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The Coronation of Napoleon

The Coronation of Napoleon is a painting completed in 1807 by Jacques-Louis David, the official painter of Napoleon, depicting the coronation of Napoleon I at Notre-Dame de Paris. The painting has imposing dimensions, as it is 10 metres wide by a little over 6 metres tall; the work is held in the Louvre in Paris. The work was commissioned by Napoleon orally in September 1804, Jacques-Louis David started work on it on 21 December 1805 in the former chapel of the College of Cluny, near the Sorbonne, which served as a workshop. Assisted by his student Georges Rouget, he put the finishing touches in January 1808. From 7 February to 21 March 1808, the work was exhibited at the Salon annual painting display in 1808, it was presented to the Salon decennial prize competition in 1810; the painting remained the property of David until 1819, when it was transferred to the Royal Museums, where it was stored in the reserves until 1837. It was installed in the Chamber Sacre of the museum of the historical Palace of Versailles on the orders of King Louis-Philippe.

In 1889, the painting was transferred to the Louvre from Versailles. David was commissioned by American entrepreneurs to paint a full size replica, in 1808 after the release of the original, he began work that year, painting it from memory, but didn't finish until 1822, during his exile in Brussels. The replica was returned to France in 1947, to the original's place in the Palace of Versailles; the painting is a subject of The Public Viewing David's'Coronation' at the Louvre', a painting by Louis-Léopold Boilly done in 1810 housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The composition is organised around several axes, incorporates the rules of neoclassicism. One axis is that which has a vertical orientation. A diagonal line runs from the pope to the empress. All eyes are turned towards Napoleon, the center of the composition. Napoleon I, is standing, dressed in coronation robes similar to those of Roman emperors. Others are passive spectators. In the actual painting it is possible to see the outline of what was painted: Napoleon holding the crown above his own head, as if placing on himself.

Joséphine de Beauharnais, is kneeling in a submissive position, as called for in the French Civil Code. She received the crown from the hands of her husband, not the pope, her robe is decorated with silk according to a contemporary cartoon by Jean-Francois Bony. Maria Letizia Ramolino, mother of Napoleon, was placed in the stands by the painter, she occupies a place more important than the pope. She did not attend the ceremony to protest the friction of Napoleon with his brothers Lucien and Joseph. Napoleon's father, Charles Bonaparte, died in 1785. Maria Letizia asked the painter to give it a place of honour. In 1808, when Napoleon discovered the canvas completed in the workshop of David, he was enthralled, expressed his gratitude to the painter who had managed to convey to posterity the tribute paid to the affection he was carrying to a woman who shared with him the burden of his office. Louis Bonaparte, who at the beginning of the empire received the title of grand constable, King of Holland, in 1806.

He married the daughter of Josephine. Joseph Bonaparte, not invited and did not attend because of an argument with Napoleon; this is. After the coronation, he received the title of imperial prince, he was king of Naples in 1806 and Spain in 1808. The young Napoleon Charles Bonaparte, son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais; the sisters of Napoleon. In the replica, the dress of Napoleon's favorite sister will be pink; this is the only change in the replica despite being painted from memory. Charles-Francois Lebrun, the third consul alongside Napoleon and Cambacérès. Under the First Empire, he took the place of prince-architrésorier, he holds the sceptre. Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, arch-chancellor prince of the empire, he takes the hand of justice. Louis-Alexandre Berthier, minister of war under the Consulate. Marshal Empire in 1805, he keeps the globe surmounted by a cross. Talleyrand, grand chamberlain since July 11, 1804. Joachim Murat, marshal of empire, king of Naples after 1808, brother-in-law of Napoleon and husband of Caroline Bonaparte.

Pope Pius VII, was content to bless the coronation. He is surrounded by dignitaries clerics, appointed by Napoleon since the Concordat. In order not to jeopardize the new balance between Church and State, the pope accepted to attend the coronation; the original sketches showed the subjects - including the Pope - minus their clothing, added in the actual painting. The pope was pictured with hands crossed on his lap, but Napoleon claiming that the Pope was not present to do nothing, instructed that the painting depict him anointing the proceedings; the painter Jacques-Louis David is depicted in the stands as well. Halet Efendi, an Ottoman ambassador, was present, he is shown below in the detailed picture. Dom Raphaël de Monachis, Greek-Egyptian monk and member of the Institut d'Égypte is depicted among the clergy men, standing to the right of the Bishop, with a beard and a red hood; the lady robe bearer in front, right behind Josephine, on the right side from the picture-viewer's point, is Elisabeth-Hélène-Pierre de Montmorency-Laval, mother of politician Sosthènes II de La Rochefoucauld.

She was a court lady of Josephine. Malika Dorbani-Bouabdellah,

Fran├žois Louis, Count of Harcourt

François Louis de Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine. He was Count of Harcourt, he was the Count of Rieux and Montlaur. He was Marquis of Maubec as well as the Baron of Aubenas. François Marie was born to Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf and his wife Catherine Henriette de Bourbon, Légitimée de France, legitimised daughter of Henry IV of France and Gabrielle d'Estrées, he was the couple's third son. In his youth, he was styled as the Prince of Harcourt being styled as Count. A member of the House of Guise founded by Claude, Duke of Guise, he was a Prince of Lorraine as a male line descendant of René II, Duke of Lorraine. At court, he, like his Lorraine family, held the rank of Foreign Prince, a rank, below that of the immediate Royal Family and Princes of the Blood, his paternal first cousins included Count of Armagnac. He marquise de Maubec in her own right; the couple were married at the Palais-Royal, Paris in July 1645. Their eldest son, François, had been born before the marriage but he was recognised as legitimate in 1694.

The couple had six children in all. His eldest daughter Marie Angélique died in childbirth, his other daughter Marie Anne was the Abbess of Montmartre from 1685 till her death. He was succeeded as Count of Harcourt by Alphonse Henri. François Louis died in January aged 69 his wife outliving him by a year. François de Lorraine, Batard d'Harcourt never married. Georges Poull, La maison ducale de Lorraine, 1991

Hebron, Connecticut

Hebron is a town in Tolland County, United States. The population was 9,686 at the 2010 census. Hebron was incorporated May 26, 1708. In 2010, Hebron was rated #6 in Top Towns in Connecticut with population between 6,500 and 10,000, according to Connecticut Magazine; the villages of Hebron Center and Amston are located within Hebron. Amston has its own postal post office; the remnants of two long since abandoned communities and Gay City, are located in Hebron. The site of the latter is now Gay City State Park; the town of Hebron was settled in 1704, incorporated on 26 May 1708 within Hartford County from Non-County Area 1. The diamond shape of the town seal has its origins in the diamond figure brand, ∨ ⋀, required on all horses kept in Hebron by a May 1710 act of the Colonial Assembly. Hebron became a town in Windham County upon its formation on 12 May 1726, it became a town in Tolland County upon its formation from part of Windham County on 13 October 1785. On 13 October 1803 the town of Marlborough, Hartford County was created from parts of the towns of Colchester and Hebron.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.3 square miles, of which, 36.9 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,610 people, 2,993 households, 2,466 families residing in the town; the population density was 233.3 people per square mile. There were 3,110 housing units at an average density of 84.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.69% White, 0.58% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 2,993 households out of which 45.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.4% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.6% were non-families. 13.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the town, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 6.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $115,980. Males had a median income of $62,109 versus $52,237 for females; the per capita income for the town was $39,775. About 0.3% of families and 1.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.2% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. A major commercial attraction is the annual Hebron Harvest Fair, which features bingo, fried foods, prizes, arts & crafts, pig races, tractor pulls, prizes for the best pies and the biggest pumpkins; the event occurs every September. This event is not only for the people of Hebron, but for many tourists visiting the town. Hebron's most popular year-round recreation area is Gay City State Park, Connecticut's second-largest State Park.

There is a 5-mile perimeter trail and an extensive network of cross trails that run throughout the park. All are suitable for woodland trail biking. Gay City has a pond in which swimming is available in season, picnic areas, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. In addition, Hebron has several town parks and ballfields, the Town Recreation Department has organized sports and other activities throughout the year; the rails-to-trails Airline Trail State Park goes through Hebron, with several access points for walkers and horseback riders. The town hosts the regional middle and high school RHAM High School for two adjacent towns and Andover. Frank Aresti - - Guitarist, Fates Warning. Mark Allen Baker - - Author, biographer & historian Tom MacArthur - - Congressman Samuel Morey - - Inventor William A. Palmer - - US Senator and Governor of Vermont. John Samuel Peters, - 26th Governor of Connecticut. Christopher Larkin Town of Hebron Connecticut Portal style website, Business, Library and more Hebron Historical Society Douglas Library

Synton Fenix

Synton was a manufacturer and distributor of high-end electronic music equipment in the Netherlands. They were one of the principal importers of music equipment from E-Mu, Fairlight in Europe. Felix Visser, the founder of Synton began the company in 1973 after purchasing an EMS Synthi AKS and setting out to produce similar equipment with more of the functionality that he was looking for in an analog synth; the company developed Synton Syntovox vocoders as well as the System 2000 and System 3000 modular synthesizers that were sold to Karlheinz Stockhausen and distributed in the United States by Bob Moog's Big Briar Inc. In 1983, Felix Visser, product specialist Marc Paping, designer Bert Vermeulen created the Synton Syrinx, a monophonic analog synthesizer that contained unique features such as a metal touchplate for manipulating sound as well as a formant filter. In 1989, the company went bankrupt; because none of the commercial analog synthesizers on the market had the same features as the synthesizer he wanted, Marc Paping and Bert Vermeulen reunited in 1997 to create the Synton Fénix, an analogue modular synthesizer featuring 31 differing modules.

The Synton Fénix featured an esoteric range of features and was the culmination of the designs that Paping and Vermeulen had liked in the vintage analog synthesizers that they had owned and developed in the past. After creating an initial 25 handbuilt units and distributing these to close friends and fans of the Synton company, the team decided to handbuild another 50 units due to high demand from word of mouth. In total, only 75 units were created and the team stopped production of the Fenix in 2000. Musicians have cited the Synton Fénix as their favourite piece of musical equipment due to the combination of unique modules and distinctive sounds the synthesizer was able to create. Following on from this success, Bert developed a second, updated modular synthesiser, the Fénix II and a separate but accompanying sequencer, the Fénix III. According to the "Q&A" section of the Fénix website:"The prototype of the has 103 potmeters, 9 switches and 230 banana sockets compared to the fenix 1 which have 63 potmeters, 3 switches and 158 banana sockets.

The prototype of the has 3 times the number of ic's compared to the Fenix 1". A limited production run commenced in 2010. Again, 75 synthesisers were made, with just 25 of the Fénix III sequencers being manufactured. All of the units were sold to people who had joined an earlier email "waiting list" which opened during 2009. David Morley Aphex Twin Téléplasmiste Martin Gore Sound on Sound article by Gordon Reid Keyboard Magazine's article on the Synton Syrinx at the Wayback Machine The Synton & Fénix Homepage Website about Marc Paping

K. Radhakrishna Menon

K. RadhaKrishna Menon known as Radhettan or Baba, is viewed as an ideal Gandhian who, through his life, showed the world how the teachings of the Mahatma could be implemented in a modern world. Local people saw Gandhiji in Menon, learned about Gandhiji through Menon, named him after Gandhiji. Radhakrishna Menon was born on 18 January 1924, to Karumathil Pokkavil Kurungottu Lakshmikutty Amma and Vappala Kunhunni Menon, a circle inspector under the British rule. Sardar Vallabhai Patel's close aide V. P. Menon was his uncle. Radhakrishna Menon did his M. A. in economics from Madras Christian College, where he had friends like P. P. Ummer Koya and K. N. Raj. After his degree, he edited a paper called Sathi. From Kolkata, he reached Mahatma Gandhi's Sewagram Ashram in Wardha, where he learned the crux Gandhian education ‘Nayee Taalim’. Nayee Taalim is a "Life centered education" system conceived by Gandhi who sincerely believed that freedom without wisdom would lead to anarchy. Gandhi wanted India to be well prepared to handle the freedom and he had a vision to create a new education system to educate the students not for exams but for life and prepare them as responsible and wise citizens.

Radhakrishna Menon got inspired by this and realized that the real freedom of humanity could be achieved only through the Nayee Taalim basic education. It was here that he met his future wife Nirmala Manjarekar, the daughter of noted Gandhian Dadabhai Naik's younger sister. Radhakrishna Menon spent several days with Gandhiji at Wardha Ashram and had close association with Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Kripalani, Acharya Vinoba Bhave. After Indian independence in 1947, there were Gandhians who felt that their work was not yet completed. An "army" of constructive workers who believed in Gandhi's Philosophy went to the villages to restructure the society. RadhaKrishna Menon was one such unsung hero who devoted his energy and effort for promoting human welfare and restructuring the society. Radhakrishna Menon came back to Ramanattukara, a small village in the Kozhikode district of northern Kerala in South India and founded the first basic school of Kerala, "Sevamandiram"; the initial capital for the establishment of the school, Rs.5000 was donated by Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India.

Radhakrishna Menon was given the responsibility of being the guardian of a village named'Navodaya Danagram'. Navodaya Danagram was given as'bhoodan' under the'bhoodan movement' by; this was a complete new concept introduced by Mahatma Gandhi and Vinoba Bhave and supported nationwide by Gandhian Sarvodaya activists including Jayaprakash Narayan, where the rich and landlords donated lands for the landless people. This was ideologically different from Communism where though the ends were similar, the means were different. Unlike communism where the driving force was a dictate from the state, the driving force in the Bhoodaan movement was a change in mindset from "Ownership" to love, compassion for and urge to help the landless fellow human being. Radhakrishna Menon and his wife Nirmala Manjarekar motivated many landlords to donate a small piece of their lands and created a whole village from this donated land for landless poor people; this village was named Navodaya Danagram The educated couple settled there to practice what they preached- a wholesome village development.

Apart from building this new village, the couple carried out a lot of community works in the society around them. Some of the institutions founded by RadhaKrishna Menon and his wife Nirmala Manjarekar includes Navodaya Danagram Bala Vikas Mandal, Seva Mandir Post Basic School and Seva Mandir Teacher Training Institute When people described his friend Kelappan as Kerala Gandhi, RadhaKrishna Menon was called Ramanattukara Gandhi. Radhakrishna Menon died of age related complications on 4 October 2007 in a private nursing home in Kozhikode. Gandhi Today, Mark Shepard, ISBN 0-938497-04-9,


The Argippaeans or Argippaei are a people mentioned by Herodotus in his The Histories. They were cited to be living north of the Scythians and much of the scholarship points to them being a tribe near the Ural Mountains. There are scholars who believe that Herodotus could be talking about the Mongolians based on their physical description as well as their culture. Herodotus only relied on secondary sources for his account, drawing from descriptions of Greeks and Scythians such as the detail about the Argippaeans as bald people, they were said to have settled in a land, flat and deep-soiled. This was believed to be in the outliers of the Altai mountains while the T'ien Shan lies on the other side. Just before the an impenetrable barrier of mountains called eremos; as far as their country, the tract of land whereof I have been speaking is all a smooth plain, the soil deep. Passing over a great extent of this rough country, you come to a people dwelling at the foot of lofty mountains, who are said to be all—both men and women—bald from their birth, to have flat noses, long chins.

These people speak a language of their own. The dress which they wear is the same as the Scythian, they live on the fruit of a certain tree, the name of, Ponticum. When the fruit is ripe, they strain it through cloths, they lap this up with their tongues, mix it with milk for a drink. Each of them dwells under a tree, they cover the tree in winter with a cloth of thick white felt, but take off the covering in the summer-time. No one harms these people, for they are looked upon as sacred—they do not possess any warlike weapons; when their neighbours fall out, they make up the quarrel. They are called the Argippaeans.” Wheeler, James Talboys. The geography of Herodotus. Longman, Brown and Longmans