Mondawmin Mall is a three-level shopping mall in Northwest Baltimore, United States. The mall was a development of the Mondawmin Corporation, a firm set up in 1952 by James Rouse and Hunter Moss under the Moss-Rouse Company; when it first opened in October 1956, it was called the Mondawmin Center. It was enclosed and renamed the Mondawmin Mall. Mondamin was the name of a Native American corn god mentioned in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem "The Song of Hiawatha." In 1841, Patrick Macaulay constructed a Greek Revival mansion on 73 acres that he named Mondawmin Manor. Macaulay was a Baltimore City councilman, editor of the Baltimore North American and early director of the B&O railroad, it is said that poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow suggested to Macaulay that he should name the estate after a Native American god of corn, referenced in the poem "The Song of Hiawatha." Upon Macaulay's death, George Brown purchased Mondawmin and it was owned and maintained by the Brown family until 1949. The only remaining feature from the original estate is a marble fountain that can be found in Frederick, Maryland.
In 1949, Alexander Brown Griswold approached James Rouse and asked what he could develop on 46 acres of property on the outskirts of Baltimore City. Rouse proposed the idea of a shopping center and the estate was demolished for development in 1955. Mondawmin Center was built as an urban retail hub, it was an open-air complex of 58 store spaces, featuring a spiral staircase, a three-level Sears, a G. C. Murphy 5 and 10, Food Fair and Penn Fruit supermarkets. Jim Rouse's brother Willard Goldsmith Rouse arranged the initial leasing, which included "The White Coffee Pot", a store that opened as a segregated establishment; the center was enclosed during renovations that started in 1963 and its name was changed to Mondawmin Mall. After the 1968 Baltimore riots produced white flight, the mall revenues declined and Sears left. Vacant space was occupied by the department of social services, where 35 people were held hostage in May 1977 by an unemployed man facing court action; the Rouse Company had sold the Mondawmin Mall property in the mid-1960s, only to buy it back in 1982.
They performed a large-scale renovation in 1983, sectioning the vacant Sears into smaller store spaces and adding a parking garage to the west end of the structure. With the acquisition of the Rouse Company by Chicago-based General Growth Properties, in 2004, Mondawmin Mall became a GGP holding. General Growth Properties went through bankruptcy proceedings between April 2009 and May 2010. Once criticized for not meeting the needs of the local population, it is now better serving the community following a $68 million renovation between early 2007 and late 2008. During this project, the parking garage was replaced with a Target store. Two anchors, A. J. Wright and Shoppers Food & Pharmacy, were added to the east end of the shopping center. A branch of the Motor Vehicle Administration of Maryland was on the Mondawmin property in a separate building. In 2011, the MVA moved to Hilltop Plaza Shopping Center in northwest Baltimore. During the 2015 Baltimore riots, police protected the Mondawmin Mall for a short period of time closing in the mid afternoon.
Other images of the Mondawmin Mall appeared on major news networks showing looters running into and out of the mall during the riots. The mall remained closed from Monday, 27 April 2015, until Saturday, 2 May 2015, reopened on Sunday, 3 May 2015. On November 7, 2017, Target announced that its Mondawmin store would close in February 2018. Mondawmin Mall was prominently featured in the movie Species II, 1998, starring Michael Madsen and Marg Helgenberger The perimeter of the Mondawmin Mall property is composed of some major Baltimore roads, including Liberty Heights Avenue, Reisterstown Road, Gwynns Falls Parkway. Nearby are Maryland Route 129 and Monroe Street. Located on the Mondawmin property is the Mondawmin Transit Center, which includes Mondawmin station of the Baltimore Metro Subway; this station serves as a hub for 10 Maryland Transit Administration bus lines. There are 175 spaces in the mall's parking lot designated for use by riders of the Metro Subway. Mondawmin Mall on Google Street View
Lakeforest Mall known as Lakeforest, is an enclosed shopping center located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. It is owned by U. S. Bank, its two levels house over 160 stores, a food court, until 2013 a large children's play area at the center. The mall is anchored by JCPenney, Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Sears. Lakeforest Mall first opened September 12, 1978. At that time, the mall's anchor stores were JCPenney, Woodward & Lothrop, Hecht's; the mall was one of the first in the United States to feature an indoor ice skating rink on the lower level, in the "H section". The rink has since been superseded first by a multi-theater movie complex by a food court, which now occupies the place. Developed and operated by Taubman Centers, the Simon Property Group owned and managed the mall from 2007, when it purchased former owner and manager Mills Corporation; the company defaulted on its mortgage in 2011 and the mall was put up for sale after. In 2012, the mall took in 14,680,000$ in net income. In 2013, Five Mile Capital Partners hired real estate developer Hines to "map out a long-term plan for Lakeforest".
The children's play area and nearby fountain were tiled over that year. In 2016, the mall took in 6,180,000$ in net income. On August 22, 2017, Gaithersburg's Lakeforest Mall was sold at auction for $19.1 million, a fraction of the price $100 million price tag from 2012. The auction came after Five Mile Capital, went into foreclosure; as of August 2017, the mall's general manager is Paul DeMarco. The Annapolis-based Petrie Richardson Ventures has Lakeforest under contract, which wouldn't include the anchor stores in a potential purchase, but as of February 2018 the deal has not been closed. On February 28, 2019, it was announced that JCPenney would be closing as part of a plan to close 27 stores nationwide; the store will close on July 5, 2019. Westfield Montgomery Opening Ceremony at Lakeforest Mall - September 12th, 1978 Official website Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine Lakeforest Mall at the Wayback Machine
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Shops at Iverson
The Shops at Iverson is a shopping mall located at the intersection of Branch Avenue and Iverson Street, in Hillcrest Heights, just north of the Marlow Heights Shopping Center. Named Iverson Mall, it was the first shopping mall in the Washington D. C. area to be built enclosed and climate controlled. The Montgomery Ward store opened on April 20, 1967, when former Maryland Gov. J. Millard Tawes cut the ceremonial ribbon; the second anchor of the two anchor mall, Woodward & Lothrop, opened its store in the Spring of 1967. With both anchors in place and 60 stores, the grand opening of the $10 million, 500,000-square-foot center occurred September 21, 1967; the mall straddles Iverson Street, which bisects the structure, attached at the front of the mall is a four-story office building. Built as a regional shopping center, it declined after the opening of nearby Landover Mall in 1972. All fountains were removed during the 1985 remodeling. By the mid-1990s the two anchor stores were replaced with discount department stores.
In 2008, the mall underwent adopted a new slogan and advertising campaign, "You Can Find it All --- at Iverson Mall." In 2016, the mall's new owners drew up plans for a $30 million renovation, funded by a loan from the County's Economic Development Incentive Fund. Under the plan, the mall would be more outward facing, with a "main street" atmosphere, with outside access to some restaurants. Completion of the renovation was expected by the 3rd quarter of 2017, with the mall having a new wood and glass facade, energy efficient upgrades, new lighting, new security system, new restrooms. Plans include 75,000 square feet of office space. Burlington Forman Mills Roses Iverson Mall website Marlow Heights area history website, accessed Aug 27, 2008
The Savage Mill is a historic cotton mill complex in Savage, turned into a complex of shops and restaurants. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, it is located in the Savage Mill Historic District. Buildings in the complex date from 1822 to 1916; the mill property is part of a land grant named Ridgeley's Forest, surveyed on June 3, 1685, by Colonel Henry Ridgley, a future justice of the peace for Anne Arundel who arrived in the colonies in 1659. The property was occupied by Alexander Warfield's son who transferred it to his cousin, Alexander Warfield. In 1750, Alexander constructed an early mill along the river at the falls and passed it along to his sons Brice Warfield and John Worthington; the mill was not run profitably and was sold to Francis Simpson along with portions of "Warfields Range" along the Little Patuxent in 1760. Simpson acquired several local plantation properties and was noted in the 1790 and 1800 Anne Arundel County Census having 16-17 slaves working for him by 1800.
Commodore Joshua Barney had a colorful career as a sailor and privateer ranging from Philadelphia harbor to Jamaica. He acquired the land we know as Savage when it was still part of Anne Arundel county, referencing it in letters as being at "Elkridge". In 1809, Nathaniel F. Williams married Caroline Barney, daughter of Joshua Barney, who lived at the Commodore Joshua Barney House built in 1760; the mill was started next to the Barney house in 1810 by brothers Nathanael F. Williams, Amos Adams Williams, Cumberland Dugan Williams and George Williams. Shortly after starting the enterprise, Joshua Barney and Nathaniel Williams participated in the War of 1812, with Nathanial becoming wounded at the Battle of North Point and Barney wounded at the Battle of Bladensburg; the mill and town were named after the Kingston, Jamaican born John Savage II, of the Philadelphia shipping firm Savage & Dugan. Savage was known for his association with the old United States Bank. A close family association to the founders of Savage and Dugan is evident in Cumberland Dugan Williams naming.
Savage financed the Williams brothers the money to start the business and bought the mill outright in 1823 for $6,667.67. James E. P. Boulden In December 1821 the mill was chartered as the Savage Manufacturing Company; the main product was a wide variety of other uses. In March 26, 1824, $12,000 was loaned from the Bank of Baltimore to expand operations; the mill had established itself early on as a premier site of manufacturing product and machinery for the east coast as noted in an 1825 letter from Daniel Lammott to E. I. Du Pont stating "it would be the best and largest establishment in the country." Most workers were women who were on lockdown throughout their shifts posing a risk of certain peril if a fire broke out. A messenger would deliver notes if communications were needed or they could speak through a small window in the locked door. By 1829 Amos Williams combined "Whites Contrivance", "Brothers In Partnership", "Williams Discovery" to expand the mill town to 980 acres; the parcel was named "Conclusion", joined with Charles Alexander Warfield's "Wincopin Neck" upstream to form a dam on the Little Patuxent River, which runs adjacent to the mill property.
Money was loaned to by additional land from Mrs. Dorsey. Amos managed the company at the time from an office in Baltimore on Calvert street just West of Lexington. In 1831, Mr. Hack, a machinist at the mill developed a machine for reeling and twisting silk, taken to Washington for a patent The same year, a case of Small Pox struck at least 30 persons. In October 1832, Amos Williams moved to the mill site with a salary of $300 a year to entertain business clients. By this time the cotton mill site had a grist mill, saw mill, machine shop, blacksmith shop, wheelwright shop, brick-making facility, rental houses and company store; that year, Joseph Bancroft used parts manufactured by the mill to establish a mill in Rockdale, Pennsylvania. In 1835 the post office moved from Waterloo to Savage Factory. In 1837, a furnace purchased for $8,000 operated on the mill property but managed separately by Amos A Williams, Cumberland Dugan Williams and Thomas Landsdale. After a drought in June 1836, the company decided to operate a lower cost wagon path to connect to the new B&O railroad and a portion of the Thomas Snowden's property on the Hammond Branch was added to divert water.
The same year the company provided slabbing engines, turning lathes and gear cutters to the Harpers Ferry Armory, location John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. From 1836 to 1843, The Savage Manufacturing Company started its own currency with scrip amounts of 25 cents, 50 cents and one dollar. On June 6, 1839 Amos A. Williams resigned due to a sickness that would last until 1844, leaving control of the company to his brother Cumberland Dugan Williams. During his sickness, the company developed "Baldwin's Cotton and Tobacco press, manufactured onsite for sales in the Southern states and the Rechm planing machine. Additional land was purchased by the mill on November 28, 1843, for $4,755 that included property from Mr. Lambert and William Worthington for firewood and ore for the furnace operations. In 1846, The Savage Manufacturing Company sold existing or manufactured looms and steam power engines for the Powhatan Company in Baltimore. In 1848, Amos A. Williams entered ligation against the Savage Manufacturing Company and his brothers George and Nathanial claiming they tried to force him into poverty from indebtedness during his illness.
The mill had a good source of water power, but the river was unnavigable for deliver
TheBus (Prince George's County)
TheBus is a bus transportation system serving Prince George's County, providing weekday-only service. There are 29 bus routes, with most operating between Washington Metro stations in the county, with two routes running to Upper Marlboro; the fare is $1.25, but seniors, the disabled, one child under 5 years old, students ride free. On October 13, 2008, TheBus began accepting payment using SmarTrip regional farecards; the idea for Prince George's County establishing its own transit system was brought up by Prince George's County in 1986, as a way of providing better transportation access to the Upper Marlboro Courthouse and other important government offices, that were isolated from the many of the other areas of Prince George's County that were served by WMATA's Metrorail and Metrobus System. While WMATA itself, could have easily have provided these areas of Prince George's County, it was not cost effective for Prince George's County to allow WMATA to do so as WMATA would have charged Prince George's County for the costs of operating those particular bus routes.
The reason why WMATA would have charged Prince George's County the costs of operating those routes was because of the fact that they were regional routes which were not at all profitable for WMATA to operate. The amount of ridership on those particular regional WMATA routes would not nearly offset WMATA's operational costs for those routes. Rather than swallowing WMATA's expensive costs, Prince George's County decided it would be much cheaper for the county to operate their own transit system instead. Prince George's County decided to create its own transit system after watching Montgomery County's success of developing its own "Ride On" transit system in March, 1975, to get around similar hurdles it experienced with WMATA's expensive charging for operating local routes in their county which were not profitable for WMATA to operate. Thus, Prince George's County's "The Bus" system was created on January, 1990; the first two, "The Bus" routes that Prince George's County started off operating were routes 20 and 21.
PG County's The Bus Route 20 would operate between the Addison Road Metro Station and the Upper Marlboro Courthouse. Prince George's County's The Bus Route 21, on the other hand, would operate between the New Carrollton Metro Station and Equestrian Center serving the Upper Marlboro Courthouse as well. After observing the success of these two Prince George's County bus routes, Prince George's County decided to expand its "The Bus" routes in April, 1996 from only two basic routes to six routes. Prince George's County's The Bus system was able to increase the number of routes it operated around this time as WMATA's northern Green Line stations in Prince George's County, which notably were the West Hyattsville, Prince George's Plaza, College Park U of MD, Greenbelt opened about three years earlier in December, 1993. Thus, there were more residential areas around these stations to serve; these additional The Bus routes would serve areas somewhat served by WMATA's Metrobus and Metrorail system but instead provide additional transportation service to residents and business living in those areas.
More The Bus routes were added as several WMATA's southern Green Line stations opened in January, 2001, which notably were the Southern Avenue, Naylor Road and Branch Avenue Metro Stations. In December, 2004, PG County's The Bus expanded its The Bus Routes more once WMATA's northern Blue Line stations; as of March 2019, the fleet consists of the following: Additionally, TheBus have placed an order for new buses made by ElDorado National. As of March 13, 2019, 63014 and 63016 has arrived on property. Official website TheBus at The Schumin Web Transit Center
The Washington Metro, or locally Metro, is the common name of Metrorail, the rapid transit system serving the Washington metropolitan area of the United States. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, which operates the Metrobus service under the Metro name. Opened in 1976, the network now includes six lines, 91 stations, 117 miles of route. Metro serves the District of Columbia, as well as several jurisdictions in the states of Maryland and Virginia. In Maryland, Metro provides service to Prince George's counties. Combined with its ridership in the independent Virginia cities of Falls Church and Fairfax, the Metro service area is coextensive with the inner ring of the Washington metropolitan area; the system is being expanded to reach Dulles International Airport and Loudoun County, Virginia. It operates as a deep-level subway in more densely populated parts of the D. C. metropolitan area, while most of the suburban tracks elevated. The longest single-tier escalator in the Western Hemisphere, spanning 230 feet, is located at Metro's deep-level Wheaton station.
Metro is the third-busiest rapid transit system in the United States in number of passenger trips, after the New York City Subway and Chicago "L". There were 179.7 million trips on Metro in fiscal year 2016. In June 2008, Metro set 798,456 per weekday. Fares vary based on the distance traveled, the time of day, the type of card used by the passenger. Riders enter and exit the system using a proximity card called SmarTrip. During the 1960s plans were laid for a massive freeway system in Washington. Harland Bartholomew, who chaired the National Capital Planning Commission, thought that a rail transit system would never be self-sufficient because of low density land uses and general transit ridership decline, but the plan met fierce opposition, was altered to include a Capital Beltway system plus rail line radials. The Beltway received full funding. In 1960 the federal government created the National Capital Transportation Agency to develop a rapid rail system. In 1966, a bill creating WMATA was passed by the federal government, the District of Columbia and Maryland, with planning power for the system being transferred to it from the NCTA.
WMATA approved plans for a 97.2-mile regional system on March 1, 1968. The plan consisted of a "core" regional system, which included the original five Metro lines, as well as several "future extensions", many of which were not constructed; the first experimental Metro station was built above ground in May 1968 for a cost of $69,000. It was 64x30x17 feet and meant to test construction techniques and acoustics prior to full-scale construction efforts. Construction began after a groundbreaking ceremony on December 9, 1969, when Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe, District Mayor Walter Washington, Maryland Governor Marvin Mandel tossed the first spade of dirt at Judiciary Square; the first portion of the system opened March 27, 1976, with 4.6 miles available on the Red Line with five stations from Rhode Island Avenue to Farragut North, all in the District of Columbia. Arlington County, Virginia was linked to the system on July 1, 1977. Underground stations were built with cathedral-like arches of concrete, highlighted by soft, indirect lighting.
The name Metro was suggested by Massimo Vignelli, who designed the subway maps for the New York City Subway. The 103-mile, 83-station system was completed with the opening of the Green Line segment to Branch Avenue on January 13, 2001; this did not mean the end of the growth of the system: a 3.22-mile extension of the Blue Line to Largo Town Center and Morgan Boulevard opened on December 18, 2004. The first infill station, NoMa–Gallaudet U on the Red Line between Union Station and Rhode Island Avenue–Brentwood, opened November 20, 2004. Construction began in March 2009 for an extension to Dulles Airport to be built in two phases; the first phase, five stations connecting East Falls Church to Tysons Corner and Wiehle Avenue in Reston, opened on July 26, 2014. Metro construction required billions of federal dollars provided by Congress under the authority of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969; the cost was paid with 33 % local money. This act was amended on January 3, 1980 by the National Capital Transportation Amendment of 1979, which authorized additional funding of $1.7 billion to permit the completion of 89.5 miles of the system as provided under the terms of a full funding grant agreement executed with WMATA in July 1986, which required 20% to be paid from local funds.
On November 15, 1990, the National Capital Transportation Amendments of 1990 authorized an additional $1.3 billion in federal funds for construction of the remaining 13.5 miles of the 103-mile system, completed via the execution of full funding grant agreements, with a 63% federal/37% local matching ratio. In February 2006 Metro officials chose Randi Miller, a car dealership employee from Woodbridge, Virginia, to record new "doors opening", "doors closing", "please stand clear of the doors, thank you" announcements aft