Subscript and superscript
A subscript or superscript is a character, set below or above the normal line of type. It is smaller than the rest of the text. Subscripts appear below the baseline, while superscripts are above. Subscripts and superscripts are most used in formulas, mathematical expressions, specifications of chemical compounds and isotopes, but have many other uses as well. In professional typography and superscript characters are not ordinary characters reduced in size; the vertical distance that sub- or superscripted text is moved from the original baseline varies by typeface and by use. In typesetting, such types are traditionally called "superior" and "inferior" letters, etc. or just "superiors" and "inferiors". In English, most nontechnical use of superiors is archaic. Superior and inferior figures on the baseline are used for fractions and most other purposes, while lowered inferior figures are needed for chemical and mathematical subscripts. A single typeface may contain sub- and superscript glyphs at different positions for different uses.
The four most common positions are listed here. Because each position is used in different contexts, not all alphanumerics may be available in all positions. For example, subscript letters on the baseline are quite rare, many typefaces provide only a limited number of superscripted letters. Despite these differences, all reduced-size glyphs go by the same generic terms subscript and superscript, which are synonymous with the terms inferior letter and superior letter, respectively. Most fonts that contain superscript/subscript will have predetermined size and orientation, dependent on the design of the font; the most familiar example of subscripts is in chemical formulas. For example, the molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. A subscript is used to distinguish between different versions of a subatomic particle, thus electron and tau neutrinos are denoted νe νμ and ντ. A particle may be distinguished by multiple subscripts, such as Ω−bbb for the triple bottom omega particle. Subscripts are used in mathematics to define different versions of the same variable: for example, in an equation x0 and xf might indicate the initial and final value of x, while vrocket and vobserver would stand for the velocities of a rocket and an observer.
Variables with a zero in the subscript are referred to as the variable name followed by “naught”. Subscripts are used to refer to members of a mathematical sequence or set or elements of a vector. For example, in the sequence O =, O3 refers to the third member of sequence O, 800. In mathematics and computing, a subscript can be used to represent the radix, or base, of a written number where multiple bases are used alongside each other. For example, comparing values in hexadecimal and octal one might write Chex = 12dec = 14oct. Subscripted numbers dropped below the baseline are used for the denominators of stacked fractions, like this: 67 68; the only common use of these subscripts is for the denominators of diagonal fractions, like ½ or the signs for percent %, permille ‰, basis point ‱. Certain standard abbreviations are composed as diagonal fractions, such as ℅, ℀, ℁, or in Spanish ℆; these superscripts share a baseline with numerator digits, the top of which are aligned with the top of the full-height numerals of the base font.
Ordinal indicators are sometimes written as superscripts, although many English-language style guides recommend against this use. Other languages use a similar convention, such as 1er or 2e in French, or 4ª and 4º in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. In medieval manuscripts, many superscript as well as subscript signs were used to abbreviate text. From these developed modern diacritical marks. In early Middle High German and other modifications to pronunciation would be indicated by superscript letters placed directly above the letter they modified, thus the modern umlaut ü was written as uͤ. Both vowels and consonants were used in this way, as in boͮsen. In modern typefaces, these letters are smaller than other superscripts, their baseline is above the base font's midline, making them extend no higher than a typical ordinal indicator. Superscripts are used for the standard abbreviations for service mark ℠ and trademark ™; the signs for copyright © and registered trademark ® are sometimes superscripted, depending on the use or the typeface.
On handwritten documents and signs, a monetary amount may be written with the cents value superscripted, as in $8⁰⁰ or 8€⁵⁰. The superscripted numbers are underlined: $8⁰⁰, 8€⁵⁰; the currency symbol itself may be superscripted, as in $80 or 6¢. Superscripted numerals are used for the numerators of diagonal fractions, like ¾ or the signs for percent %, permille ‰, basis point ‱. Certain standard abbreviations are composed as diagonal fractions, such as ℅, ℀, ℁, or in Spanish ℆. Both low and high superscripts can be used to indicate the presenc
Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have
Quotation marks known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different media; the double quotation mark is older than the single. It derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance. By the middle sixteenth century, printers had developed a typographic form of this notation, resembling the modern double quotation mark pointing to the right. During the seventeenth century this treatment became specific to quoted material, it grew common in Britain, to print quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation as well as in the margin. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century.
The usage of a pair of marks and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region. In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing outward. In Britain those marks were elevated to the same height as the top of capital letters. In France, by the end of the nineteenth century, they were modified to an angular shape and were spaced out; some authors claim that the reason for this was a practical one, in order to get a character, distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas and the parentheses. In other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters—the Greek breathing marks, the Armenian emphasis and apostrophe, the Arabic comma, decimal separator, thousands separator, etc. Other authors claim; the elevated quotation marks created an extra white space before and after the word, considered aesthetically unpleasing, while the in-line quotation marks helped to maintain the typographical color, since the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case letters.
While other languages do not insert a space between the quotation marks and the word, the French usage does insert them if it is a narrow space. The curved quotation marks 66-99 usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, notably where there was some English influence, for instance in Native American scripts and Indic scripts. On the other hand, Cyrillic and Ethiopic took over the angular quotation marks; the Far East angle bracket quotation marks are a development of the in-line angular quotation marks. In Central Europe, the practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing inward; the German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, the second one at the level of the apostrophes. Alternatively, these marks could be angular and in-line with lower case letters, but still pointing inward; some neighboring regions adopted the German curved marks tradition with lower–upper alignment, while others made up a variant with the closing mark pointing rightward like the opening one.
Sweden choose a convention where both marks pointed to the right but lined up both at the top level. In Eastern Europe there was a hesitation between the German tradition; the French tradition prevailed in North-Eastern Europe, whereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the closing mark pointing rightward) has become dominant in South-Eastern Europe, i.e. the Balkan countries. The single quotation marks emerged around 1800 as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation. One could expect that the logic of using the corresponding single mark would be applied everywhere, but it was not. In some languages using the angular quotation marks, the usage of single ones became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones. In Eastern Europe, the curved quotation marks are used as a secondary level when the angular marks are used as a primary level. In English writing, quotation marks are placed in pairs around a word or phrase to indicate: Quotation or direct speech: Carol said "Go ahead" when I asked her if the launcher was ready.
Mention in another work of a title of a short or subsidiary work, like a chapter or episode: "Encounter at Farpoint" was the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Scare used to mean "so-called" or to express irony: The "fresh" apples were full of worms. In American writing, double quotes are used normally. If quote marks are used inside another pair of quote marks single quotes are used as the secondary style. For example: "Didn't she say'I like red best' when I asked her wine preferences?" he asked his guests. If another set of quotes is nested, double quotes are used again, they continue to alternate as necessary. British publishing is regarded as more flexible about whether double or single quotation marks should be used. A tendency to use single quotation marks in British writ
The Elements of Typographic Style
The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer and translator Robert Bringhurst. Published in 1992 by Hartley & Marks Publishers, it was revised in 1996, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2012. A history and guide to typography, it has been praised by Hermann Zapf, who said “I wish to see this book become the Typographers’ Bible.” Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones consider it "the finest book written about typography," according to the FAQ section of their type foundry's website. Because of its status as a respected and cited resource and designers refer to it as Bringhurst; the title alludes to The Elements of Style, the classic guide to writing by White. First edition: Hartley & Marks Publishers, 1992, 254pp, ISBN 0-88179-110-5 Second edition: Hartley & Marks Publishers, 1996, 352pp, ISBN 0-88179-133-4, ISBN 0-88179-132-6 Third edition: Hartley & Marks Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0-88179-205-5, ISBN 0-88179-206-3 Fourth edition: Hartley & Marks Publishers, 2012, ISBN 0-88179-211-X, ISBN 0-88179-212-8 Anatomy of a Typeface The Elements of Typographic Style Applied to the Web – an unaffiliated webpage applying the same principles to web typography A Classic Thesis style – An Homage to The Elements of Typographic Style – LaTeX and LyX template for dissertations and articles inspired by Bringhurst's book
A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source. More a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears; the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is thought of as a citation. References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution. Citations have several important purposes: to uphold intellectual honesty, to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used.
As Roark and Emerson have argued, citations relate to the way authors perceive the substance of their work, their position in the academic system, the moral equivalency of their place and words. Despite these attributes, many drawbacks and shortcoming of citation practices have been reported, including for example honorary citations, circumstantial citations, discriminatory citations and arbitrary citations; the forms of citations subscribe to one of the accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association, American Psychological Association, other citations systems, because their syntactic conventions are known and interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its disadvantages. Editors specify the citation system to use. Bibliographies, other list-like compilations of references, are not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.
A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, web page, or other published item. Citations should supply detail to identify the item uniquely. Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, the arts, the humanities. Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include: Book: author, book title, place of publication, date of publication, page number if appropriate. Journal: author, article title, journal title, date of publication, page number. Newspaper: author, article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number if desired, date of publication. Web site: author and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, a date when the site was accessed. Play: inline citations offer part and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, only decides he wants her when she is married". Poem: spaced slashes are used to indicate separate lines of a poem, parenthetical citations include the line number.
For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give.". Interview: name of interviewer, interview descriptor and date of interview. Along with information such as author, date of publication and page numbers, citations may include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to. Citations of books may include an International Standard Book Number. Specific volumes, articles or other identifiable parts of a periodical, may have an associated Serial Item and Contribution Identifier or an International Standard Serial Number. Electronic documents may have a digital object identifier. Biomedical research articles may have a PubMed Identifier. Broadly speaking, there are two types of citation systems, the Vancouver system and parenthetical referencing. However, the Council of Science Editors adds the citation-name system; the Vancouver system uses sequential numbers in either bracketed or superscript or both. The numbers refer to either endnotes that provide source detail.
The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form. For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like: "The five stages of grief are denial, bargaining and acceptance."1The note, located either at the foot of the page or at the end of the paper would look like this: 1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60. In a paper with a full bibliography, the shortened note might look like: 1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60; the bibliography entry, required with a shortened note, would look like this: Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969. In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading. Parenthetical referencing known as Harvard referencing, has full or partial, in-text, citations enclosed in circular brackets and embedded in the paragraph.
An example of a parenthetical reference: "The five stages of grief are denial, bargai
Periodical literature is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example is the magazine published weekly, monthly, or quarterly. Newspapers published daily or weekly, are speaking, a separate category of serial. Other examples of periodicals are newsletters, literary magazines, academic journals, science magazines and comic books; these examples are published and referenced by volume and issue. Volume refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated, issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year. For example, the April 2011 publication of a monthly magazine first published in 2002 would be listed as, "volume 10, issue 4". Roman numerals are sometimes used in reference to the volume number; when citing a work in a periodical, there are standardized formats such as The Chicago Manual of Style. In the latest edition of this style, a work with volume number 17 and issue number 3 may be written as follows: James M. Heilman, Andrew G. West.
"Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership and the Significance of Natural Language." Journal of Medical Internet Research 17, no. 3. Doi:10.2196/jmir.4069. Periodicals are classified as either popular or scholarly. Popular periodicals are magazines. Scholarly journals are most found in libraries and databases. Examples are the Journal of Social Work. Trade magazines are examples of periodicals, they are written for an audience of professionals in the world. As of the early 1990s, there were over 6,000 academic, scientific and trade publications in the United States alone; these examples are related to the idea of an indefinitely continuing cycle of production and publication: magazines plan to continue publishing, not to stop after a predetermined number of editions. A novel, in contrast, might be published in monthly parts, a method revived after the success of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens; this approach is called part-publication when each part is from a whole work, or a serial, for example in comic books.
It flourished during the nineteenth century, for example with Abraham John Valpy's Delphin Classics, was not restricted to fiction. The International Standard Serial Number is to serial publications what the International Standard Book Number is to books: a standardized reference number. Postal services carry periodicals at a preferential rate. Partwork
The Elements of Style
The Elements of Style is a prescriptive American English writing style guide in numerous editions. The original was composed by William Strunk Jr. in 1918, published by Harcourt in 1920, comprising eight "elementary rules of usage", ten "elementary principles of composition", "a few matters of form", a list of 49 "words and expressions misused", a list of 57 "words misspelled". E. B. White enlarged and revised the book for publication by Macmillan in 1959; that was the first edition of the so-called "Strunk & White", which Time named in 2011 as one of the 100 best and most influential books written in English since 1923. Cornell University English professor William Strunk Jr. wrote The Elements of Style in 1918 and published it in 1919, for use at the university. He and editor Edward A. Tenney revised it for publication as The Elements and Practice of Composition. In 1957 the style guide reached the attention of E. B. White at The New Yorker. White had studied writing under Strunk in 1919 but had since forgotten "the little book" that he described as a "forty-three-page summation of the case for cleanliness and brevity in the use of English".
Weeks White wrote a feature story about Strunk's devotion to lucid English prose. Macmillan and Company subsequently commissioned White to revise The Elements for a 1959 edition. White's expansion and modernization of Strunk and Tenney's 1935 revised edition yielded the writing style manual informally known as "Strunk & White", the first edition of which sold about two million copies in 1959. More than ten million copies of three editions were sold. Mark Garvey relates the history of the book in Stylized: A Slightly Obsessive History of Strunk & White's The Elements of Style. Maira Kalman, who provided the illustrations for The Elements of Style Illustrated, asked Nico Muhly to compose a cantata based on the book, it was performed at the New York Public Library in October 2005. In The Elements of Style, William Strunk concentrated on specific questions of usage—and the cultivation of good writing—with the recommendation "Make every word tell"; the book frames this within a triplet credited to an influential lecturer: Omit needless words Use active voice Use parallel construction on concepts that are parallel The 1959 edition features White's expansions of preliminary sections, the "Introduction" essay, the concluding chapter, "An Approach to Style", a broader, prescriptive guide to writing in English.
He produced the second and third editions of The Elements of Style, by which time the book's length had extended to 85 pages. The third edition of The Elements of Style features 54 points: a list of common word-usage errors; the final reminder, the 21st, "Prefer the standard to the offbeat", is thematically integral to the subject of The Elements of Style, yet does stand as a discrete essay about writing lucid prose. To write well, White advises writers to have the proper mind-set, that they write to please themselves, that they aim for "one moment of felicity", a phrase by Robert Louis Stevenson, thus Strunk's 1918 recommendation: Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts; this requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that he make every word tell.
Strunk Jr. no longer has a comma in his name in the 1979 and editions, due to the modernized style recommendation about punctuating such names. The fourth edition of The Elements of Style, published 54 years after Strunk's death, omits his stylistic advice about masculine pronouns: "unless the antecedent is or must be feminine". In its place, the following sentence has been added: "many writers find the use of the generic he or his to rename indefinite antecedents limiting or offensive." Further, the re-titled entry "They. He or She", in Chapter IV: Misused Words and Expressions, advises the writer to avoid an "unintentional emphasis on the masculine". Components new to the fourth edition include a foreword by Roger Angell, stepson of E. B. White, an afterword by the American cultural commentator Charles Osgood, a glossary, an index. Five years the fourth edition text was re-published as The Elements of Style Illustrated, with illustrations by the designer Maira Kalman; this edition excludes the afterword by Charles Osgood and restores the first edition chapter on spelling.
The Elements of Style was listed as one of the 100 best and most influential books written in English since 1923 by Time in its 2011 list. Upon its release, Charles Poor, writing for The New York Times, called it "a splendid trophy for all who are interested in reading and writing." American poet Dorothy Parker has, regarding the book, said:If you have any young friends who aspire to become writers, the second-greatest favor you can do them is to present them with copies of The Elements of Style. The first-greatest, of course, is to shoot them now. Criticism of Strunk & White has focused on claims that it has a prescriptivist nature, or that it has become a general anachronism in the face of modern English usage. In criticizing The Elements of Style, Geoffrey Pullum, professor of linguistics at the University of Edinburgh