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The Broads

The Broads is a network of navigable rivers and lakes in the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The lakes, known as broads, were formed by the flooding of peat workings; the Broads, some surrounding land, were constituted as a special area with a level of protection similar to a national park by the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads Act 1988. The Broads Authority, a special statutory authority responsible for managing the area, became operational in 1989; the area is 303 square kilometres, most of, in Norfolk, with over 200 kilometres of navigable waterways. There are seven rivers and 63 broads less than 4 metres deep. Thirteen broads are open to navigation, with a further three having navigable channels; some broads have navigation restrictions imposed on them in autumn and winter, although the legality of the restrictions is questionable. Although the terms Norfolk Broads and Suffolk Broads are used to identify specific areas within the two counties the whole area is referred to as the "Norfolk Broads".

The Broads has similar status to the national parks in Wales. Because of its navigation role the Broads Authority was established under its own legislation on 1 April 1989; the Broads Authority Act 2009, promoted through Parliament by the authority, is intended to improve public safety on the water. In January 2015 the Broads Authority approved a change in name of the area to the "Broads National Park", to recognise that the status of the area is equivalent to the English National Parks, that the Broads Authority shares the same two first purposes as the English National Park Authorities, receives a National Park grant; this followed a three-month consultation which resulted in support from 79% of consultees, including unanimous support from the 14 UK national parks and the Campaign for National Parks. Defra, the Government department responsible for the parks expressed it was content that the Authority would make its own decision on the matter; this is the subject of ongoing controversy among some Broads users who note that the Broads is not named in law as a National Park and claim the branding detracts from the Broads Authority's third purpose, to protect the interests of navigation.

In response to this the Broads Authority has stated that its three purposes will remain in equal balance and that the branding is for marketing the National Park qualities of the Broads. The Broads are administered by the Broads Authority. Special legislation gives the navigation of the waterways equal status with the conservation and public enjoyment of the area. Specific parts of the Broads have been awarded a variety of conservation designations, for instance: Special Protection Area status for an area named'Broadland' composed of 28 Sites of Special Scientific Interest Environmentally Sensitive Area status for parts of the Halvergate Marshes National nature reserve status for: Bure Marshes NNR Ant Broads & Marshes NNR Hickling Broad NNR Ludham - Potter Heigham NNR Redgrave and Lopham Fen Martham Broad NNR Calthorpe Broad NNR Mid-Yare NNRA specific project being considered under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan is re-introduction of the large copper butterfly, whose habitat has been reduced by reduction of fens.

The Broads, although administered by the Broads Authority, give their name to the Broadland local government district, while parts of the Broads lie within other council areas: North Norfolk, South Norfolk and Great Yarmouth and Waveney district in Suffolk. For many years the lakes known as broads were regarded as natural features of the landscape, it was only in the 1960s that Dr Joyce Lambert proved that they were artificial features—flooded medieval peat excavations. In the Middle Ages the local monasteries began to excavate the peatlands as a turbary business, selling fuel to Norwich and Great Yarmouth. Norwich Cathedral took 320,000 tonnes of peat a year; the sea levels began to rise, the pits began to flood. Despite the construction of windpumps and dykes, the flooding continued and resulted in the typical Broads landscape of today, with its reedbeds, grazing marshes and wet woodland. Various attempts were made to extend the navigable rivers; the longest-lasting was on the River Waveney, where an Act of Parliament passed on 17 March 1670 authorised improvements which included three locks, at Geldeston and Wainford.

The head of navigation became a new staithe at Bungay. The new section was a private navigation, not controlled by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, who had responsibility for the rest of the Broadland rivers, it remained in use until 1934 and, although the upper two locks have been replaced by sluices and Geldeston lock is derelict, the Environment Agency have negotiated with local landowners to allow use by canoes and unpowered vessels which can be portaged around the locks. The next attempt was to extend navigation on the River Bure from Coltishall to Aylsham, authorised by an Act of Parliament on 7 April 1773. Five locks were built, to bypass mills, at Coltishall, Oxnead Lamas, Oxnead and Aylsham. There were financial difficulties during construction, but the works were completed and opened in October 1779. At Aylsham, a 1-mile cut was made from the river to a terminal basin, where several warehouses were constructed. Despite the arrival of the railways in 1879, goods continued to be carried to Aylsham by wherries until 1912, when major flooding badly damaged the locks.

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Şırnak clashes (2015–16)

The 2015–16 Şırnak clashes were a series of armed clashes in the southeastern province of Şırnak, between Turkish government forces and Kurdish armed groups, as part of the Turkey–PKK conflict. Following the 2015 Suruç bombing, the ceasefire between the Turkish government and the PKK ended after the PKK executed two police officers in their sleep on 22 July. In retaliation, the Turkish Air Force began striking PKK camps in Northern Iraq, beginning a new phase of the Turkey–PKK conflict; the re-escalation of the conflict between the PKK and the Turkish government caused a rise of discontent in the Kurdish-majority southeast. The first armed incident in Şırnak Province took place on 28 July when the Turkish Air Force bombed PKK fighters in the countryside; the clashes in Şırnak began to escalate following a bomb explosion that damaged a section of the Ceyhan-Kirkuk pipeline within Şırnak Province on July 29 and an ambush by the PKK on July 30 which killed 3 Turkish soldiers. On 4 August, PKK forces attacked a guard post in Şırnak Province with an RPG, killing one soldier and injuring another.

In a separate incident in the province, a mine killed two soldiers. Turkish F-16s targeting PKK camps in Hakkari Province in an act of retaliation. A PKK bomb explosion killed one civilian in Cizre on 5 August. On 7 August, Turkish Police clashed with PKK and YDG-H forces in Silopi and Uludere and PKK-affiliated militants hijacked a minibus in Beytüşşebap. 4 police officers and 1 army conscript were killed by separate PKK-affiliated attacks in Şırnak Province on 10 August. Turkish forces killed 2 PKK militants following clashes in Beytüşşebap on 13 August. Between 5–10 September, Turkey placed the first curfew on Cizre following an incursion by PKK forces. 30 people were killed during the clashes, HDP leader Selahattin Demirtaş claiming 20 of which were civilians although the Turkish government challenged this claim. Heavy clashes in Şırnak Province took place between 25–26 September, with the PKK claiming to have killed 75 soldiers and losing 14 militants while Turkish forces claimed to have killed 36 militants and lost 2 soldiers.

On 21 November, Turkish Air Force targeted PKK positions in Şırnak Province. On 15 December, Turkish forces launched large scale terror operations in Silopi and Cizre after PKK-affiliated militias set up barricades in the towns. By 17 December, Turkish forces had claimed to have killed between 55–70 PKK militants in the two towns; the HDP leader Selahattin Demirtaş called on locals to resist the operations, denounced the government use of forces, called both the local people and government to find constructive actions. On 31 December, 1 soldier was killed and 5 others injured following a PKK rocket attack. Battle of Şırnak September 2012 Beytüşşebap attack

London Underground Church

The London underground church was an illegal puritan group in the time of Elizabeth I and James I. It began as a radical fringe of the Church of England, but split from the Church and became part of the Brownist or puritan Separatist movement. William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Plantation, cited the underground church as the first that ‘professed and practised the cause’ of the Pilgrim Fathers; the underground Protestant church in London in Queen Mary's time was a forerunner of the Elizabethan underground church. It was formed in response to the Queen's campaign to re-establish Catholicism and burn Protestants as heretics, it began with 20 people and grew to 200. They met in private houses. Ministers of the church included Thomas Rose, the martyr John Rough, Augustine Bernher, Thomas Bentham who under Elizabeth became Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; as well as Rough, members who were executed included the deacon Cutbert Margaret Mearing. The underground church dissolved when Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558 and undertook a Protestant reformation of the Church of England.

Her attempts to impose some traditional vestments on all ministers, gave rise to puritanism, a movement to purify the Church of such traditions. In the crisis of 1566, 37 London clergy were suspended for non-conformity and 14 dismissed; the most radical started reviving the underground. One member, John Smith explained: ‘When it came to this point, that all our preachers were displaced by your law … Then we bethought us what were best to do; some were questioned by the Bishop of London, Edmund Grindal, wrote a transcript of the interview. Other notable arrests occurred off Pudding Lane, in the house of James Tynne, a goldsmith, in the dwelling of Bishop Grindal's own servant. Grindal said that they met ‘sometimes in the fields, even in ships’. Leaders of the movement included Richard Fitz, John Browne, Mr Pattenson, William Bonham and Nicholas Crane and the layman William White; the historian of Separatism Stephen Tomkins argues that the underground church started out as a single citywide network before splitting into factions, that they only came to see themselves as Separatists from the Church of England.

He suggests the church had a thousand members at its height, which would be one percent of the population of London. In 1568, leading members of the movement, with the agreement of William Cecil, went to Scotland with a view to taking their church into exile there, but decided against it, they were disappointed to be told by John Knox that he could not support their separation from the Church of England. William White wrote a tract justifying the illegal meetings of the underground church, A brief of such things as obscure Gods glory. By the end of the 1560s, the movement had split into one led by Fitz; this and the experience of persecution reduced the movement from a thousand Londoners to a small remnant, yet the ‘Fitz church’ survived into the 1580s. The puritans Henry Barrow and John Greenwood were converted to Separatism – now known as Brownism after the Norfolk Separatist Robert Browne – around 1586; the pair revived the London Underground Church. The church met in fields in summer and houses from 5 am, sometimes worshipping all day.

The allowed any member to preach. According to a visitor, ‘In their prayer, one speaketh and the rest do groan or sob or sigh, as if they would wring out tears.’The underground church, as taught by Barrow and Greenwood, believed that churches had to be voluntary communities of committed believers, that the Church of England, which coerced the whole population into joining, was therefore not a true Church. They published their ideas in numerous books, printed through an illegal smuggling operation, in the Netherlands. A service in the house of one Henry Martin was raided on 8 October 1587 in the west London parish of St Andrew-by-the Wardrobe. 21 people were arrested, including Greenwood. Barrow was not allowed to leave; the pair were indicted under the 1581 Recusancy Act at the 1588 Newgate Sessions, fined £260 moved to the Fleet prison. The Archbishop's men now went beyond catching the congregation while meeting, started raiding individual's home. Roger Jackson and Thomas Legate were taken from their beds and arrested for having writings by Barrow, without warrant.

William Clarke, was jailed for complaining about the procedure. Quintin Smythe's feltmaking workshop was raided, revealing Brownist writings and a Bible, so he was kept in irons in Newgate. John Purdye was tortured in Bridewell. Seven died within 19 months. On 13 March 1589, church members presented a petition directly the Queen, for which three were arrested; the petition complained that they faced ‘daily spoiling, molesting, pursuing, yea and locking them up close prisoners in the most unwholesome and vile prisons’. They said they were appealed for an audience with the Privy Council. On 18 March, Barrow was interviewed by the Council, where he called the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Whitgift, to his face, ‘a monster, a miserable compound’. Other prisoners were interviewed before an episcopal court. By February 1590, 52 members of the underground church were being held in six London prisons. Ten had died in jail; the Bishop of London put together a team of 42 min

Umbilicus rupestris

Umbilicus rupestris, the navelwort, penny-pies or wall pennywort, is a fleshy, edible flowering plant in the stonecrop family Crassulaceae in the genus Umbilicus so named for its umbilicate leaves. Both the name "navelwort" and the scientific name Umbilicus come from the round shape of the leaves, which have a navel-like depression in the center. Wall pennywort grows to an average of 25 cm high; the pallid spikes of bell-shaped, greenish-pink flowers of this plant first appear in May, the green fruits ripen through the summer. The plant is found in southern and western Europe growing on shady walls or in damp rock crevices that are sparse in other plant growth, where its succulent leaves develop in rosettes, it is not at present under threat. Umbilicus rupestris is not the same "Pennywort" as the one used in Asian medicine, the unrelated Asiatic Pennywort, Centella asiatica. Umbilicus rupestris is used in homeopathic medicine. Navelwort is referred to as Cotyledon umbilicus by Homeopaths, since, the original scientific name of navelwort when Homeopathy was developed.

Navelwort is assumed to be the "Kidneywort" referred to by Nicholas Culpeper in The English Physician, although it may refer to the unrelated Anemone hepatica. Culpeper used astrology, rather than science, to classify herbs, as such is not a reliable source, he claimed: The juice or the distilled water being drank, is effectual for all inflammations and unnatural heats, to cool a fainting hot stomach, a hot liver, or the bowels: the herb, juice, or distilled water thereof, outwardly applied, heals pimples, St. Anthony's fire, other outward heats; the said juice or water helps to heal sore kidneys, torn or fretted by the stone, or exulcerated within. Being used as a bath, or made into an ointment, it cools hæmorrhoidal veins, it is no less effectual to give ease to the pains of the gout, the sciatica, helps the kernels or knots in the neck or throat, called the king's evil: healing kibes and chilblains if they be bathed with the juice, or anointed with ointment made thereof, some of the skin of the leaf upon them: it is used in green wounds to stay the blood, to heal them quickly.

Vulnerary: The plant is sometimes employed to ease pain on scratches by applying the leaf to the skin after removing the lower cuticle. Pilea peperomioides, similar looking rosid Hydrocotyle vulgaris, a similar looking asterid Media related to Umbilicus rupestris at Wikimedia Commons

Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965

The Murder Act 1965 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It abolished the death penalty for murder in Great Britain; the Act replaced the penalty of death with a mandatory sentence of imprisonment for life. The Act was introduced to Parliament as a private member's bill by Sydney Silverman MP; the Act provides that charges of capital murder at the time it was passed were to be treated as charges of simple murder and all sentences of death were to be commuted to sentences of life imprisonment. The legislation contained a sunset clause, which stated that the Act would expire on 31 July 1970 "unless Parliament by affirmative resolutions of both Houses otherwise determines"; this was done in 1969 and the Act was made permanent. The Act left four capital offences: high treason, "piracy with violence", arson in royal dockyards and espionage, as well as other capital offences under military law; the death penalty was not abolished in the United Kingdom until 1998 by the Human Rights Act and the Crime and Disorder Act.

The Act replaced the Homicide Act 1957, which had reduced hangings to only four or less per year. No executions have occurred since the Murder Act, with the last executions in the United Kingdom carried out on 13 August 1964, when Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans were hanged for murdering John Alan West during a theft four months earlier, a death penalty crime under the 1957 Act. Death penalty Murder in English law Capital punishment in the United Kingdom Brian P. Block. Hanging in the balance: a history of the abolition of capital punishment in Britain. Waterside Press. ISBN 1-872870-47-3. Text of the Murder Act 1965 as in force today within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk

Mangamma Sapatham (1965 film)

Mangamma Sapadham is a 1965 Telugu language swashbuckler film, produced by D. V. S. Raju under the D. V. S. Productions banner and directed by B. Vittalacharya, it stars Jamuna in the lead roles and music composed by T. V. Raju; the film is a remake of the 1943 Tamil film of the same name. Once upon a time, there was a kingdom, its king Raja is a big womanizer. Mangamma a beautiful village girl who has a lot of self-esteem. Once Raja sees Mangamma and falls in love with her at first sight itself. Raja requests her to marry him. Angered Raja challenges her that he will take revenge against her by marrying and locking her virginity throughout life. Therefore, Mangamma takes a vow that without his knowledge she will have a son with him and she will make the child whip him in his court. Raja locks her in a secret palace. Here Mangamma plots and digs a tunnel from her house to the palace with the help of her father Narasaiah & brother Baja Govindam and secretly escapes, she changes her attire as a tribal, attracts Raja, spends one night with him and takes his ring as a proof.

After that, Mangamma gives birth to a child Vijay and introduces him as his brother son to the world. Vijay falls in love with Chief Commander's daughter Vijaya. Knowing this, his grandfather scolds him and sends him to his mother through the tunnel where he sees his father harassing his mother every day. Now Vijay decides to teach a lesson to his father, he teases his father in various forms of disguise and fulfills his mother's vow by beating him with the whip in the court. Mangamma says that the boy is his own and proves it with the proper witnesses. At last, Raja apologizes to Mangamma and accepts her as his queen; the movie ends on a happy note with Vijay & Vijaya. N. T. Rama Rao as Raja & Vijay Jamuna as Mangamma Rajanala as Sainyadhipathi Relangi as Bhaja Govindam Ramana Reddy as Kotvalu Allu Ramalingaiah as Rathalu Mikkilineni as Narasaiah Balakrishna as Joogulu L. Vijayalakshmi as Vijaya Vanisri as Chenchela Rajashree as Dancer Girija as Manjeera Chayadevi as Seeta Art: Thota Choreography: Vempati, Chinni-Sampath Stills: Roopa Fights: Swamynathan Story - Dialogues: Samudrala Jr Lyrics: C.

Narayana Reddy, Kosaraju Playback: Ghantasala, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, Madhavapeddi Satyam, Swanalatha Music: T. V. Raju Editing: G. D. Joshi Cinematography: Producer: D. V. S. Raju Screenplay - Direction: B. Vittalacharya Banner: D. V. S. Productions Release Date: 6 March 1966 Music composed by T. V. Raju. Music released by Audio Company. Naati 101 Films, S. V. Ramarao, Kinnera Publications, Hyderabad, 2006. Mangamma Sapatham on IMDb