Malcolm in the Middle
Malcolm in the Middle is an American television sitcom created by Linwood Boomer for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series was first broadcast on January 9, 2000, ended its six-year run on May 14, 2006, after seven seasons and 151 episodes; the series received critical acclaim and won a Peabody Award, seven Emmy Awards, one Grammy Award, seven Golden Globe nominations. The series follows a dysfunctional working-class family and stars Frankie Muniz in the lead role of Malcolm, a somewhat normal boy who tests at genius level. While he enjoys his intelligence, he despises having to take classes for gifted children, who are mocked by the other students who call them "Krelboynes". Jane Kaczmarek is Malcolm's overbearing, authoritarian mother and Bryan Cranston plays his immature but loving father, Hal. Christopher Kennedy Masterson plays eldest brother Francis, a former rebel who, in earlier episodes, was in military school, but marries and settles into a steady job. Justin Berfield is Malcolm's dimwitted older brother Reese, a cruel bully who tortures Malcolm at home while he defends him at school.
Younger brother Dewey, bitter about his ruined childhood and musically talented, is portrayed by Erik Per Sullivan. In earlier episodes the show's focus was on Malcolm, but as the series progressed, it began to explore all six members of the family. A fifth son, was introduced as a baby at the end of Season 4. Malcolm in the Middle was produced by Satin City and Regency Television in association with Fox Television Studios; the show has been syndicated worldwide. The show received widespread praise from critics and proved an popular draw for the network, it was placed No. 88 on Entertainment Weekly's "New TV Classics" list, was named by Alan Sepinwall of HitFix as one of the 10 best shows in Fox network history. The series is about a boy named Malcolm, the third-born child in a comically dysfunctional working-class family of four, five boys, the sons of Lois and Hal; as of the first season, their delinquent oldest child, has been sent away to military school, while younger brothers Reese and Dewey remain at home with their parents.
With Francis away, Malcolm becomes the middle child of the family. In season four, the character Jamie was added to the show as the fifth son of Lois; the show's early seasons centered on Malcolm dealing with the rigors of being an intellectual adolescent and enduring the eccentricities of his family life. Seasons expanded the show's scope by exploring the family's interactions with their extended family and colleagues in more depth, including Lois' tyrannical mother; the series differed from the standard TV sitcom format/presentation in many respects. Malcolm broke the fourth wall by both narrating in voice-over and talking directly to the viewer on camera; the distinctive look and sound of the series relied on elaborate post-production, including fast-cut editing, sound effects and musical inserts, the extensive use of locations, unusual camera styles and effects that would be impractical or impossible to achieve in a standard studio-based video multi-camera sitcom production. All scenes were shot using a single-camera setup, the show employed neither a laugh track nor a live studio audience.
Emulating the style of hour-long dramas, this half-hour show was shot on film instead of on video. Another distinctive aspect of the show is that the cold open of every episode is unrelated to the main story. Exceptions were episodes which were the conclusions of "two-parters"; the family's surname was never mentioned directly on the series. Linwood Boomer's script for the pilot episode included the surname Wilkerson, but it was removed because he did not want to put "any specific ethnic label on the characters"; the surname appeared in early drafts of promotional material and on Francis' uniform in the pilot. In the last episode of the series, Francis drops his ID badge from work, which lists his name as "Francis Nolastname". In the last episode, the principal announces Malcolm as the speaker mouthing "Nolastname" as his voice is drowned out by microphone feedback. A publicist for Fox said that "officially the family's last name should be considered a mystery". Malcolm: the title character of the series.
Malcolm is a genius with an IQ of a photographic memory. He is placed in a class for gifted students, his intelligence, as well as feelings of not fitting in, a large ego fueled by a cruel streak of snarkiness cause numerous problems for him over the course of the series. As the title suggests, Malcolm is the middle child of the three living at home, his best friend is Stevie Kenarban. In the series finale, he graduates from high school and starts attending a prestigious college by both scholarship and working various jobs as a janitor at H
Lollipop Chainsaw is a comedy horror action hack and slash video game developed by Grasshopper Manufacture for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 video game consoles. It features Juliet Starling, a cheerleader zombie hunter fighting zombies in a fictional California high school. A collaboration between game designer Suda51 and filmmaker James Gunn, the game was published by Kadokawa Games in Japan and Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment in all other territories and was released on June 12, 2012 in North America, June 14, 2012 in Japan and June 15, 2012 in Europe. Lollipop Chainsaw is a hack and slash video game in which players play as Juliet as she fights through hordes of zombies. Juliet can use melee attack and high and low attacks with her chainsaw. Zombies can be beaten into a groggy state, during which they can be killed with a chainsaw attack. Gold medals can be earned by smashing objects and rescuing classmates; these medals can be spent at Chop2Shop.zom stores found throughout each level where Juliet can purchase new moves and combos, as well as items that can increase her stats.
Sparkle Hunting is achieved when Juliet kills three or more zombies or in quick succession and rewards platinum medals that can be spent on other goodies such as unlockable costumes and artwork. As the game progresses, Juliet will receive the Chainsaw Dash, which allows her to charge with her chainsaw and fly off ramps, the Chainsaw Blaster, a long range weapon used for blasting enemies and obstacles. Throughout the game, Juliet can collect lollipops which allow her to recover health; the maximum number of lollipops Juliet can hold depends on the difficulty setting. Juliet will die if she loses all her health or fails certain scenarios, though in the case of the former, Juliet may be able to come back to life by winning a roulette spin. Throughout her journey, Juliet is accompanied by her boyfriend, a disembodied head hanging from her waist. At certain points in the game, Nick's head can be attached to a decapitated zombie's body, during which the player will rhythmically press buttons in order to have him move about and clear the way for Juliet.
By obtaining'Nick Tickets', Juliet can activate the'Nick Roulette' in which various moves can be performed using Nick's head, such as a bombarding attack or making masses of zombies groggy. By filling up her star meter by defeating zombies, Juliet can activate a special state which powers up her chainsaw for a limited period, allowing her to defeat zombies and obtain Sparkle Hunting more easily. On Juliet Starling's 18th birthday, she goes to San Romero High School park to meet her boyfriend, Nick Carlyle, going to meet her family for the first time. A zombie outbreak has occurred, which leads to Juliet fighting off hordes of undead on her way to meet Nick; when she arrives, she discovers Nick fighting off a zombie, trying to eat her, so Nick is bitten in her place. Realizing he will become a zombie, Juliet decides; when he comes to, Nick discovers he is somehow still alive, despite being a severed head, so Juliet reveals to him that she is a zombie hunter, that she performed a magical ritual on him which keeps his soul from being turned into a zombie and retaining his humanity, thus explaining his continued existence as a severed head.
Juliet attaches Nick's head to her belt, she fights hordes of zombies on her way to meet her tutor, Morikawa. Once they are united, Morikawa explains the situation, explains that the Universe is divided into three realms: Earth, the Land Beyond Words, the Rotten World, an infernal realm where demons and zombies reside. Morikawa tells Juliet and Nick that somebody has cracked open a portal between Earth and the Rotten World by a combination of black magic and explosives, Morikawa sets out to find the culprit. Juliet reunites again with Morikawa after fighting zombies intent on blowing her to oblivion, finds the person responsible for the outbreak, an evil goth named Swan but she cannot prevent him from summoning five intelligent zombies to the world, which are stereotypes of different aspects of music centered on themes of rock and roll. Morikawa attempts to stop Swan from unleashing the zombie overlords but he is mortally wounded. Swan sends the first zombie overlord, after her, but she kills him in a fight and sends him back to the Rotten World.
Zed, chants an incantation before he dies. Morikawa tells her to kill the four remaining zombie overlords before dying. Juliet hunts down the overlords, while receiving advice from her sisters Cordelia Starling, the elder one, Rosalind Starling, the younger sister. Juliet continues exploring the school and fighting zombies, encounters Vikke, the second zombie overlord summoned by Swan, whom she duels onboard his airborne longship and sends him back to Rotten World; as the ship crashes, Vikke chants the same Latin phrase Zed spoke. The longship crashes into the O'Bannon Farm. Juliet is attacked mentally by nightmares projected from Mariska, the zombie Queen of Psychedelia, but Juliet shakes off the nightmares and faces Mariska herself, defeating her and sending her back to Rotten World; as she dies, Mariska congratulates Nick an
Mr. Nobody (film)
Mr. Nobody is a 2009 science fiction drama film written and directed by Jaco Van Dormael and starring Jared Leto, Sarah Polley, Diane Kruger, Linh Dan Pham, Rhys Ifans, Natasha Little, Toby Regbo and Juno Temple; the film tells the life story of Nemo Nobody, a 118-year-old man, the last mortal on Earth after the human race has achieved quasi-immortality. Nemo, memory fading, refers to his three main loves and to his parents' divorce and subsequent hardships endured at three critical junctions in his life: at age nine and thirty-four. Alternate life paths branching out from each of those critical junctions are examined; the speculative narrative changes course with the flick of a different possible decision at each of those ages. The film uses the multiverse hypothesis style. Mr. Nobody had its world premiere at the 66th Venice International Film Festival where it received the Golden Osella and the Biografilm Lancia Award. Critical response was strong and the film was nominated for seven Magritte Awards, winning six, including Best Film and Best Director for Van Dormael.
The film was funded through European financiers and was released in Belgium on 13 January 2010. Since its original release, Mr. Nobody has become a cult film, noted for its philosophy and cinematography, personal characters and Pierre Van Dormael's soundtrack. In 2092, humanity has conquered mortality through the endless renewal of cells; the world watches in fascination as the 118-year-old Nemo Nobody, the last mortal on Earth, edges towards death. Curious to know of life before quasi-immortality, they interview Nemo. Dr. Feldheim, a psychiatrist, uses hypnosis to help Nemo recall some of his memories, while Nemo relates other memories to a journalist; as he is prodded, Nemo makes contradictory statements. He recounts his life at three primary points: at age 9, when his parents divorced, at age 15 when he fell in love, at age 34 as an adult. All three unfold into their many possible outcomes. Nemo explains. At the moment of conception, the Angels of Oblivion erase their memory; the Angels, forget about Nemo, allowing him to "remember" different possible futures for himself.
At age 9, at a railway station, he is forced to choose as his mother leaves on a train while his father stays on the platform. In one case, he manages to board the train. A rebellious Nemo lives with her new partner, Harry, in Montreal, he sees a new girl, Anna, in his school and is smitten. One day on the beach, Anna asks if he would like to swim with her friends. Nemo insults her friends and they see each other again. In an alternate story line, Nemo admits to Anna. Anna turns out to be Harry's daughter and the two step siblings begin an affair, they pledge their lives to one another. When Harry and Nemo's mother break up, Anna goes to New York with her father, they lose touch. Years Nemo works as a pool cleaner, hoping to run into Anna by chance, they see one another at the train station and recognize each other in a crowd of passers-by. After a passionate reunion, Anna announces she is not ready to resume the relationship, she asks him to call her in two days and meet at the lighthouse. However, he loses her number.
Nemo waits at the lighthouse every day. In a different storyline and Nemo are married with children. Nemo works at a television studio narrating educational videos. One evening, while returning home, he hits a bird, loses control of his car, plummets into a lake and drowns. Nemo stays with his father, who becomes disabled, he works in a shop and spends his free time at home at the typewriter, writing a science fiction story about a journey to Mars. At a school dance, he falls in love. A few days Nemo goes to Elise's house but sees her with her 22-year-old boyfriend. Frustrated, he speeds away on his motorcycle, has an accident and is hospitalized in a vegetative state. Though he can perceive the world through his senses, Nemo can not speak, he detects his parents' reunion at his bedside. Nemo tries to remember the movement of his fingers on the typewriter keyboard and manages to lift a finger as this story line comes to a close. In yet another alternate timeline, Nemo speaks with Elise at her house, learns that she is still in love with her boyfriend, Stefano.
Nemo keeps assuring her of his feelings. Elise gives in and a few years they get married. In one version of the story line, Elise dies in an accident on the return from the wedding. Nemo keeps her ashes. In a far future, Nemo spreads them on the planet's surface. Aboard the spacecraft traveling back to Earth, he meets Anna. Before they can say much to each other, the ship is destroyed by meteoroids. In an alternate version of events, he works at the same television studio but his assistant drowns instead; the assistant's widow is Anna. Another storyline has Elise married with three children. However, their marriage is unhappy as Elise suffers from borderline personality disorder and chronic depression, she has attacks of hysteria and, despite Nemo's attempts to save their marriage leaves him to pursue Stefano. Alternatively, after being rejected by Elise, Nemo resolves to marry the first girl who will dance with him at the school prom; that night, he dances with Jean. While taking her home, Nemo pledges to be successful.
Doo-wop is a genre of rhythm and blues music developed in the 1940s by African American youth in the large cities of the upper east coast including New York. It features vocal group harmony that carries an engaging melodic line to a simple beat with little or no instrumentation. Lyrics are simple about love, ornamented with nonsense syllables, featuring, in the bridge, a melodramatically heartfelt recitative addressed to the beloved. Gaining popularity in the 1950s, doo-wop enjoyed its peak successes in the early 1960s, but continued to influence performers in other genres. Doo-wop has complex musical and commercial origins. Doo-wop's style is a mixture of precedents in composition and vocals that figured in popular music by composers or groups both black and white from the 1930s to the 1940s; such composers as Rodgers and Hart, Hoagy Carmichael and Frank Loesser used a I-VI-II-V-loop chord progression in those hit songs. This characteristic harmonic layout was combined with the AABA chorus form typical for Tin Pan Alley pop.
Hit songs by black groups such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers were slow songs in swing time with simple instrumentation. Doo-wop street singers performed without instrumentation, but made their musical style distinctive, whether using fast or slow tempos, by keeping time using a swing-like off-beat. Doo-wop's characteristic vocal style was influenced by groups such as the Mills Brothers, whose close four-part harmony derived from the earlier barbershop quartet. Bill Kenny, lead singer of the Ink Spots, is credited with introducing the "top and bottom" vocal arrangement featuring a high tenor singing the lead and a bass singer reciting the lyrics in the middle of the song; the Mills Brothers, who were famous in part because in their vocals they sometimes mimicked instruments, exercised an additional influence on street doo-woppers who, singing a cappella arrangements, used wordless onomatopoeia to mimic instruments, the bass singing "bom-bom-bom," a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang," and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop."
For instance, "Count Every Star" by The Ravens includes vocalizations imitating the "doomph, doomph" plucking of a double bass. The Orioles helped develop the doo-wop sound with their hits "It's Too Soon to Know" and "Crying in the Chapel". Although the musical style originated in the late 1940s and was wildly popular in the 1950s, the term "doo-wop" itself did not appear in print until 1961, in The Chicago Defender, just as the style's vogue was nearing its end. Though the name was attributed to radio disc jockey Gus Gossert, he did not accept credit, stating that "doo-wop" was in use in California to categorize the music."Doo-wop" is itself a nonsense expression. In The Delta Rhythm Boys' 1945 recording, "Just A-Sittin' And A-Rockin", it is heard in the backing vocal, it is heard in The Clovers' 1953 release "Good Lovin'", in the chorus of Carlyle Dundee & The Dundees' 1954 song "Never". The first record to use "doo-wop" in the refrain was The Turbans' 1955 hit, "When You Dance"; the Rainbows embellished the phrase as "do wop de wadda" in their 1955 "Mary Lee".
The term's application was extended to include rhythm and blues groups as far back as the 1940s. Radio and cinema propagated the new style and inspired imitation in many U. S. cities and abroad. The Chords' 1954 hit, "Sh-Boom," is considered to have been the first rhythm-and-blues record to break into the top ten on the Billboard charts, reaching #9. Many other all-white doo-wop groups would appear and produce hits: The Mello-Kings in 1956 with "Tonight, Tonight," The Diamonds in 1957 with the chart-topping "Little Darlin'," The Skyliners in 1959 with "Since I Don't Have You" and in 1960 with "This I Swear," The Tokens in 1961 with "Tonight I Fell In Love" and "I Love My Baby." Productive were doo-wop groups of young Italian-American men who, like their black counterparts, lived in rough neighborhoods, learned their basic musical craft singing in church, would gain experience in the new style by singing on street corners. By the late 1950s and early 60s, many Italian-American groups had national hits: Dion and the Belmonts scored with "I Wonder Why," "Teenager in Love," and "Where or When".
Other Italian-American doo-wop groups were The Earls, The Chimes, The Demensions, The Elegants, The Mystics, The Duprees, Vito & the Salutations, The Gaylords, Johnny Maestro & the Brooklyn Bridge, The Regents and the Ebb Tides, The Del-Satins, The Videls, The Chaperones. Some doo-wop groups were racially mixed. Puert
London Records is a British record label that marketed records in the United States and Latin America from 1947 to 1979 before becoming semi-independent. London arose from the split in ownership between the American branches of Decca Records; the American branch of London Records released British Decca records in the U. S. since British Decca could not use the "Decca" name there. The label was noted for classical albums made in state-of-the-art stereophonic sound, such artists as Georg Solti, Joan Sutherland and Luciano Pavarotti; the London name was used by British Decca in the UK market for releases taken from American labels which British Decca licensed, such as Imperial, Dot, Atlantic and Sun, the first two UK releases from Motown. By the 1960s more licensing deals had been made with Big Top, Parrot, Hi, subsidiary labels were London Atlantic, London Dot and London Monument. An unusual feature was the letter code in the numbering system. From the late 1950s until 1973, the label bore the logo "London American Recordings", on Radio Luxembourg it was known as "London American".
In America, the label was best known as the American imprint of the pre–1971 recordings of the Rolling Stones. The label originally issued some early LPs and singles by Texas-based band ZZ Top. In the late 1970s, London signed deals with Bomp! Records and with Big Sound in Connecticut, U. S; this changed the label in the eyes of many from a backwater into something a little more "edgy" compared to the pedestrian contemporary releases from parent company Decca. The president of London Records in the 1970s was D. H. Tollerbond. After British Decca was acquired by PolyGram in 1979, London followed a more independent course with subsidiary labels such as Slash, Pete Tong's Essential Records and FFRR. Universal Music Group acquired PolyGram in 1998. In the 90's Tracy Bennet became President and Colin Bell, Managing Director; when Ames moved to the Warner Music Group, he took the label with him, so all of London's recent back catalogue was acquired by Warner, which acquired the London name and trademark from Decca.
The name is still used for UK-based artists, for ex-Factory Records artists. Notable artists released by that incarnation of London, called London Records 90, include New Order, Happy Mondays, A, Shakespears Sister. After PolyGram took over British Decca, classical-music albums recorded by British Decca continued to be released on the London label in the U. S. with a logo similar to the Decca classical label logo, until American Decca owner Universal bought British Decca owner PolyGram in 1998, after which they were all reissued on the original British Decca label in the U. S; the London pop music catalogue owned by Universal Music is now managed by Polydor Records, with US distribution handled by Mercury Records. Decca Records had a recording studio in West London. In 2010, Universal Music reclaimed ownership of the London Records trademark. On 1 July 2011 Universal Music reclaimed the London Records name and relaunched it under the executive team of Nick Raphael and Jo Charrington who together ran Epic Records for Sony Music Entertainment since 2001.
Both had started their careers at London Records in the Ames era in the 1990s. When Nick Raphael became president of Capitol Records's UK division in 2013, London Records moved there, where it operates as a subsidiary. In July 2017, Because Music announced that it would acquire Warner Music 90, the division of WMG that reissued most London Records artists from the PolyGram era; because completed the deal in August 2017, which includes the rights to over fifty London artists. Warner Music 90 will be rebranded as London Music Stream; because would acquire ten French performers including J. J. Cale's post-Mercury/Shelter catalog with the exception of The Road to Escondido, Mano Negra and The Beta Band from Warners in separate deals. With Because Music being distributed by Caroline Distribution in 2019, this returns London Music Stream to Universal, albeit as an independent label. London Records distributed labels throughout its existence. Among the more familiar labels are: Other subsidiaries include: Astra, All Boy, Ashley, Boot, Best, Brite Leaf, Cannon, Cedwicke, CGD, Chicory, Circle, Collier, Country Capers, Deaux, Domain, Edit, Folk Sing, G.
S. P. George, Great, Gulf, Hi Country, Imco, Jay Boy, Johen, K&G, KAB, Kingfish, LeJoint, London International, Louis, M. O. C. Mach, Magna Glide, Medway, Nefi, PAC, Pawn, Pen, P-K-M, Renegade, Ritz, Running Bear, Sahara, SCA, Shar-Dee, Siana, Splash, Sultan, Tarheel, Terrace, Tilt, Unison, Watch and XYZ Marion Menswear Gay Dad Onslaught Back to the Planet Banderas Chumbawamba East 17 The Yes/No People Voice of the Beehiv
Arthur Morton Godfrey was an American radio and television broadcaster and entertainer, sometimes introduced by his nickname, The Old Redhead. An infamous on-air incident undermined his folksy image and resulted in a marked decline in his popularity. At the peak of his success in the mid-1950s, Godfrey helmed two CBS-TV weekly series and a daily 90-minute television mid-morning show, but, by the early 1960s, his presence had been reduced to hosting the occasional TV special and his daily network radio show, which ended in 1972. One of the medium's early master commercial pitchmen, he was identified with many of his sponsors Chesterfield cigarettes and Lipton Tea. Having advertised Chesterfield for many years, during which time he devised the slogan "Buy'em by the carton", Godfrey terminated his relationship with the company after he quit smoking, five years before he was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1959. Subsequently, he became a prominent spokesman for anti-smoking education. Godfrey was born in Manhattan in 1903.
His mother, Kathryn Morton Godfrey, was from a well-to-do Oswego, New York, family which disapproved of her marriage to an older Englishman, Arthur's father Arthur Hanbury Godfrey. The senior Godfrey was a sportswriter and considered an expert on surrey and hackney horses, but the advent of the automobile devastated the family's finances. By 1915, when Arthur was 12, the family had moved to Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey. Arthur, the eldest of five children, tried to help them survive by working before and after school, but at age 14 left home to ease the financial burden on the family. By 15 he was a civilian typist at Camp Merritt, New Jersey, enlisted in the Navy two years later. Godfrey's father was something of a "free thinker" by the standards of the era, he did not disdain organized religion but insisted that his children explore all faiths before deciding for themselves which to embrace. Their childhood friends included Catholic and every kind of Protestant playmates; the senior Godfrey was friends with the Vanderbilts, but was as to spend his time talking with the shoeshine man or the hotdog vendor about issues of the day.
In the book, Genius in the Family, written about their mother by Godfrey's youngest sister, Dorothy Gene, with the help of their sister, Kathy, it was reported that the angriest they saw their father was when a man on the ferry declared the Ku Klux Klan a civic organization vital to the good of the community. They rode the ferry back and forth three times, with their father arguing with the man that the Klan was a bunch of "Blasted, bigoted fools, led'round by the nose!" Godfrey's mother, was a gifted artist and composer whose aspirations to fame were laid aside to take care of her family after her husband, Arthur or "Darl'", died. Her creativity enabled the family to get through some hard times by playing the piano to accompany silent movies, making jams and jellies and crocheting bedspreads to sell, cutting off and selling her floor length hair, as it was difficult for a woman of her "class" to find work without violating social mores of the time; the one household item, never sold or turned into firewood was the piano, she believed at least some of her children would succeed in show business.
In her years some of her compositions were performed by symphony orchestras in Canada, which earned her a mention in Time. In 1957, at the age of 78, her sauciness made her a big hit with the audience when she appeared on Groucho Marx's quiz show You Bet Your Life, she died of cancer in 1968 at a nursing home in a suburb north of Chicago. Godfrey served in the United States Navy from 1920 to 1924 as a radio operator on naval destroyers, but returned home to care for the family after his father's death. Additional radio training came during Godfrey's service in the Coast Guard from 1927 to 1930, he passed a stringent qualifying examination and was admitted to the prestigious Radio Materiel School at the Naval Research Laboratory, graduating in 1929. It was during a Coast Guard stint in Baltimore that on October 5 of that year he appeared on a local talent show and became popular enough to land his own brief weekly program. On leaving the Coast Guard, Godfrey became a radio announcer for the Baltimore station WFBR and moved to Washington, D.
C. to become a staff announcer for NBC-owned station WRC the same year and remained there until 1934. Recovering from a near-fatal automobile accident en route to a flying lesson in 1931, he decided to listen to the radio and realized that the stiff, formal style used by announcers could not connect with the average radio listener; the announcers spoke in stentorian tones, as if giving a formal speech to a crowd and not communicating on a personal level. Godfrey vowed that when he returned to the airwaves, he would affect a relaxed, informal style as if he were talking to just one person, he used that style to do his own commercials and became a regional star. Over time, he added wisecracks to his commercials and would kid the sponsors, a risky move that offended advertising agency executives whose staff worked on the commercial scripts. Nonetheless, Godfrey's antics gained acceptance when his sponsors discovered their sales increased after Godfrey's added jokes. At times, he would read an ad agency script on television as he mockingly rolled his eyes, used a sarcastic tone of voice or added his own wisecracks.
Since the sponsors approved, given their added sales, the agencies were powerless to stop him. In addition to announcing, Godfrey sang and played the ukulele. In 1934 he became a freelance enter
A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata, accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style. In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot. Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal, up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez. The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. 16th century a cappella polyphony, continued to influence church composers throughout this period and to the present day. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina, such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor. Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in 1610, Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style.
Learning from the preceding two composeres, Heinrich Schütz utilized the a cappella style in numerous pieces, chief among these were the pieces in the oratorio style, which were traditionally performed during the Easter week and dealt with the religious subject matter of that week, such as Christ's suffering and the Passion. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant. In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir... In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found."
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms 150, which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. In keeping with this philosophy, early Russian musika which started appearing in the late 17th century, in what was known as khorovïye kontsertï made a cappella adaptations of Venetian-styled pieces, such as the treatise, Grammatika musikiyskaya, by Nikolai Diletsky. Divine Liturgies and Western Rite masses composed by famous composers such as Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alexander Arkhangelsky, Mykola Leontovych are fine examples of this. Present-day Christian religious bodies known for conducting their worship services without musical accompaniment include some Presbyterian churches devoted to the regulative principle of worship, Old Regular Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Churches of Christ, Church of God, the Old German Baptist Brethren, Doukhobors the Byzantine Rite and the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Mennonites.
Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times. Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp, a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew 26:30. There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament, or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries. Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
They believe that if God