Hatmaking or millinery is the design and sale of hats and head-wear. A person engaged in this trade is called a hatter. Millinery is sold to women and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats. Milliners female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men and children, sold these garments in their millinery shop. More the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, sells or trims hats for a female clientele; the origin of the term is the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan, known for its fashion and clothing. Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events, they worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, cocktail hat. A great variety of objects are or were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim #See also. In former times use of colorful bird feathers and wings and tails and whole stuffed birds as hat trimmings led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Link to images and descriptions of hats trimmed with birdsThis link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes as ornaments on fashionable hats, bird feathers, stuffed birds and other small animals, fruit, flowers and lace. It says that in 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people women, it described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade. This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on millinery. International Hat Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing one of America's most popular early 20th century harvest hats for field hands and workmen. Hawley Products Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing the tropical shaped, pressed fiber sun helmet used from World War II through the Persian Gulf War.
John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats. James Lock & Co. of London, is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849. John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat Giuseppe Borsalino, with the famous "Borsalino" Fedora hat. Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of one of the first reference books on millinery technique. Rose Bertin and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer. Coco Chanel: Creator of the fashion house and creator of Chanel No.5. John Boyd was one of London's most respected milliners and is known for the famous pink tricorn hat worn by Diana, Princess of Wales. Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century. Frederick Fox was an Australian born milliner noted for his designs for the British Royal family. Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 1950s.
Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family. Barbara Pauli was the leading fashion modiste in Sweden during the Gustavian era. Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the early 20th centuries. David Shilling is a renowned milliner and designer based in Monaco. Justin Smith is an award-winning milliner creating bespoke and couture hats under the J Smith Esquire brand. Philip Treacy Irish-born award-winning milliner. Draper Haberdasher Hat Works Mad hatter disease Mad as a hatter Marchandes de modes All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking and Costume 18th Century millinery Popular Science, November 1941, "Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits" article on modern mass production hat making Individuality in millinery, a 1923 book on hatmaking from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Millinery guide
Hanover is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, 19 miles southwest of York and 54 miles north-northwest of Baltimore, Maryland and is 5 miles north of the Mason-Dixon line. The town is situated in a productive agricultural region; the population was 15,289 at the 2010 census. The borough is served by the 717 area code and the ZIP Codes of 17331-34. Hanover is named after the German city of Hannover. In 1727, John Digges, an Irish nobleman of Prince George's County, obtained a grant of 10,000 acres of land where Hanover is now located from Charles Calvert, the fourth Lord Baltimore; the area was called Digges Choice, in 1730, a group of Catholics started the settlement that became known as the Conewego Settlement. Settlers from both Maryland and Pennsylvania began moving into the area in the 1730s. At this time and Pennsylvania did not agree on the northern border of Maryland and the southern border of Pennsylvania, the area, now Hanover was in the disputed area claimed by both states; this led to numerous disputes about property ownership from the 1730s until 1760.
The dispute was settled when Maryland and Pennsylvania hired British experts Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey what became known as the Mason–Dixon Line. This line was surveyed between 1763 and 1767, put an end to decades of disputes over rights and ownership. In 1745, a Scot-Irishman named Richard McAllister purchased the tract of land upon which the original town of Hanover was built. McAllister was a Presbyterian who had migrated from the Cumberland Valley. Hanover at that time was covered with a dense forest of hickory and oak trees. McAllister erected a log house at what is now the corner of Baltimore and Middle streets, opened a store and tavern. In 1763, McAllister founded the town of Hanover. German settlers nicknamed the settlement "Hickory Town" after the thick groves of hickory trees that grew in the area; the name Hanover was suggested by Michael Tanner, one of the commissioners who laid out York County in 1749 and owned large tracts of land southeast of the town. Tanner's choice of the name came from the fact that he was a native of Germany.
The town's founders, who wanted to please the German settlers, agreed to the name. Hanover was sometimes referred to as "McAllister's Town" in its early years. Thomas Jefferson spent the night of April 12, 1776 at the Sign of the Horse, an inn, owned by Caspar Reinecker on Frederick Street. Records indicate that Jefferson paid "Rhenegher" 11 shillings, 6 pence for dinner and lodging, he was on his way from Monticello to Philadelphia to attend the first meeting of the Continental Congress, where on June 10 he would begin the draft the Declaration of Independence. At the time, Hanover was located at the crossing of two well-traveled roads, one from the port of Baltimore to points north and west and the other between Philadelphia and the Valley of Virginia; when Jefferson returned from Philadelphia to Monticello, he again dined and spent the night of September 5 at Reinecker's inn. At the start of the Revolutionary War, Hanover consisted of about 500 homes, most of which were built out of logs. After the war, the population increased until the War of 1812.
At the time of the advance of the British on Baltimore in 1814, Hanover and vicinity furnished two companies of infantry commanded by Captain Frederick Metzgar and John Bair. These two companies left Hanover on foot Sunday morning, August 28, 1814, reached the city of Baltimore at 9 A. M. Tuesday. September 11, where they were marched to North Point, spending that night on their arms, next day, the memorable September 12, 1814, they took part in the engagement with the British, who retreated soon after; the Hanover Companies together with other companies from York County, returned home after two weeks' service, not being needed longer. After the War of 1812, the town experienced only minor growth until 1852, when construction of the Hanover Branch Railroad to Hanover Junction was completed. In 1858 the Gettysburg Railroad opened a railroad link westward to Gettysburg; the Hanover and York Railroad completed a rail line to York in 1876. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Hanover was fought on June 30, 1863.
Union cavalry under Judson Kilpatrick encountered Confederate cavalry under J. E. B. Stuart and a sharp fight ensued in the town and in farm fields to the south along Frederick Street; the inconclusive battle delayed the Confederate cavalry on their way to the Battle of Gettysburg. Three days before the battle, another detachment of Virginia cavalry had occupied Hanover, "collecting" supplies and horses from local citizens. Over the years, its industries have included the making of cigars, silks, water wheels, shirts, machine-shop products, wire cloth, ironstone grinders; the town has lent its name to a brand of canned vegetables, a mail-order gift company based there. Hanover's first newspaper, Die Pennsylvania Wochenschrift, was published in German in 1797. In 1805, the "Hanover Gazette" followed suit published in German; the Hanover Historic District, Eichelberger High School, George Nace House, US Post Office-Hanover are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On October 24, 2018, Hanover Borough's first African-American mayor was sworn it.
Hanover Borough council selected Myneca Ojo, 56, to fill the office vacated by Ben Adams, who moved away from the community. Myneca Ojo was the former Director of Diversity at the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, she is the second woman to be mayor in the borough. Margret Hormel was the first woman mayor, serving from 1993 to 2007; as of the 2010 census, there were 15,289 people and 6,571 househo
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States. It is the fifth-most populous city in the state of New York following New York City, Buffalo and Yonkers. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,252, its metropolitan area had a population of 662,577, it is the economic and educational hub of Central New York, a region with over one million inhabitants. Syracuse is well-provided with convention sites, with a downtown convention complex. Syracuse was named after the classical Greek city Syracuse, a city on the eastern coast of the Italian island of Sicily; the city has functioned as a major crossroads over the last two centuries, first between the Erie Canal and its branch canals of the railway network. Today, Syracuse is at the intersection of Interstates 81 and 90, its airport is the largest in the region. Syracuse is home to Syracuse University, a major research university, as well as Le Moyne College, a nationally recognized liberal arts college. In 2010, Forbes rated Syracuse fourth among the top 10 places in the U.
S. to raise a family. French missionaries were the first Europeans to come to this area, arriving to work with the Native Americans in the 1600s. At the invitation of the Onondaga Nation, one of the five nations of the Iroquois confederacy, a group of Jesuit priests and coureurs des bois set up a mission, known as Sainte Marie among the Iroquois, or Ste. Marie de Gannentaha, on the northeast shore of Onondaga Lake. Jesuit missionaries reported salty brine springs around the southern end of what they referred to as "Salt Lake", known today as Onondaga Lake in honor of the historic tribe. French fur traders established trade throughout the New York area among the Iroquois. Dutch and English colonists were traders, the English nominally claimed the area, from their upstate base at Albany. During the American Revolutionary War, the decentralized Iroquois divided into groups and bands that supported the British, two tribes that supported the American-born rebels, or patriots. Settlers came into central and western New York from eastern parts of the state and New England after the American Revolutionary War and various treaties with and land sales by Native American tribes.
The subsequent designation of this area by the state of New York as the Onondaga Salt Springs Reservation provided the basis for commercial salt production. Such production took place from the late 1700s through the early 1900s. Brine from wells that tapped into halite beds in the Salina shale near Tully, New York, 15 miles south of the city, were developed in the 19th century, it is the north-flowing brine from Tully, the source of salt for the "salty springs" found along the shoreline of Onondaga Lake. The rapid development of this industry in the 18th and 19th centuries led to the nicknaming of this area as "The Salt City"; the original settlement of Syracuse was a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, was not recognized with a post office by the United States Government. Establishing the post office was delayed because the settlement did not have a name. Joshua Forman wanted to name Corinth; when John Wilkinson applied for a post office in that name in 1820, it was denied because the same name was in use in Saratoga County, New York.
Having read a poetical description of Syracuse, Wilkinson saw similarities to the lake and salt springs of this area, which had both "salt and fresh water mingling together". On February 4, 1820, Wilkinson proposed the name "Syracuse" to a group of fellow townsmen; the first Solvay Process Company plant in the United States was erected on the southwestern shore of Onondaga Lake in 1884. The village was called Solvay to commemorate Ernest Solvay. In 1861, he developed the ammonia-soda process for the manufacture of soda ash from brine wells dug in the southern end of Tully valley and limestone; the process was an improvement over the earlier Leblanc process. The Syracuse Solvay plant was the incubator for a large chemical industry complex owned by Allied Signal in Syracuse. While this industry stimulated development and provided many jobs in Syracuse, it left Onondaga Lake as the most polluted in the nation; the salt industry declined after the Civil War. Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, numerous businesses and stores were established, including the Franklin Automobile Company, which produced the first air-cooled engine in the world.
The Geneva Medical College was founded in 1834. It is now known as Upstate Medical University, one of four medical colleges in the State University of New York system, one of only five medical schools in the state north of New York City. On March 24, 1870, Syracuse University was founded; the State of New York granted the new university its own charter, independent of Genesee College, which had unsuccessfully tried to move to Syracuse the year before. The university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... Syracuse attracted a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between
Maxwell's, last known as Maxwell's Tavern, was a bar/restaurant and music club in Hoboken, New Jersey. Over several decades the venue attracted a wide variety of acts looking for a change from the New York City concert spaces across the river. Maxwell's closed its doors on July 31, 2013, reopened as Maxwell's Tavern in 2014, under new ownership. Less than four years it closed again in February 2018; the club was opened in August 1978 by Steve Fallon. When the Fallon family bought the corner building in uptown Hoboken with its street-level tavern, Steve Fallon's sisters Kathryn Jackson Fallon and Anne Fallon Mazzolla along with brother-in-law Mario Mazzola were interested in turning the factory workers' tavern into more of a restaurant; the Hoboken band "a" asked if they could rehearse in an unused back room and play a few gigs in the front for the restaurant's patrons. The live music caught on and Fallon started booking bands in the back room. Over time, his booking taste, freewheeling personality and respectful treatment towards musicians made Maxwell's and Hoboken a stop to look forward to on many bands' tours.
By making the blue-collar mile-square city with a rough-and-tumble reputation a cultural gathering place, Maxwell's was instrumental in sparking Hoboken's first wave of early 1980s gentrification — the artists and musicians. In that light, it is believed that the Mazzolas may have offered the first successful Sunday brunch in Hoboken. Maxwell's become so successful that it spawned Pier Platters, an independent record store near the PATH train station that Fallon invested in. Fallon hired Todd Abramson to take over the booking of the acts in the mid-1980s. Abramson has been booking the venue since At a time when one of the Fallon siblings wanted to divest their interest in the business, Peter Buck bought their piece to help his friend Steve Fallon keep it open as a resource for enthusiasts of new music; when Fallon wanted out, he and his partners sold Maxwell's in December 1995 to William Sutton, who turned it into a brewpub. Abramson, Steve Shelley and Dave Post of the Amazing Incredibles and Swingadelic arranged to bring Maxwell's back, renovated and reopened it on July 26, 1998.
While some longtime patrons missed the more freewheeling Steve Fallon days, Maxwell's again became as vital a part of the independent music community as it was in the 1980s and 1990s. Parts of the music video for Bruce Springsteen's "Glory Days" were filmed at Maxwell's on May 28, 1985; the music video was directed by Hoboken resident John Sayles. The video for the song "Away" by the Feelies, directed by Jonathan Demme, was recorded at Maxwell's in 1988. After a 17-year hiatus, the Feelies reunited to appear at Maxwell's in July 2008, they made appearances again every July from 2009 through 2013. While on tour supporting their debut album Bleach, Nirvana appeared at Maxwell's on July 13, 1989. Early in the day, before the show, photographer Ian Tilton took several pictures of the band around Hoboken while John Robb interviewed them for a Sounds front cover feature; the picture of frontman Kurt Cobain has since been used in dozens of magazines and websites before and after his death. In the early 1990s, Maxwell's was voted the "Best Club in New York — Even Though It's in New Jersey" by The New Yorker magazine.
In addition to serving as a concert venue, Maxwell's offered monthly swing music by owner Dave Post's band Swingadelic, provided a forum for local musicians, opened itself up to weekly Tuesday DJ nights. Maxwell's sponsored monthly art exhibits on its walls, with supporting opening events. In the 2005 Village Voice Best of NY poll, Maxwell's was voted "Best Reason to Leave the State for Dinner and a Show". In 2005, The New York Times wrote that Maxwell's was "so New York that it's in New Jersey"; the indie rock band Yo La Tengo rented out the club for the eight nights of Hanukkah every year. In April 2013, Maxwell's came in third in Rolling Stone magazine's "Venues that Rock" list of the best clubs in America. In June 2013 it was announced that Maxwell's would not renew its lease and the club would close in July; the club closed its doors on July 31, 2013, preceded by an afternoon block party on 11th Street between Washington Street and Hudson Place, beginning that afternoon, to commemorate its final night.
Maxwell's reopened temporarily in August 2013 as a bar and restaurant, while the owners sought to sell the venue. In early 2014, it reopened with the name changed to Maxwell's Tavern; the new group decided to refocus the tavern from music to food, converting the "venue's fabled backroom—which in the'80s and'90s had proved a launching pad for up-and-coming bands like R. E. M. Husker Du, the Replacements and Nirvana"—into a dining room; the front room was fitted with large flatscreen televisions. However, when Maxwell's Tavern opened as a family-friendly pizzeria in April 2014, the owners realized it was a mistake, for the next sixth months, retooled the premises to again present musi
G. R. Herberger's Inc. is a department store chain founded in 1927 with locations throughout the Midwestern United States. The chain was sold in the late 1990s amid growing consolidation in the department store industry, while continuing to operate as a separate nameplate and sharing a corporate division headquartered in Milwaukee, with Carson's, Bergner's and other regional chains by the close of the century; the company's parent company Bon-Ton liquidated. Herberger's began in Osakis, when G. R. "Bob" Herberger opened his first store in 1927. Herberger's was incorporated for the purpose of acquiring additional stores and expanding into other communities in 1943. By 1972, it grew to 11 stores in four states, with its headquarters in downtown St. Cloud, Minnesota. G. R. Herberger's, Inc. by an employee-owned company, merged with Proffitt's Inc. in 1997 in stock deal valued at $160 million. As Proffitt's Inc. evolved into Saks Incorporated with the company's acquisition of Saks Fifth Avenue, Herberger's became part of the corporation's Northern Department Store Group, an assortment of store locations acquired by Proffitt's Inc. as Carson Pirie Scott & Company.
On October 31, 2005, Saks announced that it was selling Herberger's and its other Northern Department Store Group stores to Bon-Ton Stores in a $1.1 billion deal. Bon-Ton announced on April 17, 2018, that they would be closing doors and began liquidating all 267 stores after two liquidators, Great American Group and Tiger Capital Group, won an auction for the company; the bid was estimated to be worth $775.5 million. This included all remaining Herberger's locations after 91 years of operation. According to national retail reporter Mitch Nolen, stores were closed within 10 to 12 weeks. According to the Fargo INFORUM newspaper, the Herberger's website has returned online with the text "Herberger's is coming back". According to the article, this coincides with the last location being closed as of August 31; the article did not disclose the financing or ownership of the brand or if the retirement liabilities of former employees remains lost after the transfer of assets. Herberger’s was relaunched when CSC Generations purchased Bon Ton, Inc. and their associated brands and customer lists.
On October 1, 2018, it was revealed that multiple Herberger's locations would open or reopen around Minnesota, with the first store being in Rochester. Official website The Bon-Ton Stores, Inc. investor relations home page
Hagerstown is a city in Washington County, United States. It is the county seat of Washington County; the population of Hagerstown city proper at the 2010 census was 39,662, the population of the Hagerstown-Martinsburg Metropolitan Area was 269,140. Hagerstown ranks as Maryland's sixth largest incorporated city. Hagerstown has a distinct topography, formed by stone ridges running from northeast to southwest through the center of town. Geography accordingly bounds its neighborhoods; these ridges consist of upper Stonehenge limestone. Many of the older buildings were built from this stone, quarried and dressed onsite, it whitens in weathering and the edgewise conglomerate and wavy laminae become distinctly visible, giving a handsome and uniquely “Cumberland Valley” appearance. Several of Hagerstown’s churches are constructed of Stonehenge limestone and its value and beauty as building rock may be seen in St. John’s Episcopal Church on West Antietam Street and the Presbyterian Church at the corner of Washington and Prospect Streets.
Brick and concrete displaced this native stone in the construction process. Hagerstown anchors the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which lies just northwest of the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area in the heart of the Great Appalachian Valley; the population of the metropolitan area in 2010 was 269,140. Greater Hagerstown is the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the state of Maryland and among the fastest growing in the United States. Despite its semi-rural Western Maryland setting, Hagerstown is a center of commerce. Interstates 81 and 70, CSX, Norfolk Southern, the Winchester and Western railroads, Hagerstown Regional Airport form an extensive transportation network for the city. Hagerstown is the chief commercial and industrial hub for a greater Tri-State Area that includes much of Western Maryland as well as significant portions of South Central Pennsylvania and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. Hagerstown has been referred to as, is nicknamed, the Hub City.
A person born in Hagerstown is called a Hagerstonian. In 1739, Jonathan Hager, a German immigrant from Pennsylvania and a volunteer Captain of Scouts, purchased 200 acres of land in the Great Appalachian Valley between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains in Maryland and called it Hager’s Fancy. In 1762, Hager founded the town of Elizabethtown which he named after his wife, Elizabeth Kershner. Fourteen years Jonathan Hager became known as the "Father of Washington County" after his efforts helped Hagerstown become the county seat of newly created Washington County which Hager helped create from neighboring Frederick County, Maryland; the City Council changed the community's name to Hager's-Town in 1813 because the name had gained popular usage, in the following year, the Maryland State Legislature endorsed the changing of the town’s name. In 1794 government forces arrested 150 citizens during a draft riot, staged by protesters in response to the Whiskey Rebellion. Hagerstown's strategic location at the border between the North and the South made the city a primary staging area and supply center for four major campaigns during the Civil War.
In 1861, General Robert Patterson's troops used Hagerstown as a base to attack Virginia troops in the Shenandoah Valley. In the Maryland Campaign of 1862, General James Longstreet's command occupied the town while en route to the Battle of South Mountain and Antietam. In 1863, the city was the site of several military incursions and engagements as Gen. Robert E. Lee's army invaded and retreated in the Gettysburg Campaign. In 1864, Hagerstown was invaded by the Confederate army under Lt. Gen. Jubal Early. On Wednesday, July 6, Early sent 1,500 cavalry, commanded by Brig. Gen. John McCausland, into Hagerstown; the Confederates levied a ransom of $20,000 and a large amount of clothing, in retribution for U. S. destruction of farms and cattle in the Shenandoah Valley. This is in contrast to neighboring Chambersburg, which McCausland razed on July 30 when the borough failed to supply the requested ransom of $500,000 in U. S. currency, or $100,000 in gold. Throughout the Civil War, private physicians and citizens of Hagerstown gave assistance or aid to men from both the North and South in a number of locations, including the Franklin Hotel, Washington House, Hagerstown Male Academy, Key-Mar College, a number of private residences.
The spread of smallpox by returning soldiers to families and friends was a substantial problem during the war. The Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church volunteered the use of its church as a smallpox hospital when an epidemic spread throughout the town. Following the war, in 1872 Maryland and Virginia cooperated to re-inter Confederate dead from their impromptu graves to cemeteries in Hagerstown and Shepherdstown, West Virginia. 60% however, remained unidentified. In 1877, 15 years after the Battle of Antietam known as the Battle of Sharpsburg 2,800 Confederate dead from that battle and from the battles on South Mountain were re-interred in Washington Confederate Cemetery, within Rose Hill Cemetery in Hagerstown. Hagerstown's nickname of the "Hub City" came from the large number of railroads that served the city. Hagerstown was the center of the Western Maryland Railway and an important city on the Pennsylvania and Western, Baltimore and Ohio, Hagerstown and Frederick Railroads; the city is a vital location on CSX, Norfolk Southern, the Winchester and Western Railroads.
Hagerstown was served by the Hagerstown & Frederick Railway, an interurban trolley s