The Brothers Karamazov translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. Dostoevsky spent nearly two years writing The Brothers Karamazov, published as a serial in The Russian Messenger from January 1879 to November 1880. Dostoevsky died less than four months after its publication; the Brothers Karamazov is a passionate philosophical novel set in 19th-century Russia, that enters into the ethical debates of God, free will, morality. It is a spiritual, theological drama of moral struggles concerning faith, doubt and reason, set against a modernizing Russia, with a plot which revolves around the subject of patricide. Dostoevsky composed much of the novel in Staraya Russa. Since its publication, it has been acclaimed as one of the supreme achievements in world literature. Although Dostoevsky began his first notes for The Brothers Karamazov in April 1878, he had written several unfinished works years earlier, he would incorporate some elements into his future work from the planned epos The Life of a Great Sinner, which he began work on in the summer of 1869.
It remained unfinished after Dostoevsky was interested in the Nechayev affair, which involved a group of radicals murdering one of their former members. He started with Demons; the unfinished Drama in Tobolsk is considered the first draft of the first chapter of The Brothers Karamazov. Dated 13 September 1874, it tells of a fictional murder in Staraya Russa committed by a praporshchik named Dmitry Ilynskov, thought to have murdered his father, it goes on noting that his body was discovered in a pit under a house. The unfinished Sorokoviny, dated 1 August 1875, is reflected in book IX, chapter 3–5 and book XI, chapter nine. In the October 1877 A Writer's Diary article "To the Reader", Dostoevsky mentioned a "literary work that has imperceptibly and involuntarily been taking shape within me over these two years of publishing the Diary", his Diary, a collection of numerous articles, had included similar themes The Brothers Karamazov would borrow from. These include patricide and order and social problems.
Although Dostoevsky was influenced by religion and philosophy, in his life and the writing of The Brothers Karamazov, a personal tragedy altered the work. In May 1878, Dostoevsky's three-year-old son Alyosha died of epilepsy, a condition inherited from his father; the novelist's grief is apparent throughout the book. His loss is reflected in the story of Captain Snegiryov and his young son Ilyusha; the death of his son brought Dostoevsky to the Optina Monastery that year. There, he found inspiration for several aspects of The Brothers Karamazov, though at the time he intended to write a novel about childhood instead. Parts of the biographical section of Zosima's life are based on "The Life of the Elder Leonid", a text he found at Optina and copied "almost word for word". Although written in the 19th century, The Brothers Karamazov displays a number of modern elements. Dostoevsky composed the book with a variety of literary techniques. Though privy to many of the thoughts and feelings of the protagonists, the narrator is a self-proclaimed writer.
Through his descriptions, the narrator's voice merges imperceptibly into the tone of the people he is describing extending into the characters' most personal thoughts. There is no voice of authority in the story. In addition to the principal narrator there are several sections narrated by other characters such as the story of the Grand Inquisitor and Zosima's confessions; this technique enhances the theme of truth, making many aspects of the tale subjective. Dostoevsky uses individual styles of speech to express the inner personality of each person. For example, the attorney Fetyukovich is characterized by malapropisms. Several plot digressions provide insight into other minor characters. For example, the narrative in Book Six is entirely devoted to Zosima's biography, which contains a confession from a man whom he met many years before. Dostoevsky does not rely on a single source or a group of major characters to convey the themes of this book, but uses a variety of viewpoints and characters throughout.
Although The Brothers Karamazov has been translated from the original Russian into a number of languages, the novel's diverse array of distinct voices and literary techniques makes its translation difficult. Constance Garnett performed the first English translation, released in 1912. In 1958, David Magarshack and Manuel Komroff released translations of the novel, published by Penguin and The New American Library of World Literature. In 1976, Ralph Matlaw revised Garnett's work for his Norton Critical Edition volume; this in turn was the basis for Victor Terras' influential A Karamazov Companion. Another popular translation is by Julius Katzer, published by Progress Publishers in 1981 and re-printed by Raduga Publishers Moscow. In 1990 Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky released a new translation.
APRE are an English alternative pop duo formed in Kent in 2018, comprising two members: Charlie Brown, Jules Konieczny. Their debut single was released on 10 April 2018, followed by their debut EP on 25 May 2018. Upon its release, "All Yours" hit number-one on Hype Machine. APRE comprises two members: Charlie Brown, Jules Konieczny. Brown and Konieczny met at Ealing Chess Club, where the owner used to let them use the back-room to rehearse and record music. Both studied BA Creative Musicianship at The Institute of Contemporary Music Performance in London, their debut single, "All Yours", was released on 10 April 2018 through their own label Beach 91. This was succeeded by the release of "Don't You Feel Like Heaven?" on 24 May 2018. Their second EP, Drum Machines Killed Music, was released on 14 September 2018; the band released their first single with Polydor, "Backstreet", on 16 October 2018. Preceded by the release of "Gap Year 2008" on 7 February 2019, their third EP - Everyone's Commute - was released on 29 March 2019.
Youth is an album by American reggae singer Matisyahu, released on March 7, 2006. It is his second proper studio release; the CD shot to the top of iTunes best sellers list the day it was released. The first single from the album is "King without a Crown", appeared on Matisyahu's previous album, Live at Stubb's. However, a different music video was shot for the Youth version of the song, whereas the version on the Stubb's concert album was accompanied by a concert video; the album debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 with over 119,000 copies sold in its first week released. A month the album was certified gold by the RIAA; as of September 24, 2008 the album has sold 585,000 copies in the United States according to Nielsen Soundscan. On December 27, 2006, Billboard announced that Youth ranked 3rd overall on the 2006 Reggae album charts behind Live at Stubb's; the topic of the album is the support and promotion of youth voice, more explicitly in the eponymous second track. The album, along with its topic, mixes Matisyahu's lyrics, which contain several references to his Jewish beliefs, with a mainstream sound.
Matisyahu – vocals Roots Tonic – music Marlon "Moshe" Sobol – guest musician on "WP" Stan Ipcus – guest musician on "WP" Yusu Youssou – guest musician on "Shalom/Saalam" and "Ancient Lullaby" Bill Laswell – production, engineering Ill Factor & Jimmy Douglass – production on "Time of Your Song", "Indestructible", "Jerusalem" Bob Musso – engineering James Dellatacoma – assistant engineering Michael Fossenkemper – mastering