Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer sometimes referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, intonation, a "horn-like" improvisational ability in her scat singing. After a tumultuous adolescence, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb Orchestra, performing across the country but most associated with the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem, her rendition of the nursery rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. After taking over the band when Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start her solo career, her manager was Moe Gale, co-founder of the Savoy, until she turned the rest of her career over to Norman Granz, who founded Verve Records to produce new records by Fitzgerald. With Verve she recorded some of her more noted works her interpretations of the Great American Songbook. While Fitzgerald appeared in movies and as a guest on popular television shows in the second half of the twentieth century, her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career.
These partnerships produced some of her best-known songs such as "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Cheek to Cheek", "Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall", "It Don't Mean a Thing". In 1993, she ended her nearly 60-year career with her last public performance. Three years she died at the age of 79 after years of declining health, her accolades included fourteen Grammy Awards, the National Medal of Arts, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Fitzgerald was born on April 1917, in Newport News, Virginia, she was the daughter of Temperance "Tempie" Henry. Her parents lived together for at least two and a half years after she was born. In the early 1920s, Fitzgerald's mother and her new partner, a Portuguese immigrant named Joseph Da Silva, moved to Yonkers, in Westchester County, New York, her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923. By 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to a poor Italian area, she began her formal education at the age of six and was an outstanding student, moving through a variety of schools before attending Benjamin Franklin Junior High School in 1929.
Starting in third grade, Fitzgerald admired Earl Snakehips Tucker. She performed for her peers on the way at lunchtime, she and her family were Methodists and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, where she attended worship services, Bible study, Sunday school. The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in music. Fitzgerald listened to jazz recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, The Boswell Sisters, she idolized the Boswell Sisters' lead singer Connee Boswell saying, "My mother brought home one of her records, I fell in love with it... I tried so hard to sound just like her."In 1932, when Fitzgerald was fifteen, her mother died from injuries received in a car accident. Her stepfather took care of her until April 1933; this swift change in her circumstances, reinforced by what Fitzgerald biographer Stuart Nicholson describes as rumors of "ill treatment" by her stepfather, leaves him to speculate that Da Silva might have abused her. Fitzgerald began skipping school, her grades suffered.
She worked as a lookout with a Mafia-affiliated numbers runner. She never talked publicly about this time in her life; when the authorities caught up with her, she was placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale in the Bronx. When the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls, a state reformatory school in Hudson, New York. While she seems to have survived during 1933 and 1934 in part from singing on the streets of Harlem, Fitzgerald made her most important debut at age 17 on November 21, 1934, in one of the earliest Amateur Nights at the Apollo Theater, she had intended to go on stage and dance, but she was intimidated by a local dance duo called the Edwards Sisters and opted to sing instead. Performing in the style of Connee Boswell, she sang "Judy" and "The Object of My Affection" and won first prize, she won the chance to perform at the Apollo for a week but because of her disheveled appearance, the theater never gave her that part of her prize.
In January 1935, Fitzgerald won the chance to perform for a week with the Tiny Bradshaw band at the Harlem Opera House. She was introduced to drummer and bandleader Chick Webb, who had asked his signed singer Charlie Linton to help find him a female singer. Although Webb was "reluctant to sign her...because she was gawky and unkempt, a'diamond in the rough,'" he offered her the opportunity to test with his band when they played a dance at Yale University. Met with approval by both audiences and her fellow musicians, Fitzgerald was asked to join Webb's orchestra and gained acclaim as part of the group's performances at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom. Fitzgerald recorded several hit songs, including "Love and Kisses" and " You'll Have to Swing It", but it was her 1938 version of the nursery rhyme, "A-Tisket, A-Tasket", a song she co-wrote, that brought her public acclaim. "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" became a major hit on the radio and was one of the biggest-selling records of the decade. Webb died of spinal tuberculosis on June 16, 1939, his band was renamed Ella and Her Famous Orchestra with Fitzgerald taking on the role of bandleader.
She recorded nearly 150 songs with Webb's orchestra between 1935 and 1942. In The New York Times obituary o
Three X Sisters
The Three X Sisters were an American all-girl harmony singing trio known as The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce. They were on stage singing together as early as 1922, formed their trio in 1924, composed of Pearl Santos and Violet Hamilton from Cumberland and Jessie Fordyce from Brooklyn, New York, they were known on NBC radio as "radio's foremost harmony trio." Pearl and Jessie had individually all been well known in their theater venues by 1914. Earlier, Pearl and Vi had individually sung in Cumberland, Maryland and won prizes for their song competition accomplishments. Jessie performed alongside her father, she was on the Brooklyn, New York, vaudeville circuit and beyond - as a young child star'Baby Helen', her stepping-stone success through songs, vocal imitations had impressed the masses. Pearl Hamilton began her career on Broadway as early as 1917, her roommate during this era was another ` Stars of the Future' entertainer/singer. The average salary in 1919 was $22.00 per week for the All Jazz Revue "chorus girls."
Pearl started out as a soft shoe and high-kick dancer, received positive dance reviews. The Hamiltons began their professional singing careers in harmony at the Haymarket Theatre in Chicago, Illinois; some walk-on or cameo parts in silent films with Paramount Pictures showed their dancing talents. On December 30, 1920, at the Star Theater in New York City, Pearl's musicianship and piano styles were paired alongside a jazz band which included the Morette Sisters who were duet singers they played the violin and trombone, Stanely played the coronet. Violet had been chosen in 1926 by Paramount for a scene of her Charleston dance moves. References to this accompanied their radio singing career. In 1920, Pearl and Violet, were part of the vocal chorus. A addition was friend Jessie Fordyce with the'All Jazz Revue' showcase. Pearl and Violet started entertaining with the'All Jazz Review', their first known performance, sponsored by Irons & Clamage and the Swear Club was reviewed by The Billboard on January 10, 1920.
Pearl, "a tall, willowy girl, Is a dancing wonder". The trio started out on Broadway and in vaudeville, with Helen Kane Schroeder, the original Boop-boop-a-Doop Girl; the trio did various song and dance acts settling for close harmony, associated with three-part harmony singing. The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce earliest known performance together was at B. F. Keiths Theater in Syracuse, New York, on May 13, 1923. In 1924, they toured in vaudeville, with Helen Schroeder and Anna Mae Wong. Pearl's harmony trio had the musicianship of the Raymond Fagan Orchestra. Pearl Hamilton met Ed Santos, who played trumpet with Fagan's band, a year they married in Rochester, New York. During early July 1925, The Hamilton Sisters and Jessie Fordyce were singing at the Eighty-First Street Theatre. In 1926, the trio toured with another popular all-girl act and her Baby Grands, appearing together at the Palace Theater in New York, they toured together in Canada. The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce gained enough success to tour abroad.
After they departed from "Stars of the Future" entertainment showcase, spring of 1927, their management, fronted by Ed Wolfe, had them tour Europe and the United Kingdom. They departed by airplane at a Long Island airport with the American portion of New York's Savoy Orpheans musical unit during the week of May 23, 1927. In the UK, they met up with American songwriters Richard Lorenz Hart, they spent time in the recording studio with Bert Ambrose, a British bandleader, musical director Caroll Gibbons, violinist/director Reg Batton. They appeared on London and Manchester stages. On October 27, 1927, Harry Plunket Greene, Irish baritone tenor, wrote of the trio after an England performance "The Hamilton Sisters & Fordyce are just A1 as they are. I wouldn't interfere with them for anything. It's just perfect in its way. I do trust they leave things alone, not try to change." That November, the trio teamed up with Billy Mayerl, pianist, to do close harmonizing on "Who You, That's Who?", "Zulu Wail".
Their first on-air radio broadcasts were in England on the BBC. The trios' return to America, they sailed from Cherbourg, France on the U. S. S. Leviathan on Dec. 15, 1927 for New York City. Reports show the trio on the BBC, at the'Kit Kat Club' in 1928; when the popularity of the vaudeville showcase Playtime had become a real success, it attracted the attention of Broadway with Rain or Shine in early 1928. Jessie had the idea for Playtime. Tom Howard was the writer; the routine they did placed their on-stage performance alongside comedian. The Hamiltons and Fordyce were so well received that the Playtime showcase was recommended to run on its own merit; the group's radio success started when the trio appeared in publicity photographs wearing eye masks, capitalized on the new popularity of radio. Pearl needed to concentrate on radio work, she chose to tour the US extensively, sign with such sponsors as Ford and Sanborn, Best Foods, Tydol and others to pursue the radio career for her trio. A CBS Radio sponsor hired them, they took a new stage name, "The Three X Sisters".
In 1932, they were featured alongside other harmony trios in the November issue of Radio Digest Magazine. From October to December on the WABC-CBS radio program might find this scenario
Darktown Strutters' Ball
"Darktown Strutters' Ball" is a popular song by Shelton Brooks, published in 1917. The song is considered a popular and jazz standard. There are many variations of the title, including "At the Darktown Strutters' Ball", "The Darktown Strutters' Ball", just "Strutters' Ball". Soon after its 1917 publication, "Darktown Strutters' Ball" was included by Sophie Tucker in her Vaudeville routine; the song was recorded on May 9 that year by the Six Brown Brothers. The best-known recording by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, recorded on May 30, 1917, released by Columbia Records as catalog number A-2297, was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006. More than three million copies of the sheet music were sold. Original Dixieland Jazz Band; the ODJB recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006. The Six Brown Brothers, a comedic musical ensemble, recorded the song in 1917. American Republic Band Phil Brito Brown & Terry Jazzola Boys Castle Jazz Band Larry Clinton and Orchestra Arthur Collins & Byron G. Harlan Chick Webb recorded a version on January 15, 1934 in New York but was only issued in England on Columbia CB-754.
Boswell Sisters recorded a version on May 23, 1934 in New York but was only issued in Australia on Columbia DO-1255. Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra Arthur Fields Paul Frees recording is featured in the film The Abominable Dr. Phibes, during a murder scene. Connie Haines, Alan Dale, the Ray Bloch Seven, Sy Oliver's Orchestra Phil Harris and his Orchestra Hoosier Hotshots Pee Wee Hunt Martin & Brown Russ Morgan and his Orchestra Ruby Newman and his Orchestra Orlando's Orchestra Preacher Rollo and the Five Saints Gid Tanner's Skillet Lickers Toots' Quartet Fats Waller Deek Watson and the Brown Dots. Ted Mulry Gang had a #3 hit in Australia with a rock'n roll version of "Darktown Strutters Ball" in 1976. Lou Monte recorded "Darktown Strutter's Ball" in 1954; the RCA release was a major hit. He parodies the lyrics, including "I'll be down to get you in a wheelbarrow honey", asks "Are you from Lyndhurst?", the city of his birth. Ray Anthony in Australia on Capitol CP-139, flip side "Deep Night" and in the US as the flip side to the single "Count Every Star".
Joe Brown on Decca F 11207, 1960, flip side "Swagger". Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album On the Happy Side. Howard Armstrong adds some explicit lyrics in the movie Louie Bluie. James Gelfand made a version for the Canadian movie Jack Paradise. Alberta Hunter recorded the song on her 1978 comeback album Amtrak Blues. Allen Broome & His Dixieland All-Stars released a version on his debut solo album BucketMouth in June, 2013. Jaudas' Society Orchestra issued a version in 1918 on Edison Records. In addition to the above (and
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Joseph Matthews "Wingy" Manone was an American jazz trumpeter, composer and bandleader. His recordings included "Tar Paper Stomp", "Nickel in the Slot", "Downright Disgusted Blues", "There'll Come a Time", "Tailgate Ramble". Manone was born in Louisiana, he lost his right arm in a streetcar accident when he was ten years old, which resulted in his nickname of "Wingy". He used a prosthesis so and unnoticeably that his disability was not apparent to the public. After playing trumpet and cornet professionally with various bands in his home town, he began to travel across America in the 1920s, working in Chicago, New York City, Mobile, California, St. Louis and other locations. Manone's style was similar to that of fellow New Orleans trumpeter Louis Prima: hot jazz with trumpet leads, punctuated by good-natured spoken patter in a pleasantly gravelly voice. Manone was an esteemed musician, recruited for recording sessions, he played on some early Benny Goodman records, for example, fronted various pickup groups under pseudonyms like "The Cellar Boys" and "Barbecue Joe and His Hot Dogs."
His hit records included "Tar Paper Stomp", a hot 1934 version of a sweet ballad of the time "The Isle of Capri", said to have annoyed the songwriters despite the royalties it earned them. Manone's group, like other bands recorded alternate versions of songs during the same sessions, thus there is more than one version of many Wingy Manone hits. Among his better records are "There'll Come a Time", "Send Me", the novelty hit "The Broken Record", he and his band did regular recording and radio work through the 1930s, appeared with Bing Crosby in the 1940 film Rhythm on the River. His 1939 recording "Boogie Woogie" featured the piano of Conrad Lanoue, part of Manone's band from 1936 to 1940. In 1943 Manone recorded several tunes as "Wingy Manone and His Cats". One of his Soundies reprised his recent hit "Rhythm on the River." Manone's autobiography, Trumpet on the Wing, was published in 1948. From the 1950s he was based in California and Las Vegas, although he toured through the United States and parts of Europe to appear at jazz festivals.
In 1957, he attempted to break into the teenage rock-and-roll market with his version of "Party Doll", the Buddy Knox hit. His version on Decca 30211 made No. 56 on Billboard's Pop chart and it received a UK release on Brunswick 05655. Manone's compositions include "There'll Come a Time" with Miff Mole, "Tar Paper Stomp", "Tailgate Ramble" with Johnny Mercer, "Stop the War", "Trying to Stop My Crying", "Downright Disgusted Blues" with Bud Freeman, "Swing Out" with Ben Pollack, "Send Me", "Nickel in the Slot" with Irving Mills, "Jumpy Nerves", "Mannone Blues", "Easy Like", "Strange Blues", "Swingin' at the Hickory House", "No Calling Card", "Where's the Waiter?", "Walkin' the Streets", "Fare Thee Well". In 2008, "There'll Come a Time" was used in the soundtrack to the Academy Award-nominated movie The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. Manone was survived by his son Joseph Matthew Manone II and grandson Jimmy Manone, who were both musicians, as well as grandsons Joseph Matthew Manone III and Jon Scott Harris.
For many years Manone's good friend Joe Venuti, the jazz violinist and notorious practical joker, sent Wingy a single cuff link on his birthday
Tony Parenti was an American jazz clarinettist and saxophonist born in New Orleans best known for his decades of work in New York City. Parenti was a childhood musical prodigy, first on violin on clarinet; as a child he substituted for Alcide Nunez in Papa Jack Laine's band. In New Orleans he worked with Johnny Dedroit. During his early teens Parenti worked with the Nick LaRocca band. Among other local acts. Parenti led his own band in New Orleans in the mid-1920s, making his first recordings there, before moving to New York City at the end of the decade. In the late 1920s, Parenti worked with Benny Goodman and Fred Rich, in the decade moved to New York City full-time where he worked through the 1930s as a CBS staffman and as a member of the Radio City Symphony Orchestra. From 1939-1945 Parenti, with Ted Lewis's band, played alongside Muggsy Spanier. In 1944, he appeared in concert with Sidney Bechet and Max Miller in Chicago. In the 1940s and still in New York City, Parenti formed a Dixieland jazz band called Tony Parenti and His New Orleanians, which featured Wild Bill Davison, Art Hodes and Jimmy Archey, among others.
He appeared at such New York jazz spots as Nick's and Jimmy Ryan’s, worked with Eddie Condon. Parenti remained active until the 1960s in clubs, died in New York City on April 17, 1972. Over his career, Parenti recorded on the labels of Jazzology and Fat Cat, among several others. UAL/Que Records 195? Dixie By The 7 UAL 28000/ Que JLS 5000 Tony Parenti & His New Orleanians with Wild Bill Davison, Jimmy Archey, Art Hodes, Pops Foster, Arthur Trappier Ragtime Jubilee Ragtime! Tony Parenti & His Downtown Boys with Dick Wellstood, Armand Hug Tony Parenti & His Ragtime Gang - Ragtime Jubilee the front cover reads: "Featuring Knocky Parker" The Final Bar with Max Kaminsky, Charlie Bornemann, Bobby Pratt Who's Who of Jazz. John Chilton, Da Capo, 1972 Metronome Magazine, Dec 1946, Article by George Hoefer