Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
Patrick Martin Stumph, known professionally as Patrick Vaughn Stump, is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, actor. He is the lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist for the rock band Fall Out Boy from Wilmette, Illinois, his solo work has been described as "funky and R&B infused", while Billboard noted him as "one of the best voices in pop punk". Fall Out Boy has achieved four top ten singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 and four number one albums on the Billboard 200, firstly with Infinity on High in 2007, again in 2013 with Save Rock and Roll, 2015 with American Beauty/American Psycho, 2018 with Mania. Stump has collaborated with other artists and has produced albums for artists including Cobra Starship and Gym Class Heroes. After Fall Out Boy's hiatus in late 2009, Stump released his debut solo album, Soul Punk, on October 18, 2011, it was preceded by the six-song EP titled Truant Wave on February 22, 2011. He toured in the Europe in support, he returned to Fall Out Boy in 2013 with the album Save Rock and Roll, the EP PAX AM Days.
In January 2015, the sixth album American Beauty/American Psycho was released, while in January 2018 their seventh album Mania was released, both debuting at No.1 on the Billboard 200. Stump was born in Evanston, Illinois to David, a folk singer, Patricia Stumph, an accountant, he is the youngest of three children. He grew up in Glenview and attended Glenbrook South High School, his parents divorced. He grew up with a passion for music stating, "I was always playing music... it was always kind of present." He played the drums in various local Chicago power violence and hardcore punk bands, including Public Display Of Infection, Xgrinding processX, and, for two shows, Arma Angelus. His musical idols growing up included Michael Jackson, Elvis Costello, Tom Waits, Nat King Cole. Fall Out Boy's founding guitarist Joe Trohman met Stump over a mutual musical interest, introduced Stump to bassist Pete Wentz. After auditioning as the drummer, Stump became the lead singer and guitarist for the band. Trohman and Stump switch between lead and rhythm guitar in recording sessions and at live shows, although Stump views himself as more of a rhythm guitarist because of his drumming background.
He is the lead vocalist and primary composer for the band, with bassist Pete Wentz taking lyrical duties. The band's first mini-LP, Fall Out Boy's Evening Out with Your Girlfriend, was released in March 2003 on Uprising Records, they released their first full-length album, Take This to Your Grave on Fueled by Ramen on May 6, 2003. In the same year, Stump decided to professionally drop the "h" in his surname to reduce mispronunciations. In 2003, Stump and his fellow band members went on to sign with Island Records, released the acoustic-based EP My Heart Will Always Be the B-Side to My Tongue CD and DVD in 2004 to hold fans over while the group recorded their major label debut; the EP debuted at No. 153 on Fall Out Boy's first entry on that chart. It peaked at No. 5 on the Billboard Heatseeker Albums and No. 10 on the Billboard Independent Albums. This was followed by their third studio album, From Under the Cork Tree released on May 3, 2005, the band's mainstream breakthrough, it has since been certified double platinum by the RIAA, with a sales total of more than 2.5 million.
It peaked at No. 9 on the Billboard 200, becoming the band's first top-10 album. The chart-topping lead single "Sugar, We're Goin Down" reached No. 8 on the Hot 100 and received heavy airplay rotation at Pop and Alternative radio. The album's second single, "Dance, Dance" enjoyed mainstream success, peaking at No. 9 on the Hot 100 and becoming Fall Out Boy's second top-10 hit. It was certified platinum; the band toured in 2005 and 2006 in support of From Under the Cork Tree, including headlining Warped Tour, the Nintendo Fusion Tour, the Black Clouds And Underdogs tour, as well as playing a secret show under the name of Saved Latin at a small venue. Fall Out Boy was nominated for the Best New Artist Grammy Award in 2005. Fall Out Boy's third studio effort, Infinity on High, was released to major chart success in 2007, it debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard 200 chart with 260,000 sales, becoming the group's first No. 1 album and second top 10 release. It debuted atop other various Billboard charts and charted in the top five worldwide.
Infinity was spurred on by the lead single, "This Ain't a Scene, It's an Arms Race", which hit No. 2. "Thnks fr th Mmrs", the second single from the album, peaked at No. 11. Fall Out Boy toured all year worldwide in support of it, with arena gigs in the US. Folie à Deux was released in December 10, 2008, its sales were less than stellar in comparison to Infinity on High, but gave the band its third consecutive top 10 album and peaking at No. 8 on the Billboard 200 with 150,000 opening week sales. The lead single, "I Don't Care", went Platinum; the band was the opening act for Blink-182's reunion tour in 2009. They released their first greatest hits album, Believers Never Die – Greatest Hits that year, featuring all of their previous single releases, two new songs, including the single "Alpha Dog", two rarities. In late 2009 the band took an indefinite break to "decompress", with the band members embarking on various side projects, with Stump going solo and Hurley forming heavy metal supergroup The Damned Things, Wentz starting the electropop/experimental group Black Cards.
On February 4, 2013, Fall Out
The Hush Sound
The Hush Sound is an American indie pop band from Chicago, United States. Named "The Hush," the band changed its name to "The Hush Sound" due to the discovery of a rapper with the same name; the band consists of Bob Morris, Chris Faller and vocals), Darren Wilson, Greta Salpeter. Mike Leblanc temporarily replaced Faller for a few months in 2008. In 2005, the band released their first studio album, So Sudden, their second studio album, Like Vines, was released in 2006 under the independent record label, Fueled by Ramen. Their third album, Goodbye Blues, was recorded in October and November 2007 in Los Angeles and was released March 18, 2008; the Hush Sound was on hiatus from 2008 to 2012. They played shows together sporadically during this period, but have stated that they are back together and recording new music. In Spring 2013, they announced a forthcoming full-length record; the Hush Sound was founded by Bob Morris. The two met when Greta was in 7th grade and Bob was in 10th. Bob had always been a performer of rock music, whereas Greta was a classical pianist.
The band formed in late 2004/early 2005. During their early years in the Chicago community of Pilsen, they would hold practice in Throop Park and play live for the Razas. In their early work, the band dealt with acoustic music. Once the band decided that a piano and guitar were not enough for the sound it wished to achieve, the band members started searching for a drummer and a bass player willing to join their band, they soon recruited bassist Chris Faller and drummer Darren Wilson who had played in a previous band together, "Until Sundown." By the end of March 2005, The Hush Sound took its music to producer Brian Zieske who helped them realize their vision for their debut full-length album. The album was tracked at Gallery of Carpet Recording in Illinois, they named the album So Sudden. They released their first album with no label support at the time, but sold 300 CDs in two nights. Five months the band began performing live. Shortly thereafter, the group gained the attention of Fall Out Boy’s Pete Wentz.
On the day they were streaming So Sudden on purevolume, Ryan Ross of Panic! at the Disco discovered their page and passed it along to Pete Wentz. Wentz, liking what he heard, sent The Hush Sound an email, stating that he was interested in signing them to his Decaydance Records label; the Hush Sound was soon signed to Decaydance Records. So Sudden was re-released under that label, the band immersed itself in writing for its second album. Like Vines was recorded in March 2006 over three weeks with producer Sean O' Keefe and co-producer Patrick Stump of Fall Out Boy. On March 18, 2008, The Hush Sound released an album entitled Goodbye Blues, they recorded the album with producer Kevin Augunas. Morris stated on the band's official website that the band was "extremely impressed" with the "positive force" of Augunas; the album was released on March 18. The song "Medicine Man" can be heard in commercials for the TV series Grey's Anatomy and the TV series House while the song "Hurricane" can be heard in commercials for The Young and the Restless.
The song "Honey" was featured in the episode "All About Appearances" on the television series Privileged. On October 23, 2008, it was announced on the band's official MySpace that bassist Chris Faller had chosen to leave the band in order to pursue other musical interests, that Mike LeBlanc, who had toured with them on their "Dance Across the Country Tour," would temporarily be playing the bass in Faller's place. In the fall of 2008, The Hush Sound confirmed that they will be taking a hiatus to pursue other careers in music. Greta formed Gold Motel and they released their debut EP in December 2009, their full-length album was released on June 1, 2010. Bob has announced his band, Stamps the Band, which he is working on as of now; the band played a reunion show at Chicago's Metro concert hall on December 26, 2010 and two shows at Bottom Lounge on February 3 and 4, 2012. The band ended their hiatus and announced a small number of tour dates for fall 2012, they have been playing new songs and are working an EP or album for release in 2013 with the original lineup.
Two of their new songs were released on March 20, 2013, on an EP called "Forty Five". One of the songs, "Not a Stranger," was released via The Onion's "AV Club." In 2016, they embarked on another reunion tour branded as their "1000 Year Anniversary Tour". The tour in fact celebrated the 10th anniversary of the release of Like Vines and their sets began with a full play-through of the album; the band's first major tour was the 2006 "Black Clouds and Underdogs" spring arena tour with headliners Fall Out Boy and The All-American Rejects, supporting acts Hawthorne Heights and From First to Last. That year on June 6, 2006, their second full-length album Like Vines was released. In May 2006 the band went on tour with Fall Out Boy and The Academy Is... in the UK. In support of the new record, the band went on a summer tour with label mates Panic! at the Disco. The band took a month-long break before beginning another tour with Jack's Mannequin and Daphne Loves Derby, their final tour of the year took place in November, when the group embarked on their first headlining tour.
They were supported by opening acts This Providence, This Is Me Smiling, Murder By Death. On March 7, 2007 The Hush Sound began a co-headl
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Symphony Soldier is the second studio album by American rock band The Cab. It was released on August 23, 2011 as the follow-up to their first album Whisper War in 2008; the album's first single, "Bad", was released to iTunes on July 11, 2011 and was announced by the band on July 18. The album received critical praise, with AbsolutePunk giving it a positive review with a rating of 95%, calling the album a "masterpiece"; the album art was revealed on July 19. Ian Crawford, the group's former lead guitarist, played guitar for the album. With most music and lyrics written by band members, guest artists include Pete Wentz and John Feldmann co-writing "Grow Up and Be Kids" and Bruno Mars with "Endlessly"; the album was released independently following the group's departure from Fueled by Ramen/Decaydance Records. The Cab funded the entire album, with lead vocalist Alexander DeLeon Tweeting "we paid for it all on our own and refused to take no for an answer."Pre-orders were available on the band's webstore, the only place the physical album can be purchased.
Their webstore offered 11 options, with prices ranging from $10 to $10,000. In support of Symphony Soldier the band toured as headliners and supporters, as well as playing at radio station sponsored shows. Among that, they have opened for All Time Low, Simple Plan for their US fall tour in 2011, Avril Lavigne on a Canadian arena concert tour and Maroon 5 during their Asia Pacific tour in 2012; the Cab Alexander DeLeon – lead vocals Alex Marshall – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Joey Thunder – bass guitar Chantry Johnson – lead guitar, backing vocals Frank Sidoris - rhythm and lead guitarAdditional personnel
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh