Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Englewood Cliffs is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 5,281, reflecting a decline of 41 from the 5,322 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 312 from the 5,634 counted in the 1990 Census; the borough houses the world headquarters of CNBC, the North American headquarters of South Korean conglomerate LG Corp, the American headquarters of global CPG conglomerate Unilever, is home to both Ferrari and Maserati North America. The borough's formation dates back to an election for Road Commissioner in Road District 1 between William Outis Allison and Clinton Blake, a future mayor of Englewood. Blake won the vote, but Allison challenged the result, arguing that women had been improperly allowed to vote; the vote was overturned, but Englewood officials would not seat Allison, which led to his successful efforts in 1895 to have Road District 1 secede to form the Borough of Englewood Cliffs, with Allison serving as the new municipality's first mayor.
Englewood Cliffs was formed as a borough on May 10, 1895, from portions of the now defunct townships of Englewood Township and Palisades Township, based on the results of a referendum held the previous day. The borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, as of one two boroughs created in 1895 after 26 boroughs had been formed in the county in 1894 alone. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 3.329 square miles, including 2.089 square miles of land and 1.24 square miles of water. The borough borders Englewood, Fort Lee and Tenafly in Bergen County, the New York City boroughs of The Bronx and Manhattan across the Hudson River. In 2012, Englewood Cliffs was ranked 129th in the nation, fifth in New Jersey, on the list of most expensive ZIP Codes in the United States by Forbes magazine, with a median home price of $1,439,115. In 2006, the borough was ranked sixth in New Jersey and 78th in the nation in the magazine's rankings, with a median house price of $1,112,500.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,281 people, 1,824 households, 1,526.688 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,528.1 per square mile. There were 1,924 housing units at an average density of 921.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 56.35% White, 2.08% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 38.52% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 2.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.98% of the population. There were 1,824 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.1% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.3% were non-families. 14.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.17. In the borough, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 20.0% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 24.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 47.2 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 86.7 males. Korean Americans accounted for 20.3% of the borough's population. Englewood Cliffs has witnessed expansion of this demographic from the adjoining Fort Lee Koreatown, as well as from the borough's status as the North American headquarters of the LG Corporation, based in Seoul; the Korean language is spoken at home by more than half of the residents of Englewood Cliffs, according to U. S. Census Bureau data released in 2017. Same-sex couples headed 10 households in 2010, an increase from the three counted in 2000; the Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $101,964 and the median family income was $126,985. Males had a median income of $88,438 versus $52,950 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $53,260. About 8.0% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 32.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,322 people, 1,818 households, 1,559 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,544.3 people per square mile. There were 1,889 housing units at an average density of 903.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 66.84% White, 1.37% African American, 0.04% Native American, 29.69% Asian, 0.71% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.89% of the population. There were 1,818 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.0% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.2% were non-families. 12.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.16. In the borough the age distribution of the population shows 20.7% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $106,478, the median income for a family was $113,18
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage. Whereas many magazines were dedicated to specific systems or the home or business users' perspective, Byte covered developments in the entire field of "small computers and software," and sometimes other computing fields such as supercomputers and high-reliability computing. Coverage was in-depth with much technical detail, rather than user-oriented. Byte started in 1975, shortly after the first personal computers appeared as kits advertised in the back of electronics magazines. Byte was published monthly, with an initial yearly subscription price of $10. Print publication ceased in 1998 and online publication in 2013. In 1975 Wayne Green was the editor and publisher of 73 and his ex-wife, Virginia Londner Green was the Business Manager of 73 Inc. In the August 1975 issue of 73 magazine Wayne's editorial column started with this item: The response to computer-type articles in 73 has been so enthusiastic that we here in Peterborough got carried away.
On May 25th we made a deal with the publisher of a small computer hobby magazine to take over as editor of a new publication which would start in August... Byte. Carl Helmers published a series of six articles in 1974 that detailed the design and construction of his "Experimenter's Computer System", a personal computer based on the Intel 8008 microprocessor. In January 1975 this became the monthly ECS magazine with 400 subscribers; the last issue was published on May 12, 1975 and in June the subscribers were mailed a notice announcing Byte magazine. Carl wrote to another hobbyist newsletter, Micro-8 Computer User Group Newsletter, described his new job as editor of Byte magazine. I got a note in the mail about two weeks ago from Wayne Green, publisher of'73 Magazine' saying hello and why don't you come up and talk a bit; the net result of a follow up is the decision to create BYTE magazine using the facilities of Green Publishing Inc. I will end up with the editorial focus for the magazine. Virginia Londner Green had returned to 73 in the December 1974 issue and incorporated Green Publishing in March 1975.
The first five issues of Byte were published by Green Publishing and the name was changed to Byte Publications starting with the February 1976 issue. Carl Helmers was a co-owner of Byte Publications; the first four issues were produced in the offices of 73 and Wayne Green was listed as the publisher. One day in November 1975 Wayne came to work and found that the Byte magazine staff had moved out and taken the January issue with them; the February 1976 issue of Byte has a short story about the move. "After a start which reads like a romantic light opera with an episode or two reminiscent of the Keystone Cops, Byte magazine has moved into separate offices of its own." Wayne Green was not happy about losing Byte magazine so he was going to start a new one called Kilobyte. Byte trademarked KILOBYTE as a cartoon series in Byte magazine; the new magazine was called Kilobaud. There was competition and animosity between Byte Publications and 73 Inc. but both remained in the small town of Peterborough, New Hampshire.
Articles in the first issue included Which Microprocessor For You? by Hal Chamberlin, Write Your Own Assembler by Dan Fylstra and Serial Interface by Don Lancaster. Advertisements from Godbout, MITS, Processor Technology, SCELBI, Sphere appear, among others. Early articles in Byte were do-it-yourself electronic or software projects to improve small computers. A continuing feature was Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, a column in which electronic engineer Steve Ciarcia described small projects to modify or attach to a computer. Significant articles in this period included the "Kansas City" standard for data storage on audio tape, insertion of disk drives into S-100 computers, publication of source code for various computer languages, coverage of the first microcomputer operating system, CP/M. Byte ran Microsoft's first advertisement, as "Micro-Soft", to sell a BASIC interpreter for 8080-based computers. In spring of 1979, owner/publisher Virginia Williamson sold Byte to McGraw-Hill, she became a vice president of McGraw-Hill Publications Company.
Shortly after the IBM PC was introduced, in 1981, the magazine changed editorial policies. It de-emphasized the do-it-yourself electronics and software articles, began running product reviews, it continued its wide-ranging coverage of hardware and software, but now it reported "what it does" and "how it works", not "how to do it". The editorial focus remained on home and personal computers). By the early 1980s Byte had become an "elite" magazine, seen as a peer of Rolling Stone and Playboy, others such as David Bunnell of PC Magazine aspired to emulate its reputation and success, it was the only computer publication on the 1981 Folio 400 list of largest magazines. Byte's 1982 average number of pages was 543, the number of paid advertising pages grew by more than 1,000 while most magazines' amount of advertising did not change, its circulation of 420,000 was the third highest of all computer magazines. Byte earned $9 million from revenue of $36.6 million in 1983, twice the average profit margin for the magazine industry.
It remained successful while many other magazines failed in 1984 during economic weakness in the computer industry. The October 1984 issue had about 300 pages of ads sold at an average of $6,000 per page. From 1975 to 1986 Byte covers featured the artwork of Robert Tinney. Thes
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Kenneth Lane Thompson is an American pioneer of computer science. Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system, he invented the B programming language, the direct predecessor to the C programming language, was one of the creators and early developers of the Plan 9 operating systems. Since 2006, Thompson has worked at Google. Other notable contributions included his work on regular expressions and early computer text editors QED and ed, the definition of the UTF-8 encoding, his work on computer chess that included creation of endgame tablebases and the chess machine Belle. Thompson was born in New Orleans; when asked how he learned to program, Thompson stated, "I was always fascinated with logic and in grade school I'd work on arithmetic problems in binary, stuff like that. Just because I was fascinated." Thompson received a Bachelor of Science in 1965 and a Master's degree in 1966, both in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, from the University of California, where his master's thesis advisor was Elwyn Berlekamp.
Thompson was hired by Bell Labs in 1966. In the 1960s at Bell Labs and Dennis Ritchie worked on the Multics operating system. While writing Multics, Thompson created the Bon programming language, he created a video game called Space Travel. Bell Labs withdrew from the MULTICS project. In order to go on playing the game, Thompson found an old PDP-7 machine and rewrote Space Travel on it; the tools developed by Thompson became the Unix operating system: Working on a PDP-7, a team of Bell Labs researchers led by Thompson and Ritchie, including Rudd Canaday, developed a hierarchical file system, the concepts of computer processes and device files, a command-line interpreter, some small utility programs. In 1970, Brian Kernighan suggested the name "Unix", in a somewhat treacherous pun on the name "Multics". After initial work on Unix, Thompson decided that Unix needed a system programming language and created B, a precursor to Ritchie's C. In the 1960s, Thompson began work on regular expressions. Thompson had developed the CTSS version of the editor QED, which included regular expressions for searching text.
QED and Thompson's editor ed contributed to the eventual popularity of regular expressions, regular expressions became pervasive in Unix text processing programs. All programs that work with regular expressions today use some variant of Thompson's notation, he invented Thompson's construction algorithm used for converting regular expression into nondeterministic finite automaton in order to make expression matching faster. Throughout the 1970s, Thompson and Ritchie collaborated on the Unix operating system. In a 2011 interview, Thompson stated that the first versions of Unix were written by him, that Ritchie began to advocate for the system and helped to develop it: I did the first of two or three versions of UNIX all alone, and Dennis became an evangelist. There was a rewrite in a higher-level language that would come to be called C, he worked on the language and on the I/O system, I worked on all the rest of the operating system. That was for the PDP-11, serendipitous, because, the computer that took over the academic community.
Feedback from Thompson's Unix development was instrumental in the development of the C programming language. Thompson would say that the C language "grew up with one of the rewritings of the system and, as such, it became perfect for writing systems". In 1975, Thompson went to his alma mater, UC Berkeley. There, he helped to install Version 6 Unix on a PDP-11/70. Unix at Berkeley would become maintained as its own system, known as the Berkeley Software Distribution. Along with Joseph Condon, Thompson created the hardware and software for Belle, a world champion chess computer, he wrote programs for generating the complete enumeration of chess endings, known as endgame tablebases, for all 4, 5, 6-piece endings, allowing chess-playing computer programs to make "perfect" moves once a position stored in them is reached. With the help of chess endgame expert John Roycroft, Thompson distributed his first results on CD-ROM. Throughout the 1980s, Thompson and Ritchie continued revising Research Unix, which adopted a BSD codebase for the 8th, 9th, 10th editions.
In the mid-1980s, work began at Bell Labs on a new operating system as a replacement for Unix. Thompson was instrumental in the design and implementation of the Plan 9 from Bell Labs, a new operating system utilizing principles of Unix, but applying them more broadly to all major system facilities; some programs that were part of versions of Research Unix, such as mk and rc, were incorporated into Plan 9. Thompson tested early versions of the C++ programming language for Bjarne Stroustrup by writing programs in it, but refused to work in C++ due to frequent incompatibilities between versions. In a 2009 interview, Thompson expressed a negative view of C++, stating, "It does a lot of things half well and it's just a garbage heap of ideas that are mutually exclusive." In 1992, Thompson developed the UTF-8 encoding scheme together with Rob Pike. UTF-8 encoding has since become the dominant character encoding for the World Wide Web, accounting for more than half of all web pages. In the 1990s, work began on the Inferno operating system, another research operating system, based around a portable
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language; the source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task on a computer for solving a given problem; the process of programming thus requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, formal logic. Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: testing, source code maintenance, implementation of build systems, management of derived artifacts, such as the machine code of computer programs.
These might be considered part of the programming process, but the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Reverse engineering is the opposite process. A hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem, but it can mean a security hacker in common language. Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as 1206 AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and cams, to play various rhythms and drum patterns. However, the first computer program is dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Women would continue to dominate the field of computer programming until the mid 1960s. In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form.
A control panel added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory. Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, with abbreviations for each operation code and meaningful names for specifying addresses. However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets have different assembly languages. Kathleen Booth created one of the first Assembly languages in 1950 for various computers at Birkbeck College. High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are syntactically richer, more capable of abstracting the code, making it targetable to varying machine instruction sets via compilation declarations and heuristics.
The first compiler for a programming language was developed by Grace Hopper. When Hopper went to work on UNIVAC in 1949, she brought the idea of using compilers with her. Compilers harness the power of computers to make programming easier by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula using infix notation for example. FORTRAN, the first used high-level language to have a functional implementation which permitted the abstraction of reusable blocks of code, came out in 1957. In 1951 Frances E. Holberton developed the first sort-merge generator which ran on the UNIVAC I. Another woman working at UNIVAC, Adele Mildred Koss, developed a program, a precursor to report generators. In USSR, Kateryna Yushchenko developed the Address programming language for the MESM in 1955; the idea for the creation of COBOL started in 1959 when Mary K. Hawes, who worked for Burroughs Corporation, set up a meeting to discuss creating a common business language, she invited six people, including Grace Hopper.
Hopper was involved in developing COBOL as a business language and creating "self-documenting" programming. Hopper's contribution to COBOL was based on her programming language, called FLOW-MATIC. In 1961, Jean E. Sammet developed FORMAC and published Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals which went on to be a standard work on programming languages. Programs were still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Frances Holberton created a code to allow keyboard inputs while she worked at UNIVAC. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more than with punched cards. Sister Mary Kenneth Keller worked on developing the programming language, BASIC when she was a graduate student at Dartmouth in the 1960s. One of the first object-oriented programming languages, was developed by seven programmers, including Adele Goldberg, in the 1970s.
In 1985, Radia Perlman developed the Spannin
Nokia Bell Labs is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey. Other laboratories are located around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device, information theory, the Unix operating system, the programming languages C, C++, S. Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell. The laboratory was variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, it focused on the analysis and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau, located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N. W. in Washington, D. C, its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N. W. to house the lab. This building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests; the Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876.
Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier. In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers, supplying AT&T with their product; this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, transmission equipment. In 1925, Bell Laboratories was developed to better consolidate the research activities of the Bell System. Ownership was evenly split between Western Electric and AT&T. Throughout the next decade the AT&T Research and Development branch moved into West Street.
Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, U. S. government work, a few workers were assigned to basic research. The first president of research at Bell Labs was Frank B. Jewett who stayed there until 1940. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Lincroft, Long Branch, Neptune, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence; the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. There were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since 2001, many of the former locations closed; the Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site however several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017 Bell Laboratories was, is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the operating system Unix, the programming languages C and C++, solar cells, the CCD, floating-gate MOSFET, a whole host of optical and wired communications