click links in text for more info

The Castle of Otranto

The Castle of Otranto is a book by Horace Walpole first published in 1764 and regarded as the first gothic novel. In the second edition, Walpole applied the word'Gothic' to the novel in the subtitle – "A Gothic Story"; the novel merged medievalism and terror in a style that has endured since. The aesthetic of the book has shaped modern-day gothic books, art and the goth subculture; the novel initiated a literary genre which would become popular in the 18th and early 19th century, with authors such as Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford, Matthew Lewis, Mary Shelley, Bram Stoker, Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson and George du Maurier. The Castle of Otranto was written in 1764 during Horace Walpole's tenure as MP for King's Lynn. Walpole was fascinated with medieval history, building in 1749 a fake gothic castle, Strawberry Hill House; the initial edition was titled in full: The Castle of A Story. Translated by William Marshal, Gent. From the Original Italian of Onuphrio Muralto, Canon of the Church of St. Nicholas at Otranto.

This first edition purported to be a translation based on a manuscript printed at Naples in 1529 and rediscovered in the library of "an ancient Catholic family in the north of England". This "ancient Catholic family" is the Percy family, as Walpole would have known the Duke of Northumberland and his wife Elizabeth Percy, though this is not proven, he employed an archaic style of writing to further reinforce this. The Italian manuscript's story, it was claimed, derived from a story still older, dating back as far as the Crusades; this Italian manuscript, along with alleged author "Onuphrio Muralto", were Walpole's fictional creations, "William Marshal" his pseudonym. In the second and subsequent editions, Walpole acknowledges authorship of his work, writing: "The favourable manner in which this little piece has been received by the public, calls upon the author to explain the grounds on which he composed it" as "an attempt to blend the two kinds of romance, the ancient and the modern. In the former all was imagination and improbability: in the latter, nature is always intended to be, sometimes has been, copied with success...".

There was some debate at the time about the function of literature. The first edition was well received by some reviewers who understood the novel as belonging to medieval fiction, "between 1095, the era of the First Crusade, 1243, the date of the last", as the first preface states. Following Walpole's admission of authorship, many critics were loath to lavish much praise on the work and dismissed it as absurd, romantic fiction, or unsavory or immoral. In his 1924 edition of The Castle of Otranto, Montague Summers showed that the life story of Manfred of Sicily inspired some details of the plot; the real medieval castle of Otranto was among Manfred's possessions. The Castle of Otranto tells the story of Manfred, lord of the castle, his family; the book begins on the wedding-day of his sickly son princess Isabella. Shortly before the wedding, Conrad is crushed to death by a gigantic helmet that falls on him from above; this inexplicable event is ominous in light of an ancient prophecy, "that the castle and lordship of Otranto should pass from the present family, whenever the real owner should be grown too large to inhabit it".

Manfred, terrified that Conrad's death signals the beginning of the end for his line, resolves to avert destruction by marrying Isabella himself, while divorcing his current wife Hippolita, who he feels has failed to bear him a proper heir due to the sickly condition of Conrad before his untimely death. However, as Manfred attempts to marry Isabella, she escapes to a church with the aid of a peasant named Theodore. Manfred orders Theodore's death while talking to the friar Jerome, who ensured Isabella's safety in the church; when Theodore removes his shirt to be killed, Jerome recognizes a marking below his shoulder and identifies Theodore as his own son. Jerome begs for his son's life, but Manfred says Jerome must either give up the princess or his son's life, they are interrupted by a trumpet and the entrance of knights from another kingdom who want to deliver Isabella. This leads the Manfred to race to find Isabella. Theodore, having been locked in a tower by Manfred, is freed by Manfred's daughter Matilda.

He finds Isabella. He hides her in a cave and blocks it to protect her from Manfred and ends up fighting one of the mysterious knights. Theodore badly wounds. With that, they all go up to the castle to work things out. Frederic falls in love with Matilda and he and Manfred begin to make a deal about marrying each other's daughters. Manfred, suspecting that Isabella is meeting Theodore in a tryst in the church, takes a knife into the church, where Matilda is meeting Theodore. Thinking his own daughter is Isabella, he stabs her. Theodore is revealed to be the true prince of Otranto and Matilda dies, leaving Manfred to repent, he retires to religion along with Hippolita. Theodore becomes prince and is married to Isabella, for she is the only one who can understand his sorrow. Manfred – the lord of the Castle of Otranto, he is the father of Conrad and Matilda, the husband of Hippolita. After his son is killed by the falling helmet, he becomes obsessed with the idea of ending his marriage with Hippolita in pursuit of the much younger Isabella, supposed to marry his son.

Manfred serves as the prime antagonist of the

List of German plays

This is a list of German plays: Amphitryon, by Heinrich von Kleist Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui by Bertolt Brecht Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny, by Bertolt Brecht Baal, by Bertolt Brecht Die Hermannsschlacht, by Heinrich von Kleist Der Biberpelz, by Gerhart Hauptmann Der Bogen des Odysseus, by Gerhart Hauptmann The Burghers of Calais by Georg Kaiser Der kaukasische Kreidekreis, by Bertolt Brecht Kollege Crampton, by Gerhart Hauptmann Don Karlos, Infant von Spanien, by Friedrich Schiller Don Juan, by Bertolt Brecht Egmont, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elga, by Gerhart Hauptmann Emilia Galotti, by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Erwin und Elmire, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Die Familie Schroffenstein, 1803), by Heinrich von Kleist Faust, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Fiorenza, by Thomas Mann Florian Geyer, by Gerhart Hauptmann Frühlings Erwachen, by Frank Wedekind Furcht und Elend des Dritten Reiches, by Bertolt Brecht Fuhrmann Henschel, by Gerhart Hauptmann Gabriel Schilling's Flight, by Friedrich Schiller Iphigenie auf Tauris, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Iphigenie in Delphi, by Gerhart Hauptmann Im Dickicht der Städte, by Bertolt Brecht Hanneles Himmelfahrt, by Gerhart Hauptmann Die Jungfrau von Orleans, by Friedrich Schiller Kabale und Liebe, by Friedrich Schiller Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, by Heinrich von Kleist Die Laune des Verliebten, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Leben des Galilei, by Bertolt Brecht Leonce und Lena, by Georg Büchner Maria Stuart, by Friedrich Schiller Mein Leopold, by Adolphe L'Arronge Minna von Barnhelm', by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Miß Sara Sampson, by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Von morgens bis mitternachts, by Georg Kaiser Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder, by Bertolt Brecht Nathan der Weise, by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Die natürliche Tochter, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Die Nibelungen, by Christian Friedrich Hebbel Penthesilea, by Heinrich von Kleist Peter Brauer, by Gerhart Hauptmann Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, by Heinrich von Kleist Der Protagonist, by Georg Kaiser Die Ratten, by Gerhart Hauptmann Robert Guiskard, by Heinrich von Kleist Rose Bernd, by Gerhart Hauptmann Der rote Hahn, by Gerhart Hauptmann Die Sieben Todsünden der Kleinbürger, by Bertolt Brecht Und Pippa Tanzt!, by Gerhart Hauptmann Trommeln in der Nacht, by Bertolt Brecht Torquato Tasso, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Turandot, Prinzessin von China, by Friedrich Schiller Veland, by Gerhart Hauptmann Die versunkene Glocke, by Gerhart Hauptmann Die Verschwörung des Fiesco zu Genua, by Friedrich Schiller Vor Sonnenaufgang, by Gerhart Hauptmann Wallenstein, by Friedrich Schiller Die Weber, by Gerhart Hauptmann Wilhelm Tell, by Friedrich Schiller Woyzeck, by Georg Büchner Der zerbrochne Krug, by Heinrich von Kleist List of German-language playwrights Bertolt Brecht § Plays and screenplays List of American plays Media related to German-language plays at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Plays from Germany at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Plays from Austria at Wikimedia Commons


WMBR is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's student-run college radio station, licensed to Cambridge and broadcasting on 88.1 FM. It is funded by listener donations and MIT funds. Both students and community members can apply for positions, like many college radio stations, WMBR offers diverse programming ranging from talk shows to music including RnB to electronic music; as of 2018, the general manager is Nicolas Amato and the co-program directors are Yanisa Techagumthorn and Julia Fiksinski. The station's board of trustees is the Technology Broadcasting Corporation, whose members are appointed by the President of MIT; the officers are: President - Marianna Parker. WMBR is the third set of call letters for the station; the first MIT student broadcasting station first signed on as WMIT on November 25, 1946. It had a "carrier current" AM transmitter located in the Ware entryway of Senior House dormitory and broadcast over power lines at 800, 640 kHz. Audible only within a few hundred feet of the dorms, under FCC Part 15 regulations it could and did broadcast commercials and was self-supporting.

The station provided audio signals of its broadcasts over "dorm line" wires that ran past exterior windows of the MIT dormitories, for residents to connect to their hi-fi gear. An early experiment in stereo broadcasting, in 1960, put one stereo channel on the AM signal and the other on the dorm lines. In the mid-1950s, the possibility of an FM license was explored and it was discovered that the call letters WMIT were in use by a North Carolina station serving the Asheville area. WTBS was chosen as the best alternative. New facilities were constructed in the basement of Walker Memorial, including a switching and mixing console designed by A. R. Kent and Barry Blesser, believed to be one of the first all-transistorized consoles built. On April 10, 1961, WTBS signed on with 14 watts of effective radiated power at 88.1 Megahertz FM, from a small antenna atop the Walker Memorial Building, the location of the station's studios. In the early 1970s, the antenna was moved to the much higher Eastgate Apartment Building improving the coverage area.

WTBS continued to operate the carrier-current system to the dormitories on 640 kHz, with an identical program, except for commercial breaks on the AM side, during which the noncommercial FM station filled time with public-service announcements, parody "ads" for fictitious products such as "Apple Gunkies" and firms such as "Nocturnal Aviation". The carrier current transmission was discontinued in the early 1970s; the all-request "Nite Owl" was a popular weekend feature, a "Waveform of the Week" was broadcast for the enjoyment of MIT students watching the program on oscilloscopes. Since the station allowed a certain amount of non-students to conduct shows, WTBS was able to tap into the vibrant music and arts community in the Cambridge-Boston area and was acknowledged as the metropolitan area's most eclectic station of the era, featuring jazz, folk music and blues, classical music and among the first programs featuring the emerging "underground rock" music in the 1960s and the cutting edge, "new wave" music in the 1970s.

In 1978, Ted Turner operator of WTCG in Atlanta, wanted to use the call letters "WTBS". Although call letters are not technically for sale, Turner and WTBS worked out a stratagem whereby Turner gave a $25,000 donation to WTBS with an agreement that WTBS would apply for new call letters, with a second donation of $25,000 promised if the FCC were to subsequently grant the letters "WTBS" to Turner. All went as planned, WTBS used the donation for new transmitter equipment, on November 10, 1979, the station signed on as WMBR with 200 watts of power increased to 720 watts. "The Boston Radio Dial: WMBR" - information and history of WMBR Official WMBR website WMBR Program Schedule Query the FCC's FM station database for WMBR Radio-Locator information on WMBR Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WMBRTrack-blaster - WMBR's searchable playlist database Late Risers Club website Late Risers Club documentary website


Isorno is a former municipality in the district of Locarno in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. On 10 April 2016 the former municipalities of Vergeletto, Gresso and Isorno merged into the municipality of Onsernone; the former municipality was created in 2001 by a merger of Auressio and Loco. Auressio is first mentioned in 1233 as Oraxio. Berzona is first mentioned in 1265 as Berzona. Loco is first mentioned in 1224 as Loco and was known as Luogo; until the 19th Century, the village had much closer ties to Piedmont than to the rest of the Onsernone valley. The construction of the road through the valley in the 19th Century brought it closer to the rest of the valley; the church of S. Antonio Abate was finished in 1526 and became the center of an independent parish in 1792 after it separated from Loco. After World War II farming and grazing were abandoned and replaced by short-term, seasonal emigration; the improved transport links to the nearby town of Locarno increased Auressio's attractiveness as a place to live for those that were employed in Locarno.

This led to a clear population increase in recent years. One notable building in Auressio is the Villa Edera, built in 1887, for the Paris impresario Paolo Antonio Calzonio, it is now used as a hostel. The village section of Seghelina is located directly on the main road, while the main village of Berzona is above the road. During the Middle Ages it was part of the Squadra of Onsernone; the church of S. Defendente was built in 1564 and became a parish church when it separated from Loco in 1777; the section of Seghelina has the chapels of S. Maria Lauretana; the political municipality was created at the same time as the Canton of Ticino in 1803. After World War II, much of the village population sold their properties to outsiders. Many people who bought houses in Berzona were well known personalities from the arts and culture, such as Alfred Andersch, Golo Mann and Max Frisch. Today, the village is shrinking as few jobs in farming and grazing remain and most of the working population have moved to Locarno.

Loco contained the hamlets of Niva and Rossa. From the Middle Ages until the end of the Ancien Régime Loco was the capital of the old Onsernone valley community; the parish church of San Remigio was the mother church of the valley and ancient seat of the Vicariate of Onsernone valley. It is first mentioned in 1228, but is older. In the early 16th Century it was acquired its current steeple, it houses the Holy Cross chapel with an venerated cross relic. The church is the home of a Last Supper painting by the Flemish painter Godefridus Maes from 1683. In the hamlet of Niva, there is a late baroque chapel of St. John Nepomuk; the chapel in Sassello is dedicated to the Madonna of Re. In the 19th Century, Loco was a center of the straw braiding for hats and other articles; the straw braids that were used for this purpose were produced in the other villages of the Onsernone valley. In addition to the typical houses with balconies, a number of aristocratic mansions are located in the village; these include the Casa Broggini in Rossa.

The primary school for the area is located in Loco, along with the Onsernonese Museum and the renovated retirement home of the Onsernone valley. Near Loco, in a restored mill, there is a permanent exhibition on the grain milling in the area. Casa Shira has a hostel. At the beginning of the 21st Century the majority of the workers commuted to Locarno. Isorno had an area, as of 2006, of 17.1 square kilometers. Of this area, 8.4 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.9% is settled and 17.5% is unproductive land. The former municipality is located in the Locarno district, in the Onsernone valley along the Isone river, it consists of the villages of Auressio and Loco. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess azure and vert a bar wavy argent and overall issuant from base three ribbons or interwoven ending in pall couped in chief; the new coat of arms symbolizes the merger, each thread of the twisted cord representing a former municipality. Isorno had a population of 317.

As of 2008, 11.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -6.5%. Most of the population speaks Italian, with German being second most French being third; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 51.3 % female. The population was made up of 148 Swiss men, 23 non-Swiss men. There were 163 Swiss women, 17 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 4 deaths of Swiss citizens. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens remained the same while the foreign population remained the same. There was 1 Swiss man. At the same time, there were 4 non-Swiss men and 3 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 3 and the non-Swiss population change was an increase of 1 people. This represents a population growth rate of 1.2%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Isorno is. Of the adult population, 31 people or 8.8%

National Botanic Gardens (Ireland)

The National Botanic Gardens is a botanical garden, located in Glasnevin, 5 km north-west of Dublin city centre, Ireland. The 19.5 hectares are situated between Glasnevin Cemetery and the River Tolka where it forms part of the river's floodplain. The gardens were founded in 1795 by the Dublin Society and are today in State ownership through the Office of Public Works, they hold 20,000 living plants and many millions of dried plant specimens. There are several architecturally notable greenhouses. Today the Glasnevin site is the headquarters of the National Botanic Gardens of Ireland which has a satellite garden and arboretum at Kilmacurragh in County Wicklow; the gardens participate in national and international initiatives for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. The Director, Dr. Matthew Jebb, is Chairman of PlantNetwork: The Plant Collections Network of Britain and Ireland, it is Ireland's seventh most visited attraction, the second most visited free attraction. The poet Thomas Tickell owned a house and small estate in Glasnevin and, in 1795, they were sold to the Irish Parliament and given to the Royal Dublin Society for them to establish Ireland's first botanic gardens.

A double line of yew trees, known as "Addison's Walk" survives from this period. The original function of the gardens was to advance knowledge of plants for agricultural and dyeing purposes; the gardens were the first location in Ireland where the infection responsible for the 1845–1847 potato famine was identified. Throughout the famine, research to stop the infection was undertaken at the gardens. Walter Wade and John Underwood, the first Director and Superintendent executed the layout of the gardens, when Wade died in 1825, they declined for some years. From 1834, Director Ninian Nivan brought new life into the gardens; this programme of change and development continued with the following Directors into the late 1960s. The gardens were placed into government care in 1877. In the winter of 1948/9 Ludwig Wittgenstein worked in Ireland, he came to the Palm House to sit and write. There is a plaque commemorating him on the steps; as well as being a tourist destination and an amenity for nearby residents, the gardens, admission to, free serve as a centre for horticultural research and training, including the breeding of many prized orchids.

The soil at Glasnevin is alkaline and this restricts the cultivation of calcifuge plants such as rhododendrons to specially prepared areas. Nonetheless, the gardens display a range of outdoor "habitats" such as a rockery, herbaceous border, rose garden, bog garden and arboretum. A vegetable garden has been established; the National Herbarium is housed at the National Botanic Gardens. The museum collection contains some 20,000 samples of plant products, including fruits, wood, plant extracts and artefacts, collected over the garden's two-hundred-year history; the gardens contain noted and important collections of orchids. The newly restored Palm House houses many subtropical plants. In 2002, a new multistorey complex was built; the gardens are responsible for the arboretum at Kilmacurragh, County Wicklow, a centre noted for its conifers and calcifuges. This is located some 50 kilometres south of Dublin. A gateway into Glasnevin Cemetery adjacent to the gardens was reopened in recent years; the gardens include some glasshouses of architectural importance, such as the Palm House and the Curvilinear Range.

The Great Palm House is situated in the southern parts of the gardens, is connected to the cactus house on its west side, the orchid house on its east side. The main building measures 100 feet in length and 80 feet in width; the Palm House was built in 1862 to accommodate the increasing collection of plants from tropical areas that demanded more and more protected growing conditions. The construction was overseen by the curator of the gardens at the time; the original structure was built of wood, was unstable, leading to it being blown down by heavy gales in 1883, twenty one years later. Richard Turner, the great Dublin ironmaster, had supplied an iron house to Belfast Gardens and he persuaded the Royal Dublin Society that such a house would be a better investment than a wooden house, by 1883 construction had begun on a stronger iron structure. Fabrication of the structure took place in Paisley and shipped to Ireland in sections. By the early 2000s, the Palm House had fallen into a state of disrepair.

After more than 100 years, the wrought iron, cast iron and timber construction had deteriorated. Prior to its restoration a large number of panes of glass were breaking each year due to the corrosion and instability of the structure; as part of the restoration the house was dismantled into more than 7,000 parts, tagged for repair and restoration off-site. 20 meter tall cast iron columns within the Great Palm House had degraded and were replaced by new cast iron columns created in moulds of the originals. To protect the structure from further corrosion, new modern paint technology was used to develop long-term protection for the Palm House, providing protection from the perpetually tropical internal climate. For Health and Safety reasons, overhead glass was laminated and vertical panes toughened, specialised form of mastic was used to fix the panes, replacing original linseed oil putty that had contributed to the decay of the building over the century; the Palm House was reopened in 2004 after a lengthy replanting progra

Jim Craig (rugby league)

Jim Craig was an Australian rugby league footballer and coach. He was a versatile back for the Australian national team, he played in 7 Tests between 1921 and 1928 as captain on 3 occasions and has since been named amongst the nation's finest footballers of the 20th century. Craig was a player of unparalleled versatility, it is known that he represented in Tests at fullback, centre and hooker with some of his club & tour football played at winger, five-eighth and lock forward. Whiticker's reference reports that the great Dally Messenger regarded Craig as the greatest player Messenger saw. Craig played as a junior for the local club. Craig made his first grade NSWRFL Premiership debut as a winger in 1915 with the Balmain club, he played at centre for Balmain in the 1916 NSWRFL season's premiership final victory over South Sydney. Craig played five seasons with the club excluding 1918. Balmain won the premiership in all five of those years. Craig's versatility was such that he was selected at hooker for a match on tour of New Zealand in 1919.

Graig first represented for New South Wales against a touring English side in 1920. He was selected on the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain and made his Test debut in the first Test at Leeds, he appeared in 23 minor tour matches notching a total of 58 points as a try goal kicker. Following his Kangaroo Tour representative appearances in 1922 he played a season with the University club in Sydney. In 1923 Craig relocated to Queensland and took the captain-coach position with Ipswich for the next six seasons. While a Queensland resident from 1923–28 he represented that state on 23 occasions and in 1929 he twice again represented for New South Wales. In the 1924 domestic Ashes series against England Craig was named as Australian captain in all three Tests. Again in 1928 he played in all three Tests of the domestic Ashes series in sides led by his Queensland rival Tom Gorman; the last two seasons of Craig's sixteen-year career were with the Western Suburbs Magpies. Craig was the NSWRL's top points scorer in seasons 1929 and 1930.

He was captain-coach of the side to their maiden title over St George in season 1930 in the first Grand Final played to determine the premiership. After football Jim Craig coached Western Suburbs in 1932 and 1939 and North Sydney in 1936, he coached Canterbury-Bankstown to win the Premiership in 1938. Craig died on 13 December 1959, aged 64. In 2005 he was admitted into the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame. In February 2008, Craig was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. In June 2008, he was chosen in the Queensland Rugby League's Team of the Century on interchange bench. In 2012 Craig was inducted into the Queensland Sport Hall of Fame. Whiticker, Alan Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney Andrews, Malcolm The ABC of Rugby League Austn Broadcasting Corpn, Sydney Queensland Team of the Century named – article at