Onslow Stevens was an American stage and film actor. Born Onslow Ford Stevenson in Los Angeles, California, he was the son of British-born character actor Houseley Stevenson. Stevens became involved in performing in 1926 at the Pasadena Community Playhouse, where his entire family worked as performers and teachers, his Broadway debut came in Stage Door. He performed in over 80 films, at first as the lead actor, but in character roles in his career, he spent the last years of his life in a nursing home in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, where, according to his wife, he was abused by his fellow residents. He died of pneumonia after suffering a broken hip in 1977, at the age of 74, his interment was in Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery with an unmarked grave. For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Onslow Stevens has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6349 Hollywood Boulevard. Onslow Stevens at the Internet Broadway Database Onslow Stevens on IMDb Onslow Stevens at Find a Grave
General Spanky is a 1936 American comedy film produced by Hal Roach. A spin-off of Roach's popular Our Gang short subjects, the film stars George McFarland, Phillips Holmes, Rosina Lawrence, Billie Thomas and Carl Switzer. Directed by Fred Newmeyer and Gordon Douglas, it was released to theaters on December 11, 1936, by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; this film, a Civil War period piece, was intended as an experiment to determine if Roach could move Our Gang into features, as the double feature and block booking were smothering his short subjects production. The film was a box-office disappointment and, after another year of shorts production, Roach ended up selling the Our Gang unit to MGM in May 1938; when Roach bought the rights to the back catalog of Our Gang films he had produced from MGM in 1949, he did not buy back the rights to General Spanky. The film was part of the MGM catalog acquired in 1986 by Turner Entertainment, which holds the rights today as a subsidiary of Warner Bros. General Spanky was released on VHS and laserdisc in 1991.
In 2016 it was released on DVD in Region 1 by Warner Bros. via their Warner Archive Collection. Spanky, Alfalfa and others form an army called "The Royal Protection of Women and Children Regiment Club of the World and Mississippi River"; the group sees unexpected action when Union troops approach, engaging in battles more farcical than fierce. Using clowning tactics instead of military tactics, the kids stop the advance... and save an adult friend from the firing squad. Spanky McFarland as Spanfield George'Spanky' Leonard Phillips Holmes as Marshall "Marsh" Valient Ralph Morgan as Yankee General Irving Pichel as Capt. Simmons, The Gambler Rosina Lawrence as Louella Blanchard Billie "Buckwheat" Thomas as Buckwheat Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer as Alfalfa Hobart Bosworth as Col. Blanchard Robert Middlemass as Overseer James Burtis as Boat Captain Louise Beavers as Cornelia William Best as Henry, the lazy slave Harold Switzer as Harold Jerry Tucker as Jerry Flayette Roberts as Flayette--Gang kid in Army John Collum as Our Gang member Rex Downing as Our Gang member Dickie De Nuet as Our Gang member Ernie Alexander as Friend of Marshall Hooper Atchley as Slavemaster Harry Bernard as Man on the boat Jack Daugherty as General's Aid Walter Gregory as Capt. Haden Karl Hackett as First mate Henry Hall as Slavemaster Ham Kinsey as Man with paint on shoes Frank LaRue as Slavemaster Richard R. Neil as Col. Parrish Buddy Roosevelt as Lt. Johnson Jeffrey Sayre as Friend of Marshall Carl Voss as Second Lieutenant Jack Cooper as Bit role Alex Finlayson as Bit role Jack Hill as Bit role Portia Lanning as Bit role Harry Strang as Bit role Slim Whittaker as Bit role Von the Dog as Von The film was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Sound Recording.
General Spanky at the American Film Institute Catalog General Spanky on IMDb General Spanky at the TCM Movie Database General Spanky at AllMovie
Taylor & Francis
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals. It is a division of a United Kingdom-based publisher and conference company; the company was founded in 1852 when William Francis joined Richard Taylor in his publishing business. Taylor founded his company in 1798, their subjects covered agriculture, education, geography, mathematics and social sciences. From 1917 to 1930 Francis' son, Richard Taunton Francis was sole partner in the firm. In 1965 Taylor & Francis began book publishing. In 1988 it acquired Hemisphere Publishing and the company was renamed Taylor & Francis Group to reflect the growing number of imprints. In 1990 Taylor & Francis exited from the printing business to concentrate on publishing. In 1998 Taylor & Francis Group went public on the London Stock Exchange and in the same year the group purchased its academic publishing rival Routledge for £90 million. Acquisitions of other publishers has remained a core part of the group's business strategy.
Taylor & Francis merged with Informa in 2004 to create a new company called T&F Informa, since renamed back to Informa. Following the merger, T&F closed the historic Routledge books office in New Fetter Lane and relocated to its current headquarters in Milton Park, Oxfordshire. Taylor & Francis Group is now the academic publishing arm of Informa and accounted for 30.2% of Group Revenue and 38.1% of Adjusted Profit in 2017. Taylor & Francis publishes more than 2,700 journals, 7,000 new books each year, with a backlist of over 140,000 titles available in print and digital formats, it uses the Routledge imprint for its publishing in humanities, social sciences, behavioural sciences and education and the CRC Press imprint for its publishing in science, technology and mathematics. In 2017, T&F sold assets from its Garland Science imprint to W. W. Norton & Company and ceased to use that brand. Although considered the smallest of the'Big Four' STEM publishers, its Routledge imprint is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences.
The company's journals have been delivered through the Taylor & Francis Online website since June 2011. Prior to that they were provided through the Informaworld website. Taylor & Francis ebooks are now available via the TaylorFrancis website. Taylor & Francis operates a number of Web services for its digital content including Routledge Handbooks Online, the Routledge Performance Archive, Secret Intelligence Files and Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. Taylor & Francis offers Open Access publishing options in both its books and journals divisions and through its Cogent Open Access journals imprint. Taylor & Francis is a member of several professional publishing bodies including the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, the International Association of Scientific and Medical Publishers, the Association of Learned & Professional Society Publishers and The Publishers Association. In 2017, after collaborating for several years, T&F purchased specialist digital resources company Colwiz.
The group has 1,800 employees located in at least 18 offices worldwide. Its head office is based in Milton Park, Abingdon in the United Kingdom, with other offices in Stockholm, New York, Boca Raton, Kentucky, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Melbourne, Cape Town and New Delhi; the old Taylor and Francis logo depicts a hand pouring oil into a lit lamp, along with the Latin phrase "alere flammam" - to feed the flame. The modern logo is a stylised oil lamp in a circle. In 2013, the entire board of the Journal of Library Administration resigned in a dispute over author licensing agreements. In 2016 Critical Reviews in Toxicology was accused of being a "broker of junk science" by the Center for Public Integrity. Monsanto was found to have worked with an outside consulting firm to induce the journal to publish a biased review of the health effects of its product "Roundup". In 2017, Taylor & Francis was criticized for getting rid of the editor-in-chief of International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, who accepted articles critical of corporate interests.
The company replaced the editor with a corporate consultant without consulting the editorial board. The journal Cogent Social Sciences accepted a hoax article, "The conceptual penis as a social construct", rejected by another Taylor & Francis journal, NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies; when the authors announced the hoax, the article was retracted. In December 2018, the journal Dynamical Systems accepted the paper Saturation of Generalized Partially Hyperbolic Attractors only to have it retracted after publication due to the Iranian nationality of the authors; the European Mathematical Society condemned the retraction and announced that Taylor & Francis had agreed to reverse the decision. Previous instances of Taylor & Francis journals discriminating against Iranian authors were reported in 2013. Taylor & Francis academic journals Munroe, Mary H.. "Taylor & Francis". The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition. Northern Illinois University Libraries. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04.
Retrieved 2008-06-20. Brock, W. H. & Meadows, A. J.. The Lamp Of Learning: Taylor & Francis And Two Centuries Of Publishing. Taylor & Francis. Official website Taylor & Francis online journals and reference works Taylor & Francis eBooks Informa Divisions - Academic Publishing
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
All Media Network
RhythmOne is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame, SideReel and Celebified. The company was founded in 1990 by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine. RhythmOne offices are located in San Francisco and Ann Arbor, United States, several other locations across the country. All Music Guide was launched in 1991. In 1994 the All Movie Guide was launched and in 1998 the All Game Guide; the company was founded in Michigan in 1990 by Michael Erlewine. With the All Music Guide the aim was to " discographic information on every artist who's made a record since Enrico Caruso gave the industry its first big boost", which launched in 1991, they expanded with the All Movie Guide in 1994, the All Game Guide in 1998. Moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1999 to take advantage of the "rich talent pool". AMG was a business unit within Alliance Entertainment Corporation from 1996 until early 2005. Alliance was acquired in 1999 by a multibillion-dollar fund based in California. Macrovision announced on November 6, 2007 that it had agreed to purchase All Media Guide for a reported $102 million.
For a time, all of the guides were controlled by Rovi's nameservers and combined access to the All Music and All Movie Guides was provided via AllRovi.com from 2011 until 2013. In 2013, Rovi sold consumer access of the content to the newly established All Media Network, LLC, but retained control of licensing the content to other businesses; the overall website is allmedianetwork.com. Rovi sold the consumer access to them to newly established All Media Network, LLC in 2013, while retaining ownership and maintenance of the content itself; the AllGame section of the site was shut down on December 12, 2014. On April 16, 2015 Blinkx Plc acquired All Media Network and rebranded the website under the new unified RhythmOne Group banner. AllMusic is an online database which provides access to information about songs, musicians and musical styles alongside staff-authored news, biographies and recommendations; the content was published in book form in 1991 as the All Music Guide, is now available to the public for online reference and information as well as available via licensing for point-of-sale systems, media players, online music stores.
RhythmOne produces the AllMusic guide series that includes the All Music Guide to Jazz and the All Music Guide to the Blues. Vladimir Bogdanov is the president of the series. AllMovie, launched in 1994 as the All Movie Guide, provides access to information about actors and filmmakers with staff-authored news, reviews and recommendations, it offers limited information about Television productions, focused on those released on DVD. Like AllMusic, this content is available via licensing to point-of-sale systems, media players, online stores. AllGame was active between 1998–2014 as the All Game Guide, it offered information and reviews about many console, hand held, PC games released in the US; the site started in February 1998 with the goal of becoming the most comprehensive game database available. In a farewell message on their site, the staff noted that they "didn't all know what we were doing in those early days but it was an exciting time to be helping build an online game database before the Internet exploded with numerous websites dedicated to video games."
SideReel, launched in 2007, is a TV community site which provides information about TV shows and episodes. Celebified offers celebrity news and interviews and started in 2012. RhythmOne's database was set up by Vladimir Bogdanov to hold the information of Erlewine's many lists. Information in the database is licensed and used in point-of-sale systems by some music retailers, includes the following: Basic data: names, credits, copyright information, product numbers. Descriptive content: styles, moods, nationalities. Relational content: similar artists and albums, influences. Editorial content: biographies, rankings; the company claims to have the largest digital archive of music, including about six million digital songs, as well as the largest cover art library, with more than half a million cover image scans. The AllMusic database is used by several generations of Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox to identify and organize music collections. Windows Media Player 11 and the integrated MTV Urge music store have expanded the use of AllMusic data to include related artists, reviews and other data.
All Media Network licenses large databases of metadata about movies, video games, audio books, music releases from Rovi Corporation and publishes them online for consumer use. This includes credits, staff-written biographies, reviews and recommendations as well as categories such as theme or mood. Rovi makes this content available for point of sale systems in stores globally, for CD and DVD recognition in software media players such as Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox, for providing content for a variety of websites including iTunes and Spotify. All Media Guide sold print compilations of its information. Stephen Thomas Erlewine, senior editor of AllMusic List of online music databases Official website
Lawrence Neville Brand was an American actor. His most memorable film roles were in Stalag 17, Riot in Cell Block 11, Birdman of Alcatraz. Brand was a decorated World War II combat soldier. Neville Brand was born in Griswold, one of seven children of Leo Thomas Brand and the former Helen Louise Davis, his father had worked as an bridge-building ironworker in Detroit. Neville was raised in Kewanee, where he attended high school. After his schooling he helped support the family, employed as a soda jerk and shoe salesman in Kewanee, he entered the Illinois Army National Guard on October 23, 1939, as a private in Company F, 129th Infantry Regiment. He was enlisted in the United States Army as Corporal Neville L. Brand, infantryman on March 5, 1941, he trained at Fort Carson and served in World War II, seeing action with B company, 331st Infantry Regiment of the 83rd Infantry Division in the Ardennes and Central European campaigns. Brand, a sergeant and platoon leader, was wounded in action along the Weser River on April 7, 1945.
His upper right arm was hit by a bullet, he nearly bled to death. Brand was awarded the Silver Star, the third-highest decoration for valor in the U. S. military, for gallantry in combat. His other awards and decorations were the Purple Heart, the Good Conduct Medal, the American Defense Service Medal, the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with three Battle Stars, one Overseas Service Bar, one Service Stripe and the Combat Infantryman Badge. In a 1966 interview he explained the Silver Star, stating that withering fire from German machine guns in a hunting lodge kept him and his unit pinned down. "I must have flipped my lid," he said. "I decided to go into that lodge." He was discharged from service in October 1945. He worked on a 1946 U. S. Army Signal Corps film with Charlton Heston and next settled in Greenwich Village and enrolled at the American Theatre Wing, working off-Broadway, including Jean-Paul Sartre's The Victors, he attended the Geller Drama School in Los Angeles on the G.
I. Bill. Brand had an uncredited bit in Port of New York, his first credited part was in D. O. A. as a henchman named Chester. His hulking physique, rough-hewn, craggy-faced looks and gravelly voice led to him playing gangsters, Western outlaws and other screen "heavies", cops and other tough-guy roles throughout his career. Brand was uncredited in My Foolish Heart, Where the Sidewalk Ends, Kiss Tomorrow Goodbye but had a good role in TV in The Bigelow Theatre. Brand's parts grew bigger: Halls of Montezuma, Only the Valiant, The Mob, Red Mountain. On TV he did a short and episodes of The Unexpected and Your Favorite Story, he was in Kansas City Confidential, The Turning Point, notably, Stalag 17. Brand was now much in demand as a support actor, appearing in The Charge at Feather River, The Man from the Alamo, Gun Fury. Brand moved up to leading roles with Man Crazy and Riot in Cell Block 11, he had the lead in Return from the Sea. Brand had a support role in The Prodigal and The Return of Jack Slade and guest roles in Appointment with Adventure, Screen Directors Playhouse, Studio One in Hollywood, Jane Wyman Presents The Fireside Theatre, Chevron Hall of Stars, Schlitz Playhouse, General Electric Theater, The United States Steel Hour, Stage 7.
He had lead roles in Bobby Ware Is Missing and Fury at Gunsight Pass and supported in Raw Edge, Mohawk. He had the distinction of being the first actor to portray outlaw Butch Cassidy, in the film The Three Outlaws opposite Alan Hale Jr. as the Sundance Kid. Though not the big-budget romp that the Paul Newman–Robert Redford film was, both Brand's Cassidy and Hale's Kid were played as likable outlaws, a rare change from Brand's typecasting as a murderous psycho, he followed it with Gun Brothers. Brand became well known as a villain when he killed the character played by Elvis Presley in Love Me Tender, he was in The Way to the Gold, The Lonely Man, The Tin Star, Cry Terror!, Badman's Country. He had better roles on such TV shows as Climax!, Playhouse 90, Target and notably an adaptation of All the King's Men for Kraft Theatre, directed by Sidney Lumet, playing Willie Stark. Brand was a guest star on The Texan, Zane Grey Theater, The Dupont Show of the Month. Of the hundreds of roles he played, he is most well known as Al Capone on the television series The Untouchables.
The characterization—including in the television series pilot episode an odd broken-English pseudo-Italian accent which the American-born Capone did not have in real life - caused an outcry from the Italian American community over stereotypes. He played Capone twice on the show, in the pilot and in the double episode "The Big Train". Brand was in Five Gates to Hell, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Last Sunset, The George Raft Story, reprising his role as Al Capone in the latter, he guest starred on Straightaway, Cain's Hundred, Death Valley Days, The Joey Bishop Show, Naked City, The DuPont Show of the Week, Ben Casey, The Lieutenant, Theatre of Stars and Trial, Wagon Train, Combat!, Gunsmoke. He portrayed a prison guard of Birdman of Alcatraz, was second billed in Hero's Island and had a key role in That Darn Cat!. Brand co-starred with Geo
Indiana Jones (franchise)
Indiana Jones is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. a fictional professor of archaeology. It began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. A prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, followed in 1984, a sequel, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, was released in 1989. A fourth film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, was released in 2008, was the last in the series to be distributed by Paramount Pictures. A fifth film is scheduled to be released in mid-2021; the series was created by George Lucas, its films are directed by Steven Spielberg and star Harrison Ford as the title character. The Walt Disney Company has owned the Indiana Jones intellectual property since its acquisition of Lucasfilm, the series' production company, in 2012. Paramount retains the distribution rights to television series; the franchise expanded to television in 1992 with the release of The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, a series featuring adventures the character had as a child as he traveled around the world with his father.
Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, Dark Horse Comics earned the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books, a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous Indiana Jones video games have been released since 1982; the first film, Raiders of the Lost Ark is set in 1936. Indiana Jones is hired by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis; the Nazis have teams searching for religious artifacts, including the Ark, rumored to make an army that carries the Ark before it invincible. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's nemesis René Belloq. With the help of his old flame Marion Ravenwood and Sallah, Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt; the Nazis capture Indiana and Marion.
Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, they are all killed gruesomely by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark to the United States, where it is stored in a secret government warehouse; the second film, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is set in 1935, a year before Raiders of the Lost Ark. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott and his twelve-year-old sidekick Short Round; the trio crash-land in India. The Thuggee led by Mola Ram has taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature; the film has been noted as an outlier in the franchise, as it does not feature Indy's university or any antagonistic political entity, is less focused on archaeology, being presented as a dark movie with gross-out elements, human sacrifice and torture.
The third film, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade opens in 1912 with a thirteen-year-old Indiana attempting to recover an ornamental cross belonging to Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a task which he completes in 1938. Indiana and his friend Marcus Brody are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan to find the Holy Grail, they are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider, following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry left off before he disappeared, it transpires that Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry Jones in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic; the fourth film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull is set in 1957: nineteen years after The Last Crusade, thus acknowledging the real-life passing of years between films.
Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust into a new adventure. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko for a crystal skull, his journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut and the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac, is introduced to a greaser named Mutt Williams, who turns out to be his son, is reunited with, marries, Marion Ravenwood, introduced in the first movie. During 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of Indiana Smith. Like Star Wars, it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the movie serials of the 1930s and 1940s. Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and decided upon the Ark of the Covenant as the MacGuffin; the project was stalled. In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, his friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was there, on vacation from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film, but Lucas told him of an idea "better than James Bo