Fulham Football Club is a professional association football club based in Fulham, Greater London, England. Founded in 1879, they play in the Championship, the tier of English football. They are the football team from London to have played in the Premier League. The club has spent 25 seasons in English footballs top division, the latter spell was associated with former chairman Mohamed Al-Fayed, after the club had climbed up from the fourth tier in the 1990s. The club has produced many English greats, including Johnny Haynes, George Cohen, Bobby Robson, Rodney Marsh and they play at Craven Cottage, a ground on the banks of the River Thames in Fulham which has been their home since 1896. Fulhams training ground is located near Motspur Park, where the clubs Academy is situated, Fulham were formed in 1879 as Fulham St Andrews Church Sunday School F. C. founded by worshipers at the Church of England on Star Road, West Kensington. Fulhams mother church still today with a plaque commemorating the teams foundation.
They won the West London Amateur Cup in 1887 and, having shortened the name from Fulham Excelsior to its present form in 1888, one of the clubs first ever kits was half red, half white shirts with white shorts worn in the 1886–87 season. Fulham started playing at their current ground at Craven Cottage in 1896, the club gained professional status on 12 December 1898, the same year that they were admitted into the Southern Leagues Second Division. They were the club from London to turn professional, following Arsenal. They adopted a red and white kit during the 1900–01 season, in 1902–03, the club won promotion from this division, entering the Southern League First Division. The club won the Southern League twice, in 1905–06 and 1906–07, Fulham joined The Football League after the second of their Southern League triumphs. The clubs first league game, playing in the Second Divisions 1907–08 season, the first win came a few days at Derby Countys Baseball Ground by a score line of 1–0. Fulham finished the three points short of promotion in fourth place.
The club progressed all the way to the semi-final of that seasons FA Cup, in the semi-final, they were heavily beaten, 6–0, by Newcastle United. This is still a loss for an FA Cup semi-final game. Two years later, the won the London Challenge Cup in the 1909–10 season. Fulhams first season in Division Two turned out to be the highest that the club would finish for 21 years, until in 1927–28 when the club were relegated to the 3rd Division South, created in 1920
St Paul's School, London
St Pauls School is a selective independent school for boys aged 13–18, founded in 1509 by John Colet and located on a 43-acre site by the River Thames, in Barnes, London. It is one of the original nine British Clarendon Schools public schools, The School successfully argued that the school should be omitted from the Public Schools Act 1868. Since 1881, St Pauls has had its own school, St Pauls Juniors. The school is currently being rebuilt and expanded, the work was scheduled to be completed in phases over the next thirty years. St Pauls School originally takes its name from St Pauls Cathedral in London, a cathedral school had existed since around 1103. By the 16th century however, it had declined, and in 1509 and he described himself in the statutes of the school as desyring nothing more thanne Educacion and bringing upp chyldren in good Maners and litterature. Originally, the school provided education for 153 children of all nacions and countries indifferently, primarily in literature and etiquette.
The scholars were not required to make any payment, although they were required to be literate and had to pay for their own wax candles, Colet was an outspoken critic of the powerful and worldly Church of his day, a friend of Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. Erasmus wrote textbooks for the school and St Pauls was the first English school to teach Greek, Colet distrusted the Church as a managing body for his school, declaring that he found the least corruption in married laymen. For this reason, Colet assigned the management of the School and its revenues to the Mercers Company, the Mercers Company still forms the major part of the Schools governing body, and it continues to administer Colets trust. One of St Pauls early headmasters was Richard Mulcaster, famous for writing two influential treatises on education and his description in Positions of footeball as a refereed team sport is the earliest reference to organised modern football. For this description and his enthusiasm for the sport he is considered the father of modern football, between 1861 and 1864, the Clarendon Commission investigated the public school system in England and its report formed the basis of the Public Schools Act 1868.
St Pauls was one of nine schools considered by the Clarendon Commission. According to Charles Dickens, Jr. writing in 1879 St Paul’s School, St Paul’s-churchyard — There are 153 scholars on the foundation, vacancies are filled up at the commencement of each term according to the results of a competitive examination. Candidates must be between 12 and 14 years of age, capitation scholars pay £20 a year. The governors of this school are appointed by the Mercers Company and the Universities of Oxford, the school exhibitions are determined as to number and value by the governors from time to time, and the school prizes are of considerable importance. The following are the university exhibitions, an exhibition, founded by Mr Stock in 1780 at Corpus Christi, of the yearly value of £30, given to a scholar recommended by the high master. Four exhibitions, in the college, value £10 a year each, founded by Mr George Sykes in 1766, consolidated now in one exhibition
The Tideway is the part of the River Thames in England that is subject to tides. This stretch of water is downstream from Teddington Lock and in its widest definition is just under 160 kilometres long, the Tideway includes the Thames Estuary, the Thames Gateway and the Pool of London. London Bridge is used as the basis for published tide tables giving the times of high tide, high tide reaches Putney about 30 minutes later. Low-lying banks of London have been defended against natural vulnerability to flooding by storm surges, the Thames Barrier was constructed across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. The Tideway is managed by the Port of London Authority and is referred to as the Port of London. The upstream limit of its authority is marked by an obelisk just short of Teddington Lock, the PLA is responsible for one lock on the Thames, Richmond Lock. In London, the Thames is policed by the Thames Division, essex Police and Kent Police have responsibilities for the rest of the Tideway.
21st century criminal investigations have included the Roberto Calvi and Torso in the Thames cases, the London Fire Brigade has a fire boat on the river. As a result, there are four stations on the Thames, at, Chiswick Pier, Tower Pier. The river is navigable to large ocean-going ships as far as the Pool of London at London Bridge and is the United Kingdoms second largest port by tonnage. Most trade is handled by the Port of Tilbury, ro-ro ferry terminals at Dagenham and Dartford, there is a speed limit of 8 knots west of Wandsworth Bridge and in tributary creeks, and except for authorised vehicles,12 knots between Wandsworth Bridge and Margaretness. The tidal river is used for leisure navigation and this section is not suitable for sporting activity because of the strong stream through the bridges. Rowing has a significant presence upstream of Putney Bridge, while sailing takes place in the same area, the annual Great River Race for traditional rowed craft takes place over the stretch from Greenwich to Ham.
Thames meander challenges along the length of the Thames from Lechlade often pass through the London sections and finish well downstream, the Grand Union Canal joins the river at Brentford, with a branch – the Regents Canal – joining at Limehouse Basin. The other part of the network still connecting on the Tideway is the River Lea Navigation. Narrow low-lying belts beside the tidal section of the Thames regularly flood at spring tides, one such example exists at Chiswick Lane South, where the river, as pictured, overflows this road a few times per year. Although water quality has improved over the last 40 years and efforts to clean up the Tideway have led to the reintroduction of marine life and birds, the environment of the Tideway is still poor. Heavier rainfall in London causes overflows from pipes on the banks from the standard type of sewer in the capital
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the River Thames in west London. The current bridge, which is Grade II* listed and was designed by the civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, is the second permanent bridge on the site. The construction of a bridge was first sanctioned by an Act of Parliament in 1824 and it was the first suspension bridge over the River Thames and was designed by William Tierney Clark. The bridge had a clear water-way of 688 feet 8 inches and its suspension towers were 48 feet above the level of the roadway, where they were 22 feet thick. The roadway was slightly curved upwards,16 feet above water. There were eight chains, composed of wrought-iron bars, each five inches deep, four of these had six bars in each chain, and four had only three, making thirty-six bars, which form a dip in the centre of about 29 feet. From these, vertical rods were suspended, which supported the roadway, the width of the carriageway was 20 feet, with two footways of 5 feet. The chains passed over the towers, and were secured to the piers on each shore.
The suspension towers were of stone, and designed as archways of the Tuscan order, the approaches were provided with octagonal lodges, or toll-houses, with appropriate lamps and parapet walls, terminating with stone pillars, surmounted with ornamental caps. Construction of the bridge cost some £80,000 and it was operated as a toll bridge. In 1884 a temporary bridge was put up to allow a more limited cross-river traffic while a replacement was constructed, the current Hammersmith Bridge was designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette and rests on the same pier foundations constructed for Tierney Clarks original structure. The new bridge was built by Dixon, Appleby & Thorne and was opened by the Prince of Wales on 11 June 1887, with much of the supporting structure built of wrought iron, it is 700 feet long and 43 feet wide and cost £82,117 to build. The bridge was refurbished in 1973 with replacement steel trusses, improvements to the mid-span hangers, new deck timbers were installed and surfacing was changed from wooden blocks to coated plywood panels.
These panels were replaced in 1987. In 1984 the Barnes-side tower bearings failed under a load and had to be replaced. In February 1997 the bridge was closed to all traffic except buses, motorcycles, emergency vehicles, structural elements of the bridge had been found to be corroded or worn, in particular cross girders and deck surfacing, as well as some areas of masonry. The bridge re-opened in July 1998 to all users, subject to a 7. 5-tonne weight restriction. Local bus flow was controlled by lights, and routes were required to convert from double-decker buses to smaller single-deckers to reduce the load on the bridge
Jesus College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Jesus College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Jesus College, Cambridge. It is the most successful Cambridge college boat club, holding the most headships between both sides of the club in both the May bumps and the Lent bumps, the Womens side currently hold the headship of the Lent bumps. It has had successes at other races and notable alumni. Jesus men have been head of the Lent Bumps on 39 occasions and head of the May Bumps on 24 occasions - more than any other boat club, although Jesus men have not been head in either event since 1974. Jesus held the headship of the races for 11 consecutive years between 1875 and 1886 - a feat which has never been equalled. Jesus Women have been head of the Lent Bumps on 5 occasions, in recent years they have been somewhat more successful than the men, being head of the Lents 2016-present and head of the Mays in 2005 and 2007. Jesus run the Fairbairn Cup, the biggest race on the Cam, the club appeared in the first six-oared bumps race in 1827 but performed indifferently.
During the early years it rose on occasion to be second and achieved Head of the River in 1841, by 1875 it held Headship again and continued to for eleven years - a record not since equalled. In this time they refurbished the boathouse including the addition of a weathervane and, some years later, both of which were transferred to the current boathouse. After this period the clubs success declined with Trinity Hall Boat Club and Trinity having an almost monopoly of the Headship, until Jesus recovered it in 1909 and 1912-14. During the inter-war years the club was coached by Steve Fairbairn and held Headship on twelve occasions in the Lents, silver Goblets has been won by Humphrey Playford and John Campbell in 1921 and Thomas Cree and David Burnford in 1935. Jesus therefore have a total of 25 Henley wins, although the club has not managed an event win since 1958. JCBC runs two events of note, the first is the Fairbairn Cup Races, named after the famous Jesus Oarsman and Coach who began the event in the 1920s, Steve Fairbairn.
In 1929 Fairbairn donated a cup and the races have continued ever since in their current form, this is raced on the Thursday and Friday after the end of Michaelmas term, Thursday being the novice races and Friday being the senior races.3 km downstream. The Fairbairn Cup title is awarded to the fastest finishing college mens VIII, there are divisions for IVs and novice VIIIs. JCBC has run the Henley Spare Pairs Race on the day before Henley Royal Regatta and this event runs from the barrier to the regatta finish and is open to spare pairs of registered regatta entries. Cambridge University Combined Boat Clubs University rowing Jesus College Boat Club
Harrods Furniture Depository
The Harrods Furniture Depository buildings flank the South bank of the River Thames near Hammersmith Bridge in Barnes, London SW13. The present salmon-pink terracotta clad buildings date from 1914, the architect was W G Hunt. The buildings, which are Grade II listed, are no longer owned by Harrods, in 2000 the conversion to a residential estate was completed, consisting of 250 townhouses and penthouse suites known as Harrods Village. William Hunt Mansions, the river front building, is a key marker post on the annual Oxford
Head of the River Race
The race was founded by the rowing coach Steve Fairbairn who was a great believer in the importance of distance training over the winter. Mileage makes champions was one of Fairbairns repeated phrases included in his four volumes on rowing coaching and he devised the race while coaching at Thames Rowing Club to encourage this form of training and raise the standard of winter training among London clubs. He transformed the sport by introducing a full body and leg-drive catch, despite the choice of day of the week, the race went ahead with 23 entries at a cost of 5s per crew. So far the ARA were slumbering in sweet ignorance of the fact that racing was taking place on a Sunday. The Head of the River Committee agreed to abandon the December race, there was no race in 1937 and none from 1940–45 inclusive due to the second world war. As of 2014, London RC have won the race most often,14 times followed by Leander Club 13 times, an overtly GB National Squad, usually its eight, have won the race 12 times.
Given these past combinations, crews that are partly the GB mens eight have won the more than 40 times. Overseas entries have claimed the top prize 4 times, the other categories pitch themselves at the top clubs around the UK and the overseas pennant is the main prize nationally only available to overseas winners of any rowing competition. Entries are typically required and accepted in January for overseas crews, the race is only open to mens eights and is considered to be the peak of the head race season — attracting the top UK crews as well as foreign clubs. Composite crews, drawn more than one club or institution, are not permitted. The Championship Course is that of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race but, unlike the Boat Race, the starting time for the race is different every year and depends on the tide — the first crew starts the race the next year. Start time is usually about 2 hours after high tide and crews start at about 10 second intervals, the record time of 16 min 37 s was set in 1987 by the Great Britain National Squad.
The Race is usually held on the third or fourth Saturday in March each year, depending on tides and the date of the Boat Race. In other boats on the course are raced the Head of the River Fours sponsored by Fullers Brewery, the Veterans Fours Head of the River. The Pairs Head is run over a course from Chiswick Bridge to Hammersmith Bridge. The Veterans HOR and Pairs HOR sometimes race in the direction if tides do not permit the usual arrangement. The race has since at least 1990 seen an excess of crews wishing to enter so a few minimum race wins are imposed therefore sometimes for each category, medals are awarded to all 14 categories. The trophy is a statuette of the oarsman Jack Beresford, awarded to the fastest club crew normally rowing on the Thames Tideway
The yard is an English unit of length, in both the British imperial and US customary systems of measurement, that comprises 3 feet or 36 inches. It is by international agreement in 1959 standardized as exactly 0.9144 meters, a metal yardstick originally formed the physical standard from which all other units of length were officially derived in both English systems. In the 19th and 20th centuries, increasingly powerful microscopes and scientific measurement detected variation in these prototype yards which became significant as technology improved. In 1959, the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, the name derives from the Old English gerd, gyrd, &c. which was used for branches and measuring rods. It is first attested in the late-7th century laws of Ine of Wessex, where the yard of land mentioned is the yardland, an old English unit of tax assessment equal to 1⁄4 hide. Around the same time, the Lindisfarne Gospels account of the messengers from John the Baptist in the Book of Matthew used it for a branch swayed by the wind.
In addition to the yardland and Middle English both used their forms of yard to denote the lengths of 15 or 16 1⁄2 ft used in computing acres. A unit of three English feet is attested in a statute of c. 1300 but there it is called an ell, the use of the word yard to describe this length is first attested in Langlands poem on Piers Plowman. The usage seems to derive from the prototype standard rods held by the king, the word yard is a homonym of yard in the sense of an enclosed area of land. This second meaning of yard has a related to the verb to gird and is probably not related. The origin of the measure is uncertain, both the Romans and the Welsh used multiples of a shorter foot, but 2 1⁄2 Roman feet was a step and 3 Welsh feet was a pace. The Proto-Germanic cubit or arms-length has been reconstructed as *alinâ, which developed into the Old English ęln, Middle English elne and this has led some to derive the yard of three English feet from pacing, others from the ell or cubit, others from Henry Is arm standard.
Based on the etymology of the yard, others suggest it originally derived from the girth of a persons waist. But the yard was the standard adopted by the early English soverigns. The yard continued till the reign of Henry VII. when the ell was introduced, that being a yard, the ell was borrowed from the Paris drapers. Subsequently, Queen Elizabeth re-introduced the yard as the English standard of measure, the earliest record of a prototype measure is the statute II Edgar Cap. 8, which survives in several variant manuscripts, in it, Edgar the Peaceful directed the Witenagemot at Andover that the measure held at Winchester should be observed throughout his realm. The statutes of William I similarly refer to and uphold the measures of his predecessors without naming them
Chiswick Eyot /ˈtʃɪzᵻk ˈeɪt/ is a small, uninhabited ait in the River Thames. It is on the Tideway by Chiswick, in the Borough of Hounslow, England, the island is beside The Championship Course and is a well-known landmark in the commentary on The Boat Race. A green pole stands on one end of the island, which is used for timings by rowers of that course, at the southwest, Chiswick Eyot was used during the industrial revolution mostly for the growing of grass and osiers. Much erosion has taken place, and it now becomes fully submerged at high tide, the London Borough of Hounslow declared the island a Local Nature Reserve of Greater London in 1993. Prior to 1934 when ownership passed to the council, Chiswick Eyot was owned by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. St. Nicholas Church, Chiswick is 200m west of the island on a rise by the river. Islands in the River Thames Notes Citations Chiswicks tides on the Thames
Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, which is red, in 2005–2007, it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge. It links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall, the next bridge downstream is the Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. Westminster Bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981, for over 600 years, the nearest bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London, despite further opposition in 1722, and after a new timber bridge was built at Putney in 1729, the scheme received parliamentary approval in 1736.
Financed by private capital and grants, Westminster Bridge was built between 1739–1750, under the supervision of the Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, the City of London responded to Westminster Bridge by removing the buildings on London Bridge and widening it in 1760–63. The City commenced work on the Blackfriars Bridge, which opened in 1769, other bridges from that time include Kew Bridge, Battersea Bridge, and Richmond Bridge. The bridge was required for traffic from the expanding West End to the developing South London as well as to south coast ports, without the bridge, traffic from the West End would have to negotiate the congested routes to London Bridge such as the Strand and New Oxford Street. Roads south of the river were improved, including the junction at the Elephant & Castle in Southwark, by the mid–19th century the bridge was subsiding badly and expensive to maintain. The current bridge was designed by Thomas Page and opened on 24 May 1862, with a length of 820 feet and a width of 85 feet, it is a seven-arch, cast-iron bridge with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry.
It is the oldest road bridge across the Thames in central London, on 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack started on the bridge and continued into Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard. Five people - three pedestrians, one officer, and the attacker - died as a result of the incident. A colleague of the officer was armed and shot the attacker, more than 50 people were injured. An investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police, in the 2002 British horror film 28 Days Later, the protagonist awakes from a coma to find London deserted and walks over an eerily empty Westminster Bridge whilst looking for signs of life. Westminster Bridge is the start and finish point for the Bridges Handicap Race, william Wordsworth wrote the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3,1802. In the finale of the 24th James Bond film Spectre, Blofelds helicopter crashes into Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge at Structurae Westminster Bridge at Structurae Interactive Panorama, Westminster Bridge
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England were established for administration by the Normans, in most cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires established by the Anglo-Saxons and others. They ceased to be used for administration with the creation of the counties in 1889. They are alternatively known as ancient counties or traditional counties, where they are not included among the modern counties of England they are known as former counties. Counties were used initially for the administration of justice, collection of taxes and organisation of the military and they continue to form the basis of modern local government in many parts of the country away from the main urban areas, although sometimes with considerably altered boundaries. The name of a county often gives a clue to how it was formed, either as a division took its name from a centre of administration. The majority of English counties are in the first category, with the name formed by combining the central town with the suffix -shire, for example Yorkshire.
Former kingdoms, which became earldoms in the united England did not feature this formulation, so for Kent, Counties ending in the suffix -sex are in this category and are former Saxon kingdoms. Many of these names are formed from compass directions, the third category includes counties such as Cornwall and Devon where the name corresponds to the tribes who inhabited the area. County Durham is anomalous in terms of naming and origin, not falling into any of the three categories, instead it was a diocese that was turned into the County Palatine of Durham, ruled by the Bishop of Durham. The expected form would otherwise be Durhamshire, but it was rarely used, there are customary abbreviations for many of the counties. In most cases these consist of simple truncation, usually with an s at the end signifying shire, some abbreviations are not obvious, such as Salop for Shropshire, Oxon for Oxfordshire, Hants for Hampshire and Northants for Northamptonshire. Counties were often prefixed with County of in official contexts, such as County of Kent and those counties named after central towns lost the -shire suffix, for example Yorkshire would be known as County of York.
This usage was sometimes followed even where there was no town by that name, the -shire suffix was appended for some counties, such as Devonshire and Somersetshire, despite their origin. There is still a Duke of Devonshire, Great Britain was first divided into administrative areas by the Romans, most likely following major geographical features such as rivers. Before their arrival there were distinct tribal areas, but they were in a constant state of flux as territory was gained, the areas that would form the English counties started to take shape soon afterwards, with the Kingdom of Kent founded by settlers around 445. Once the Kingdom of England was united as a whole in 927 it became necessary to subdivide it for convenience and to this end. The whole kingdom was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, robert of Gloucester accounts for thirty-five shires and William of Malmesbury thirty-two, Henry of Huntingdon, thirty-seven. In most cases the counties or shires in medieval times were administered by a sheriff on behalf of the monarch, after the Norman conquest the sheriff was replaced and the shires became counties, or areas under the control of a count, in the French manner