2009 European Parliament election in France
European elections to elect 72 French Members of the European Parliament were held on Sunday 7 June 2009. Due to the entry of Romania and Bulgaria in the European Union in 2007, the number of seats allocated to France was revised from 78 seats to 72 seats, a loss of 6 seats. France now represents only 9.8% of all European MEPs compared to 12.5% in 2004 and 19.8% in 1979, following the first European election. The turnout in European elections in France has always declined, with the sole exception of an increase in 1994, falling from 60.7% turnout in the 1979 election to 43.1% in the latest election in 2004. Nicolas Sarkozy's governing Union for a Popular Movement won a pleasing result, the first time the presidential party had won since the first European elections in 1979. Compared to the party's disastrous 2004 result, it gained over 11 % in the popular vote. However, many have said that the UMP is the only governing party in France, making its position weak compared to the combined opposition.
Led since the tumultuous Reims Congress by Martine Aubry, the main opposition party, the Socialists, won a bad result: only 16.48% and suffering a loss of 17 seats. Prominent Socialist MEPs, including defeated leadership candidate Benoît Hamon, lost their seats; the Socialists lost most votes in middle-class urban areas, while holding their ground better in their rural strongholds. The Europe Ecology was the surprise of these elections, with a remarkable 16.28% and the same number of MEPs as the Socialist Party. The green coalition's result was the best result for any French Green party, beating out the previous record set by Antoine Waechter in the 1989 European elections – 10.59%. The gains made by the Greens came from the centrist MoDem led by François Bayrou; the MoDem won only 8.45%, a low result for the centrist party, thought to be France's third party. The far-right FN suffered loses; the conservative nationalist Libertas coalition formed around Philippe de Villiers's Movement for France, but including the smaller agrarian Hunting, Nature, suffered losses compared to the two parties' combined 8% showing in 2004.
De Villiers was re-elected. On the left of the PS, the new Left Front formed around the French Communist Party and the smaller Left Party surpassed Olivier Besancenot's New Anticapitalist Party; the Left Front and an ally overseas won 6.47% and 5 seats, while Besancenot's NPA won only 4.88% and no seats. Bureau d’Information pour la France du Parlement européen: Élections européennes 7 Juin 2009
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand was a French statesman who served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office in French history. As First Secretary of the Socialist Party, he was the first left-wing politician to be elected President of France under the Fifth Republic. Reflecting family influences, Mitterrand started political life on the Catholic nationalist right, he served under the Vichy Regime during its earlier years. Subsequently he joined the Resistance, moved to the left, held ministerial office several times under the Fourth Republic, he opposed de Gaulle's establishment of the Fifth Republic. Although at times a politically isolated figure, Mitterrand outmanoeuvered rivals to become the left's standard bearer at every presidential election from 1965–88. Mitterrand was elected President at the 1981 presidential election, he was re-elected in 1988 and remained in office until 1995. Mitterrand invited the Communist Party into his first government, a controversial decision at the time.
In the event, the Communists were boxed in as junior partners and, rather than taking advantage, saw their support erode. They left the cabinet in 1984. Early in his first term, Mitterrand followed a radical left-wing economic agenda, including nationalisation of key firms, but after two years, with the economy in crisis, he reversed course, he pushed a liberal agenda with reforms such as the abolition of the death penalty, the 39-hour work week, the end of a government monopoly in radio and television broadcasting. His foreign and defense policies built on those of his Gaullist predecessors, his partnership with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl advanced European integration via the Maastricht Treaty, but he reluctantly accepted German reunification. During his time in office, he was a strong promoter of culture and implemented a range of costly "Grands Projets", he is the only French President to have named a female Prime Minister, Édith Cresson, in 1991. He was twice forced by the loss of a parliamentary majority into "cohabitation governments" with conservative cabinets led by Jacques Chirac, Édouard Balladur.
Less than eight months after leaving office, Mitterrand died from the prostate cancer he had concealed for most of his presidency. Beyond making the French left electable, Mitterrand presided over the rise of the Socialist Party to dominance of the left, the decline of the once-mighty Communist Party, he is known for his Mitterrand doctrine, a policy of not extraditing convicted far-left terrorists of the years of lead such as Cesare Battisti to Italy, due to the alleged non-conformity of Italian legislation to European standards of rule of law, in particular the anti-terrorism laws passed by Italy in the 1970s and 1980s. When the European Court of Human Rights ruled against the Mitterrand doctrine, the policy had led to most of the criminals never being punished for their crimes. Mitterrand was born in Jarnac and baptized François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand, the son of Joseph Mitterrand and Yvonne Lorrain, his family was devoutly Roman conservative. His father worked as an engineer for the Compagnie Paris Orléans railway.
He had three brothers, Robert and Philippe, four sisters, Marie-Josèphe and Geneviève. Mitterrand's wife, Danielle Mitterrand, came from a socialist background and worked for various left-wing causes, they married on 24 October 1944 and had three sons: Pascal, Jean-Christophe, born in 1946, Gilbert, born on 4 February 1949. He had two children as results of extra-marital affairs: an acknowledged daughter, with his mistress Anne Pingeot, an unacknowledged son, Hravn Forsne, with Swedish journalist Christina Forsne. Mitterrand's nephew Frédéric Mitterrand is a journalist, Minister of Culture and Communications under Nicolas Sarkozy, his wife's brother-in-law Roger Hanin was a well-known French actor. Mitterrand studied from 1925 to 1934 in the Collège Saint-Paul in Angoulême, where he became a member of the Jeunesse Etudiante Chrétienne, the student organisation of Action catholique. Arriving in Paris in autumn 1934, he went to the École Libre des Sciences Politiques until 1937, where he obtained his diploma in July of that year.
Mitterrand took membership for about a year in the Volontaires nationaux, an organisation related to François de la Rocque's far-right league, the Croix de Feu. Contrary to some reports, Mitterrand never became a formal member of the Parti Social Français, the successor to the Croix de Feu and may be considered the first French right-wing mass party. However, he did write news articles in the L'Echo de Paris newspaper, close to the PSF, he participated in the demonstrations against the "métèque invasion" in February 1935 and in those against law teacher Gaston Jèze, nominated as juridical counsellor of Ethiopia's Negus, in January 1936. When Mitterrand's involvement in these conservative nationalist movements was revealed in the 1990s, he attributed his actions to the milieu of his youth. Mitterrand furthermore had some personal and family relations with members of the Cagoule, a far-right terrorist group in the 1930s. Mitterrand serv
André Santini is a French politician and current mayor of Issy-les-Moulineaux, Hauts-de-Seine. A former member of the UDF, he did not support François Bayrou, the candidate of his party for the first round of the 2007 French presidential election, choosing instead to support Nicolas Sarkozy of the Union for a Popular Movement. After the election, he joined the new right-of-center party known as the New Centre in the National Assembly, where he had been re-elected during the June 2007 elections, he was nominated as Secretary of State for the Civil Service by François Fillon in June 2007. Fillon thus broke with the misnamed "Balladur jurisprudence" according to which an indicted minister was to resign from his ministerial functions. Santini had been indicted, along with Charles Pasqua, for corruption concerning the creation of the art foundation Hamon. Santini's indictment in the Fondation Hamon affair was confirmed in September 2007 and in February 2008, he speaks fluent English. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Public Service: 2007-2009.
Secretary of State for Consumer Affairs: 1987-1988. Secretary of State for Returnees: 1986-1987. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Vice-president of the National Assembly of France: 1997-1998 Member of the National Assembly of France for Hauts-de-Seine: 1988-2001 / 2002-2007 / And since 2009. Elected in 1988, reelected in 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012. General Council Vice-president of the General council of Hauts-de-Seine: 2001-2002. General councillor of Hauts-de-Seine: 2001-2002. Municipal Council Mayor of Issy-les-Moulineaux: Since 1980. Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995, 2001, 2008. Municipal councillor of Issy-les-Moulineaux: Since 1980. Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995, 2001, 2008. Deputy-mayor of Courbevoie: 1971-1977 Municipal councillor of Courbevoie: 1971-1977 Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Arc de Seine: Since 2004. Reelected in 2008. Member of the Agglomeration community of Arc de Seine: Since 2004. Reelected in 2008
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, the city gained some notability in the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful countship known as Blesum castrum. In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews being burned to death, their martyrdom contributed to a prominent and durable school of poetry inspired by Christian persecution. In 1196, Count Louis granted privileges to the townsmen; the counts of the Châtillon line resided at Blois more than their predecessors, the oldest parts of the château were built by them. In 1429, Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orléans. Joan of Arc rode the thirty-five miles on Wednesday 29 April to Blois to relieve Orléans. After his captivity in England, Charles of Orléans in 1440 took up his residence in the château, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII, was born.
In the 16th century Blois was the resort of the French court. The Treaty of Blois, which temporarily halted the Italian Wars, was signed there in 1504–1505; the city's inhabitants included many Calvinists, in 1562 and 1567 it was the scene of struggles between them and the supporters of the Catholic Church. In 1576 and 1588 Henri III, king of France, chose Blois as the meeting-place of the States-General, in 1588 he brought about the murders of Henry, duke of Guise, his brother, archbishop of Reims and cardinal, in the Château, where their deaths were shortly followed by that of the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henri IV, exiled from the court, lived at the château, soon afterwards given by King Louis XIII to his brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, who lived there till his death in 1660; the bishopric, seated at Blois Cathedral, dates from the end of the 17th century. In 1814 Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon I.
Blois was occupied during World War II by the German army, which took the city on 18 June 1940. The city was liberated by American soldiers during the last two weeks of August 1944. On both occasions, the city withstood several days of bombing; the Château de Blois, a Renaissance château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, an 18th-century stone bridge spans the Loire. As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. To the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a reminder of the thick woods that once covered the area. La Maison de la Magie Robert-Houdin is a museum fronting on the Château; as a museum of France, it is the only public museum in Europe which incorporates in one place collections of magic and a site for permanent performing arts, is directly reflects the personality of Robert-Houdin. The Gare de Blois railway station offers direct connections to Paris, Orléans, Tours and several regional destinations.
The A10 motorway connects Blois with Paris, Tours. Blois was the birthplace of: Thubois Stephen, King of England from 1135 to 1154. Louis XII, King of France from 1498 to 1515 Jean Morin and biblical scholar of Protestant parents Denis Papin, physicist and inventor Thomas de Mahy, Marquis de Favras, royalist Jean Marie Pardessus, lawyer Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry, historian Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, magician René Guénon, philosopher, social critic, the founder of the Traditionalist School Philippe Ariès, medievalist and historian Albert Ronsin, 20th-century French scholar, historian and curator Philippe Gondet, footballer Claudine Doury, photographer Sonia Bompastor, female footballer Aly Cissokho, footballer of Senegalese descent Bernard Onanga Itoua footballer Nicolas Vogondy, cyclist Corentin Jean, footballer Fabrice Moireau, 21st-century French watercolourist and artist Blois is twinned with: Waldshut-Tiengen, since 30 June 1963 Weimar, since 18 February 1995 Lewes, United kingdom, since 30 June 1963 Sighişoara, since 18 November 1995 Urbino, since 1 May 2003 Huế, since 23 May 2007 Athos, the count of La Fère has a castle in Blois, in Twenty Years After, The Vicomte de Bragelonne.
Official website Documentary photography of Blois by "Sayf" Jewish Encyclopedia entry INSEE commune file
2008 French municipal elections
The French municipal elections of 2008 were held on 9 March in that year to elect the municipal councils of France's 36,782 communes. The first task of each newly constituted municipal council was to elect a mayor for that commune. Municipal councilors, the mayors they elect, ordinarily serve a term of six years; however those who took office following the last municipal elections, held on 11 and 18 March 2001, had their terms extended to seven years by an Act of the French parliament designed to avoid an overloading of the electoral calendar in 2007. The left gained back grounds lost in 2001 and in previous elections and sent a message of warning to President Nicolas Sarkozy, in power since 2007; the PS gained cities like Toulouse, Amiens, Saint-Étienne and Reims. The left held on to most of its cities, including Paris and Lyon; the close election in Marseille, was won by the UMP incumbent. The right did poorly but held on to some of its cities like Bordeaux, Le Havre, Toulon or Aix-en-Provence.
Among right-wing gains were the cities of Chaumont, Le-Puy-en-Velay, Calais. François Bayrou's centrist MoDem did poorly, although MoDem incumbents won. However, Bayrou himself was defeated in his hometown of Pau. Between the two rounds the MoDem followed three strategies- maintain its list in the runoffs, if qualified; the far-right FN did poorly, winning only 0.93% nationwide and qualifying for the runoff in only 7 cities with 30,000+ population. The Greens regained grounds lost in 2007, the most notable Green gain was by Dominique Voynet in Montreuil. However, the Green vote was halved in Paris over 2001; the PCF held most of its ground in its Seine-Saint-Denis strongholds but in other PCF cities. It gained Vierzon while losing Calais and Aubervilliers; the popular Socialist incumbent Bertrand Delanoë was easily re-elected. Françoise de Panafieu represented the centre-right UMP as the right tried, in vain, to regain the capital. Among high-profile candidates on her lists is the Justice Minister Rachida Dati, UMP elected in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
In Bordeaux, the incumbent Mayor and former Prime Minister Alain Juppé, defeated in the 2007 parliamentary election, stood for re-election. The Socialist candidate was Aquitaine President Alain Rousset; the centrist MoDem, led by François Bayrou, announced its support for Juppé. Juppé was re-elected by the first round with over 56% of votes cast improving over 2001. In 2001, the Socialist Gérard Collomb won the country's second largest city from the UDF. Lyon had been considered a stronghold for the centrist UDF in previous years. In 2008, former UMP Transportation Minister Dominique Perben tried to win back the city; the two presumed candidates for the centrist MoDem and the far-right National Front, Azouz Begag and Bruno Gollnisch both announced their intentions not to stand. In February, after a fight with MoDem leader François Bayrou, the MoDem list leader integrated the UMP list, but Bayrou found another list leader; the MoDem list was shaken after one of its list was rejected because one of its candidates was on a FN list.
With his sky-high popularity, Collomb was re-elected by the first round and Perben himself was defeated in his sector. In the country's third largest city, Jean-Claude Gaudin of the UMP faced Socialist Senator Jean-Noël Guérini, FN candidate Stéphane Ravier, MoDem MEP Jean-Luc Bennahmias; the race was close and both sides had a chance to win, but Gaudin was re-elected narrowly. The right was divided in this right-wing city, with incumbent mayor Jacques Peyrat staging a dissident candidacy against UMP candidate Christian Estrosi. Estrosi won 38% to Peyrat's 23%. However, the PS candidate Patrick Allemand, with his 22% qualified for a three-way runoff. In this Socialist city, longtime mayor Edmond Hervé did not lead the PS list in this election, he was replaced by Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande mayor Daniel Delaveau, elected; the MoDem candidate, with her 10% won a place in the runoff. Jean-Luc Moudenc of the UMP faced a tough race against the left, which swept the city in the Presidential and Legislative elections held in 2007.
Contrary to polls, Moudenc came out on top of the first round with 42% to the PS's 39%. Following the first round, he merged his lists with the MoDem. However, he lost to the PS candidate. Socialist incumbent Martine Aubry ran with 6 candidates opposing her; the Greens, although they qualified for the runoff, preferred to merge with Aubry's PS lists, as did the MoDem, which chose to merge with the Left list in Lille, for the Right one in other cities. The capital of Alsace, Strasbourg was gained by the right from the left in 2001. However, in 2008, the UMP incumbent Fabienne Keller could be defeated by the PS's Roland Ries. A poll showed. For the first time the three main parties put on top of a 50-odd lists candidates with a non-European ethnic background, most either from North Africa, a few from the French Caribbean departments or sub-Saharan Africa, most against incumbent mayors from the opposite party, thus with lower chances to succeed. There were only seven incumbent mayors in Metropolitan France with non-European roots, all in rural communes with less than 5,000 inhabitants where the percentage of
In politics, centrism—the centre or the center —is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society to either the left or the right. Centre-left and centre-right politics both involve a general association with centrism combined with leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the spectrum. Various political ideologies, such as Christian democracy, can be classified as centrist. There have been centrists in both sides of politics, who serve alongside the various factions within the Liberal and Labor parties. In addition, there are a number of smaller groups that have formed in response to the bipartisan system who uphold centrist ideals. South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon had launched his own centrist political party called the Nick Xenophon Team in 2014, renamed Centre Alliance in 2018; the traditional centrist party of Flanders was the People's Union which embraced social liberalism and aimed to represent Dutch-speaking Belgians who felt culturally suppressed by Francophones.
The New Flemish Alliance is the largest and since 2009 the only extant successor of that party. It is, however composed of the right wing of the former People's Union, has adopted a more liberal conservative ideology in recent years. Among French speaking Belgians the Humanist Democratic Centre is a centre-right or centre party as it is less conservative than its Flemish counterpart, Christian Democratic & Flemish. Another party in the centre of the political spectrum is the liberal Reformist Movement. Brazilian politics have lots of centrist political parties and one of the greatest examples is the Brazilian Democratic Movement, the largest political party in Brazil; the Brazilian Social Democracy Party is another example of centrist party in Brazilian politics, though it was supported by right-wing political parties from 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 elections. Throughout modern history Canadian governments at the federal level have governed from a moderate, centrist political position. Canada has been dominated by the Liberal Party of Canada who have traditionally positioned themselves as being more moderate and centrist than the center-right Conservative Party of Canada and the more left-wing New Democratic Party, putting them somewhere between the center and center-left.
In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party of Canada adhered to the "radical center". Far-right and far-left politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society. Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats and People's Party - Reformists may be considered as centrist parties. Agrarian Croatian Peasant Party during last years became moderate and centrist, having been centre-right in the past; the Czech Republic has a number of prominent centrist parties, including the syncretic populist movement ANO 2011, the civil libertarian Czech Pirate Party, the long-standing Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party and the localist party Mayors and Independents. France has a tradition of parties that call themselves "centriste", though the actual parties vary over time: when a new political issue emerges and a new political party breaks into the mainstream, the old centre-left party may be de facto pushed rightwards, but unable to consider itself a party of the right, it will embrace being the new centre: this process occurred with the Orléanism, Moderate Républicanism, Radical Republicanism and Radical-Socialism.
The most notable centrist party is La République en marche!, founded by Emmanuel Macron. Another party is the Democratic Movement of François Bayrou, founded in 2007. However, the centrist parties oppose the left-wing parties such as Socialists and Left Front, it support the centre-right Gaullist parties and have joined several coalitions governed by Presidents Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy. Zentrismus is a term only known to experts, as it is confused with Zentralismus, so the usual term in German for the political centre/centrism is politische Mitte; the German party with the most purely centrist nature among German parties to have had current or historical parliamentary representations was most the social-liberal German Democratic Party of the Weimar Republic. There existed during the Weimar Republic a Zentrum, a party of German Catholics founded in 1870, it was called Centre Party not for being a proper centrist party, but because it united left-wing and right-wing Catholics, because it was the first German party to be a Volkspartei and because his elected representatives sat between the liberals and the conservatives.
However, it was distinctly right-wing conservative in that it was not neutral on religious issues, being markedly against more liberal and modernist positions. The main successor of Zentrum after the return of democracy to West Germany in 1945, the Christian Democratic Union, has throughout its history alternated between describing itself as right-wing or centrist and sitting on the right-wing; the representatives of the Social Democ
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing known as Giscard or VGE, is a French elder statesman who served as President of the French Republic from 1974 to 1981. As Minister of Finance under Prime Ministers Jacques Chaban-Delmas and Pierre Messmer, he won the presidential election of 1974 with 50.8% of the vote against François Mitterrand of the Socialist Party. His tenure was marked by a more liberal attitude on social issues—such as divorce and abortion—and attempts to modernise the country and the office of the presidency, notably launching such far-reaching infrastructure projects as the TGV and the turn towards reliance on nuclear power as France's main energy source. However, his popularity suffered from the economic downturn that followed the 1973 energy crisis, marking the end of the "thirty glorious years" after World War II. Giscard d'Estaing faced political opposition from both sides of the spectrum: from the newly unified left of François Mitterrand and a rising Jacques Chirac, who resurrected Gaullism on a right-wing opposition line.
In 1981, despite a high approval rating, he missed out on reelection in a runoff against Mitterrand, with 48.2% of the vote. As a former President of France, he is a member of the Constitutional Council, he served as President of the Regional Council of Auvergne from 1986 to 2004. Involved with the European Union, he notably presided over the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the ill-fated Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. In 2003, he was elected to the Académie française, taking the seat that his friend and former President of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor had held. At age 93, Giscard is the longest-lived French President in history. Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing was born on 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, during the French occupation of the Rhineland, he is the elder son of Jean Edmond Lucien Giscard d'Estaing, a high-ranking civil servant, his wife, Marthe Clémence Jacqueline Marie Bardoux. His mother was a daughter of senator and academic Achille Octave Marie Jacques Bardoux, making her a great-granddaughter of minister of state education Agénor Bardoux.
She was through her own mother, a granddaughter of historian Georges Picot, a niece of diplomat François Georges-Picot, a great-great-great-granddaughter of King Louis XV of France by one of his mistresses, Catherine Eléonore Bernard, through her great-grandfather Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet, by whom Giscard d'Estaing was a multiple descendant of Charlemagne. Giscard had Sylvie, he has Olivier, as well as two younger sisters: Isabelle and Marie-Laure. Despite the addition of "d'Estaing" to the family name by his grandfather, Giscard is not descended from the extinct noble family of Vice-Admiral d'Estaing, that name being adopted by his grandfather in 1922 by reason of a distant connection to another branch of that family, from which they were descended with two breaks in the male line from an illegitimate line of the Viscounts d'Estaing, he participated in the Liberation of Paris. He joined the French First Army and served until the end of the war, he was awarded the Croix de guerre for his military service.
In 1948, he spent a year in Montreal, where he worked as a teacher at Collège Stanislas. He studied at Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, École Gerson and Lycées Janson-de-Sailly and Louis-le-Grand in Paris, he graduated from the École Polytechnique and the École nationale d'administration and chose to enter the prestigious Inspection des finances. He acceded to the Tax and Revenue Service joined the staff of Prime Minister Edgar Faure, he is fluent in German. In 1956, he was elected to Parliament as a deputy for the Puy-de-Dôme département, in the domain of his maternal family, he joined the National Centre of a conservative grouping. After the proclamation of the Fifth Republic, the CNIP leader Antoine Pinay became Minister of Economy and Finance and chose him as Secretary of State for Finances from 1959 to 1962. In 1962, while Giscard had been nominated Minister of Economy and Finance, his party broke with the Gaullists and left the majority coalition; the CNIP reproached President Charles de Gaulle for his euro-scepticism.
But Giscard refused to resign and founded the Independent Republicans, which became the junior partner of the Gaullists in the "presidential majority". However, in 1966, he was dismissed from the cabinet, he transformed the RI into a political party, the National Federation of the Independent Republicans, founded the Perspectives and Realities Clubs. He became more critical. In this, he criticised the "solitary practice of the power" and summarised his position towards De Gaulle's policy by a "yes, but...". As chairman of the National Assembly Committee on Finances, he harassed his successor in the cabinet. For that reason the Gaullists refused to re-elect him to that position after the 1968 legislative election. In 1969, unlike most of FNRI's elected officials, Giscard advocated a "no" vote in the constitutional referendum concerning the regions and the Senate, while De Gaulle had announced his intention to resign if the "no" won; the Gaullists accused him of being responsible for De Gaulle's departure.
During the 1969 presidential campaign he supported the winning candidate Georges Pompidou, after which he returned to the Ministry of Economy and Finance. On the French political scene, he appeared as a young br