuition fees paid by a wealthy aunt, she attended this convent school until age 16, becoming fluent in the French language, although outwardly pious and known to wear a conspicuous crucifix about her neck, she lacked any serious religious commitment.
Wolfe's father, was known locally as an eccentric figure, who suffered from insomnia and was prone to sudden public outbursts of paranoia and hostility. Following her husband's suicide, Wolfe's mother subsequently remarried, bore a fourth child. With her mother's approval, Wolfe became engaged to an affluent young man from Tunbridge Wells shortly before her 16th birthday in 1939. Joan's fiancé lavished his attention and affections on her, although the same year, while still engaged, Wolfe first ran away from home. On this first occasion, her mother reported her daughter missing to police, Joan was discovered one month in the town of Aldershot, she was driven back to Tunbridge Wells by her fiancé's mother, although shortly after the outbreak of World War II, Wolfe chose to call off her engagement and instead travel to London to train as a storekeeper in an aircraft factory. After one month, Wolfe did not inform her mother of this fact, it is at this stage in her life in which Wolfe's behaviour is believed to have become irresponsible and promiscuous, she is known to have subsequently engaged in casual affairs with several soldiers between 1940 and 1942, most of whom served with the Canadian Army.
Wolfe's behaviour from 1940 onward attests to her being gullible naïve, prone to flights of fancy, yet yearning for stability. Her naïvety may have been compounded by her chaperoned convent upbringing; these facts are evidenced not only in her behaviour, but in the content of the numerous letters she is known to have written to her final lover, who would prove to be her murderer. Moreover, until her death, she neither smoked or used any profane language in her vocabulary. Although little beyond subsequent trial testimony is known of Wolfe's relationship with her mother, the evidence which exists attests to Edith Watts being a simple, caring woman driven to despair by her eldest daughter's unpredictable and irresponsible behaviour. Nonetheless, via letter and in person, Edith is known to have implored her daughter to return to or remain at home, to revert to a stable, respectable lifestyle. In addition, contrary to Wolfe's claims that those
KABC is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Los Angeles, California. It serves as a West Coast flagship station for the Cumulus Media company. A pioneer of the talk radio format, the station went "all-talk" in September 1960, the second radio station to do so, a few months after KMOX in St. Louis. Despite different owners, KABC, KSPN and KABC-TV, all maintain an informal partnership. KABC broadcasts in the HD format; the station airs local talk shows and news updates weekdays, with the nationally syndicated shows Jonathan Brandmeier and Red Eye Radio airing at night, from co-owned Westwood One Network. National news from Westwood One News is heard at the beginning of some hours. KABC airs Los Angeles Kings professional hockey games. Doug McIntyre hosts the morning show, Drew Pinsky hosts in the early afternoons, John Philips and Jillian Barberie are heard in the afternoon drive. In early mornings, the station simulcasts the news-heavy 4 a.m. hour of Today in L. A. from television station KNBC.
KABC operates with 5,000 watts with a non-directional signal in the daytime but uses a directional antenna at night to protect other stations on 790. While the 790 signal adequately covered the Los Angeles media market in the 1960s and 1970s when KABC was #1, the market has expanded since and the 5,000-watt signal may not be received in all sections of the metropolitan area today. On March 31, 2016, KABC was granted an FCC construction permit to move to the KWKW transmitter site, increase day power to 6,600 watts and increase night power to 6,800 watts. On February 21, 2017 an application to modify the construction permit was accepted for filing; the night power would increase to 7,900 watts. KABC began in August 1925 as KFXB in Big Bear Lake at 1430 kHz; the station moved to Los Angeles in 1927 and became KPLA. On November 15, 1929, KPLA was sold to Earle C. Anthony, a Packard automobile dealer and owner of KFI. Anthony changed the call letters to KECA. In August 1939, Anthony took that station off the air.
KECA moved to 780. KECA moved to 790 as part of the NARBA frequency shifts of 1941. In 1944, new FCC rules went into effect prohibiting any entity from owning more than one radio station in the same market area; the Blue Network bought the station in July 1944, for $800,000. The call sign was changed to KABC in 1954. KABC switched to a full-time talk format in 1960. Though a prominent Los Angeles news-talk station, KABC has declined in the ratings over the years; the station has fallen behind 640 KFI, another major talk station which has focused on serving Orange County more than the core Los Angeles market. KABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company's ABC Radio came under ownership of Citadel Broadcasting in 2006. Citadel merged with Cumulus Media on September 16, 2011. In October 2011, Cumulus Broadcasting took over ownership of KABC and sister station KLOS-FM. Airborne traffic reporter Jorge Jarrin, son of Dodgers Spanish-language broadcaster Jaime Jarrin, was let go after 26 years. Fired were imaging voice Howard Hoffman and news director/morning newsman Mark Austin Thomas.
As of July 2015, KABC's audience share was at a historic low of 0.3%, below Salem Media's KRLA for the first time, notable as KRLA has hired many personalities let go from KABC since the end of ABC ownership. As of August 2018, KRLA is a point ahead of KABC, which now is the 40th ranked station in the market in a 50-station survey, tied with Persian language station KIRN and only ahead of various HD2 streams, the market's Spanish sports talk stations and the Educational Media Foundation's stations. Current KABC personalities include Leeann Tweeden, Peter Tilden, Dr. Drew Pinsky, Michael Catherwood, Jillian Barberie, John Phillips, Leon Kaplan, Sam Mirejovsky. Contrary to its call sign, the station carries partial simulcasts of TV station KNBC's newscasts, while Cumulus's Red Eye Radio airs overnights. On weekends, shows on money, real estate and wine are heard, some of them paid brokered programming. From 1974 to 1997, KABC was the flagship station of the Los Angeles Dodgers and their hall-of-fame broadcaster Vin Scully.
After some years on KFWB, the team returned to KABC in 2008. On September 28, 2011, the final broadcast of Dodgers Baseball on KABC was aired at Chase Field in Phoenix, before the games moved to 570 KLAC for the 2012 season. In August 2014, the station became the flagship for the NHL Los Angeles Kings' radio broadcasts. KABC has been the base of operation for many influential radio hosts, including early talk radio pioneers Joe Pyne and Louis Lomax; the station has served as the home of Michael Jackson, whose talk show attracted celebrities and newsmakers of all types, pioneering radio psychologist Dr. Toni Grant and psychiatrist David Viscott, history buff Ira Fistel and more recent syndicated hosts including Dennis Prager and Larry Elder and John and Ken. In the 1980s, Grant and Viscott were syndicated nationwide on ABC Radio's Talk Radio Network. A lawsuit alleged that school employees of Academia Semillas del Pueblo received death threats, that the school was the target of a bomb threat, because of Doug McIntyre's extensive on-air criticism of the school, in which he accused ASDP of espousing a racist and separatist Anti-American philosophy.
The suit was dismissed in January 2008. Talk Radio 790 KABC Query
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Derek Bentley case
Derek Bentley was an English man, hanged for the murder of a policeman, committed in the course of a burglary attempt. The murder was said at the time to have been committed by a friend and accomplice of Bentley's, Christopher Craig aged 16, but whether he had fired the fatal shot was called into question. Bentley was convicted as a party to murder, by the English law principle of common purpose, "joint enterprise"; the jury at the trial found Bentley guilty based on the prosecution's interpretation of the ambiguous phrase "Let him have it", after the judge, Lord Chief Justice Goddard, had described Bentley as "mentally aiding the murder of Police Constable Sidney Miles". Goddard sentenced Bentley to be hanged: at the time, no other sentence was possible; the Bentley case became a cause célèbre and led to a 45-year-long campaign to win Derek Bentley a posthumous pardon, granted in 1993, a further campaign for the quashing of his murder conviction, which occurred in 1998. Derek Bentley entered Norbury Manor Secondary Modern School in 1944, after failing the eleven-plus examination.
In March 1948 Bentley and another boy were arrested for theft. In September 1948, he was sentenced to serve three years at Kingswood Approved School, near Bristol. Christopher Craig attended the same school. Bentley was released from Kingswood school on 28 July 1950, a year early, though he remained under the care of Kingswood until 29 September 1954, by which time he was dead, he was a recluse for the rest of the year. In March 1951, he was employed by a furniture removal firm but was forced to leave the job after injuring his back in March 1952. In May 1952, Bentley was taken on by the Croydon Corporation as a dustbin man, one month in June 1952 he was demoted to street sweeping for unsatisfactory performance. One month after that, he was sacked by the Corporation, he was unemployed for the rest of his life. Derek Bentley had a series of health and developmental problems, his parents reported that in a childhood accident he had broken his nose and since he had three fits, including one in which they said he nearly died of choking.
The family said they were bombed out three times during World War II, in one of these incidents, the house in which he lived collapsed around him, but a court did not find any indication that he was physically injured in the incident. Kingswood Training School administered diagnostic tests to Bentley during the time of his detention there. In December 1948, his mental age was estimated at 10 years, 4 months, when he scored 66 on an IQ test. Kingswood staff reported him to be "lazy, voluble and of the'wise guy' type", whilst a court described as "indifferent, self-satisfied and ready to tell tales". After his arrest in November 1952, further IQ tests were administered to him at Brixton Prison, he was described there as "borderline feeble-minded", with a verbal score of 71, a performance IQ of 87 and a full scale IQ of 77. In December 1948, Bentley had an estimated "reading age" of 6 months, he was discovered to still be "quite illiterate" at the time of his arrest in November 1952. The prison medical officer said he "cannot recognise or write down all the letters of the alphabet".
Bentley was examined twice by EEG: a reading on 16 November 1949 indicated he was an epileptic and a reading on 9 February 1950 was "abnormal". Both were taken at the Burden Neurological Institute in Bristol. On 2 November 1952, Bentley and a sixteen-year-old companion, Christopher Craig, attempted to burgle the warehouse of the Barlow & Parker confectionery company at 27–29 Tamworth Road, Croydon. Craig armed himself with a Colt New Service.455 Webley calibre revolver, of which he had shortened the barrel so that it could be carried in his pocket. He carried a number of undersized rounds for the revolver, some of which he had modified by hand to fit the gun. Bentley carried a knuckle-duster, which he had been given by Craig, who on 21 November the previous year had been fined for possessing a firearm without a certificate. At around 9.15pm, a nine-year-old girl in a house across the road spotted Craig and Bentley climbing over the gate and up a drainpipe to the roof of the warehouse. She alerted her mother.
When the police arrived, the two youths hid behind the lift-housing. Craig taunted the police. One of the police officers, Detective Sergeant Frederick Fairfax, climbed the drainpipe onto the roof and grabbed hold of Bentley. Bentley broke free of Fairfax's grasp. What happened is a matter of controversy: police witnesses claimed that the police officer asked Craig to "Hand over the gun, lad" and Bentley shouted the ambiguous phrase, "Let him have it, Chris" to Craig. Craig fired his revolver at Fairfax. Despite his injury, Fairfax was again able to restrain Bentley. Bentley had further ammunition for the gun. Bentley had not used either of the weapons. A group of uniformed police officers were sent onto the roof; the first to reach the roof was Police Constable Sidney Miles, killed by a shot to the head. After exhausting his ammunition and being cornered, Craig jumped around 30 feet from the roof onto a greenhouse, fracturing his spine and left wrist. Various medals were awarded to the several participating police officers, including one – posthumously – to Miles and the George Cross to Fairfax, in January 1953.
Bentley and Craig were charged with murder. They were tried by jury before the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Goddard, at the Old Bailey in London between 9 December and