A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Vernon Alphonsus Reid is a British-born American guitarist and songwriter. Reid was the founder and primary songwriter of the rock band Living Colour, Reid was named No. 66 on Rolling Stone magazine's 2004 list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. Critic Steve Huey writes, " rampant eclecticism encompasses everything from heavy metal and punk to funk, R&B and avant-garde jazz, his anarchic, lightning-fast solos have become something of a hallmark as well." Reid was born in London, England, to Caribbean parents. He attended Brooklyn Technical High School New York University, he first came to prominence in the 1980s in the band of drummer Ronald Shannon Jackson. 1984's Smash & Scatteration was a duo record with guitarist Bill Frisell. In 1985, Reid co-founded the Black Rock Coalition with journalist Greg Tate and producer Konda Mason. Reid is best known for leading Living Colour. Early versions of the group formed in New York City in 1983, but the personnel solidified in 1985–86, Reid led the group for about another decade.
Their debut album Vivid was sold double Platinum. Its successor Time's Up was gold-certified, they received two consecutive Grammy Awards in the category of Best Hard Rock Performance. They opened for the Rolling Stones' 1989 "Steel Wheels". Living Colour broke up in 1995 but reformed in 2000. Since they have released three more albums: Collideøscope in October 2003 on Sanctuary Records, The Chair in the Doorway in September 2009, Shade in September 2017 on Megaforce Records. In addition to his work with Living Colour, Reid has been engaged in a number of other projects, he released Mistaken Identity, his first solo album, in 1996 and has collaborated with the choreographers Bill T. Jones on Still/Here and Donald Byrd on Jazztrain, he performed "Party'Til The End of Time" at the Brooklyn Academy of Music with The Roots, an end of the 2000 millennium tribute featuring the music of Prince's album 1999. He composed and performed "Bring Your Beats" a children's program for BAM. Reid has undertaken significant work as a record producer, including two Grammy-nominated albums: Papa by the African vocalist Salif Keita and Memphis Blood: The Sun Sessions by guitarist James Blood Ulmer.
Ulmer's subsequent albums, No Escape from the Blues: The Electric Lady Sessions and Bad Blood in the City: The Piety Street Sessions, were produced by Reid. Reid appears on Guitar Oblique with guitarists David Torn and Elliott Sharp. Reid was featured in the program presented by BAM and the Experience Music Project in Seattle entitled "Magic Science", which includes Medeski Martin & Wood and the Gil Evans Orchestra performing Gil Evans' arrangements of songs by Jimi Hendrix. Reid composed the score for the film Paid in Full, directed by Charles Stone III and released by Miramax in the fall of 2002. Reid composed the score for the celebrated documentary Ghosts of Attica, which aired on Court TV in the fall of 2001 and has been featured at several film festivals, he composed the score for another documentary directed by Lichtenstein, Almost Home, which aired in 2006 on the PBS series Independent Lens. Reid and DJ Logic, calling themselves "Yohimbe Brothers", released an album in September 2002 entitled Front End Lifter.
The Yohimbe Brothers have been touring off since the release of the album. Reid was the music supervisor for the film Mr. 3000, starring Bernie Mac and directed by Charles Stone III. Vernon's album with Masque, an instrumental album entitled Known Unknown, was released in April 2004, on 18 April 2006 Vernon Reid and Masque released Other True Self, both on Favored Nations records, owned by another guitarist, Steve Vai. Reid has a prolific session output in a variety of contexts, he has played live or on record with The Roots, Eye & I, Mick Jagger, Ambitious Lovers, Rollins Band, Public Enemy, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey, Tracy Chapman, Ronald Shannon Jackson, Don Byron, Santana, Bernie Worrell, MC 900 Ft. Jesus, B. B. King, Madeleine Peyroux, Jack Bruce, Terry Bozzio, Black Sugar Transmission and DJ Spooky. Reid played at America's Millennium Gala, New Year's Eve 31 December 1999, 1 January 2000, at the Lincoln Memorial, performing "Fortunate Son" with John Fogerty. Among those in the audience were President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton.
In March 2007, Reid played with Jamaaladeen Tacuma, G. Calvin Weston at Tonic in New York and Tritone in Philadelphia, which led them to record as Free Form Funky Freqs with the recording entitled Urban Mythology Volume 1. European Tour in November. In July 2008 Vernon Reid assembled a one-off solo band for his appearance at the G-TARanaki Guitar Festival in Taranaki, New Zealand, with keyboard player Jonathan Crayford, bassist Crete Haami and drummer Magesh Magesh. At the Puke Ariki "Midnight Session" concert, Vernon performed an all-star jam with Uli Jon Roth, Gilby Clarke and Alex Skolnick. In 2008 Reid played a series of Blue Note Club tribute concerts to the Tony Williams Lifetime in Japan with Jack Bruce, Cindy Blackman and John Medeski. In June 2012 the collaboration released a self-titled album Spectrum Road on the US jazz record label Palmetto; this was accompanied by a series of dates at large jazz festivals in North Amer
Rage Against the Machine
Rage Against the Machine is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1991, the group consists of vocalist Zack de la Rocha and backing vocalist Tim Commerford, guitarist Tom Morello, drummer Brad Wilk, their songs express revolutionary political views. As of 2010, they had sold over 16 million records worldwide. Rage Against the Machine released its eponymous debut album in 1992 to commercial and critical success, leading to a slot in the 1993 Lollapalooza festival. In 2003, the album was ranked number 368 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, their second album, Evil Empire, was released in 1996. Their third, The Battle of Los Angeles, followed in 1999, in 2003, it was ranked number 426 on the same list. During their initial nine-year run, they became one of the most popular and influential bands in music history, they were ranked No. 33 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The band had a large influence on the nu metal genre which came to prominence during the second half of the 1990s.
In 2000, Rage Against the Machine released the cover album Renegades and disbanded after growing creative differences led to de la Rocha's departure. De la Rocha started a low-key solo career, while the rest of the band formed the rock supergroup Audioslave with Chris Cornell, the former frontman of Soundgarden; the same year, Rage Against the Machine announced a reunion and performed together for the first time in seven years at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2007. Until 2011, the band continued to perform at more live festivals around the world. In 2016, Morello and Wilk formed a new band, Prophets of Rage, with B-Real, Chuck D, DJ Lord. In 2017, Rage Against the Machine were nominated for induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility and again for the 2018 class. Both bids failed. In 1991, following the break-up of guitarist Tom Morello's former band Lock Up, former Lock Up drummer Jon Knox encouraged Tim Commerford and Zack de la Rocha to jam with Tom Morello as he was looking to start a new group.
Morello soon contacted Brad Wilk. This lineup named themselves Rage Against the Machine, after a song de la Rocha had written for his former underground hardcore punk band Inside Out. Kent McClard, with whom Inside Out were associated, had coined the phrase "rage against the machine" in a 1989 article in his zine No Answers. Shortly after forming, they gave their first public performance on October 23, 1991, at the Quad of California State University, Northridge; the blueprint for the group's major-label debut album, demo tape Rage Against the Machine, was laid on a twelve-song self-released cassette, the cover image of which featured newspaper clippings of the stockmarket section with a single match taped to the inlay card. Not all 12 songs made it onto the final album—two were included as B-sides, while three others never saw an official release. Several record labels expressed interest, the band signed with Epic Records. Morello said, "Epic agreed to everything we asked—and they've followed through...
We never saw a conflict as long as we maintained creative control." The band's debut album, Rage Against the Machine, reached triple platinum status, driven by heavy radio play of the song "Killing in the Name", a heavy, driving track featuring only eight lines of lyrics. The "Fuck you" version, which contains 17 iterations of the word fuck, was once accidentally played on the BBC Radio 1 Top 40 singles show on February 21, 1993; the album's cover featured Malcolm Browne's Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of Thích Quảng Đức, a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, burning himself to death in Saigon in 1963 in protest of the murder of Buddhists by the U. S.-backed Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm's regime. The album was produced by Garth Richardson. To promote the album, the band went on tour, playing at Lollapalooza 1993 and as support for Suicidal Tendencies in Europe. After their debut album, the band appeared on the soundtrack for the film Higher Learning with the song "Year of tha Boomerang". An early version of "Tire Me" appeared in the movie.
Subsequently, they re-recorded the song "Darkness" from their original demo for the soundtrack of The Crow, while "No Shelter" appeared on the Godzilla soundtrack. Despite rumors of a breakup for several years, Rage Against the Machine's second album, Evil Empire, entered Billboard's Top 200 chart at number one in 1996, subsequently rose to triple platinum status; the song "Bulls on Parade" was performed on Saturday Night Live in April 1996. Their planned two-song performance was cut to one song when the band attempted to hang inverted American flags from their amplifiers, a protest against having Republican presidential candidate Steve Forbes as guest host on the program that night. In 1997, the band opened for U2 on their PopMart Tour, for which all of Rage's profits went to support social organizations, including U. N. I. T. E. Women Alive and the Zapatista Front for National Liberation. Rage subsequently began an abortive headlining U. S. tour with special guests Wu-Tang Clan. Police in several jurisdictions unsuccessfully attempted to have the concerts cancelled, citing amongst other reasons, the bands' "violent and anti-law enforcement philosophies".
Wu-Tang Clan were removed from the lineup and replaced with The Roots, when Wu-Tang Clan pulled a no show during a concert at Riverport. On the Japan leg of their tour promoting Evil Empire, a compilation album composed of the band's B-side recordings titled Live & Rare was released by Sony Records. A li
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A bass drum is cylindrical with the drum's diameter much greater than the drum's depth. There is a struck head at both ends of the cylinder; the heads may be made of calf plastic. There is a means of adjusting the tension either by threaded taps or by strings. Bass drums are built in a variety of sizes, but size has little to do with the volume produced by the drum; the size chosen being based on convenience and aesthetics. Bass drums are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished; the type seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum. It is the largest drum of the orchestra; the kick drum. It is struck with a beater attached to a pedal seen on drum kits; the pitched bass drum used in marching bands and drum corps, is tuned to a specific pitch and is played in a set of three to six drums. In many forms of music, the bass drum is used to keep time.
The bass drum makes a low, boom sound. In marches it is used to project tempo. A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bars of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called back beats. In jazz, the bass drum can vary from entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. Bass drums have many synonyms and translations, such as gran cassa, grosse caisse, Grosse Trommel, bombo; the earliest known predecessor to the bass drum was the Turkish davul, a cylindrical drum that featured two thin heads. The heads were stretched over hoops and attached to a narrow shell. To play this instrument, a person would strike the right side of the davul with a large wooden stick, while the left side would be struck with a rod; when struck, the davul produced a sound much deeper than that of the other drums in existence. Because of this unique tone, davuls were used extensively in war and combat, where a deep and percussive sound was needed to ensure that the forces were marching in proper step with one another.
The military bands of the Ottoman Janissaries in the 18th century were one of the first groups to utilize davuls in their music. Davuls were ideal for use as military instruments because of the unique way in which they could be carried; the Ottoman janissaries, for example, hung their davuls at their breasts with thick straps. This made it easier for the soldiers to carry their instruments from battle to battle; this practice does not seem to be limited to just the Ottoman Empire, however. The davul, was used extensively in non-military music. For example, davuls were a major aspect of Turkish folk dances. In Ottoman society and shawm players would perform together in groups called davul-zurnas, or drum and shawm circles. Long drumsAt its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Caucuses down to northern Africa and parts of the middle east; this long reach meant that many aspects of Ottoman culture, including the davul and other janissary instruments, were introduced to other parts of the world.
In Africa, the indigenous population took the basic idea of the davul – that is, a two-headed cylindrical drum that produces a deep sound when struck – and both increased the size of the drum and changed the material from which it was made, leading to the development of the long drum. The long drum can be made a variety of different ways but is most constructed from a hollowed out tree trunk; this is vastly different from the davul, made from a thick shell. Long drums were 2 meters in length and 50 centimetres in diameter, much larger than the Turkish drums on which they were based; the indigenous population believed that the tree from which the long drum was made had to be in perfect shape. Once an appropriate tree was selected and the basic frame for the long drum was constructed, the Africans took cow hides and soaked them in boiling hot water, in order to stretch them out. Although the long drum was an improvement on the davul, both drums were played in a similar fashion. Two distinct sticks were used on the two distinct sides of the drum itself.
A notable difference between the two is that long drums, unlike davuls, were used for religious purposes. Gong drumsAs the use of the long drum began to spread across Europe, many composers and musicians started looking for deeper tones that could be used in compositions; as a result of this demand, a narrow-shelled, single-headed drum called the gong drum was introduced in Britain during the 19th century. This drum, 70-100 centimetres in diameter and deep-shelled, was similar to the long drum in both size and construction; when struck, the gong drum produced a deep sound with a rich resonance. However, the immense size of the drum, coupled with the fact that there was not a second head to help balance the sound, meant that gong drums tended to produce a sound with a definite pitch; as a result, they fell out of favour with many composers, as it became nearly impossible to incorporate them in an orchestra in any meaningful way. Orchestral bass drums and drum kitsB
Street Sweeper Social Club
Street Sweeper Social Club is an American rap rock supergroup, formed in Los Angeles, California in 2006. The band consists of guitarist Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine and vocalist and emcee Boots Riley of The Coup; the band had been testing songs out during Tom Morello's Nightwatchman tour and released an album on June 16, 2009. Stanton Moore drummed for the group for the recording of the album although he did not join the band for the following tour. Street Sweeper Social Club opened for Nine Inch Nails and Jane's Addiction in May 2009. Street Sweeper Social Club describes itself as "more than a band, it's a social club." Their 2010 EP The Ghetto Blaster EP includes covers of M. I. A. "Paper Planes" and LL Cool J's "Mama Said Knock You Out". Morello and Riley first met during Billy Bragg's Tell Us the Truth Tour in 2003 where Morello joined Riley on stage as his acoustic folk alter ego the Nightwatchman playing acoustic versions of The Coup's songs. After a Coup show in Los Angeles Morello approached Riley over a dinner with the idea of forming a band to play "anthems for the revolution".
Morello gave Riley a cassette with instrumental demo songs asking Riley to listen to it, write something and get back to him. On the 2008 Nightwatchman tour, Riley made frequent appearances on stage to play the song "100 Little Curses" with Morello, which became the first single released off their debut album. After playing the song, Morello confirmed that an album was in the works and would be out in early 2009. In the Spring of 2009, Street Sweeper Social Club announced a summer tour of the United States with Nine Inch Nails and the reunited Jane's Addiction. On March 21, a Nine Inch Nails tour sampler EP titled NINJA was released via digital download containing both Nine Inch Nails, Jane's Addiction and the songs "The Oath" and "Clap for the Killers" from the band which at that time still called themselves Street Sweeper. For the recording of the band's debut album the duo enlisted the help of drummer Stanton Moore while Morello handled both the guitar and bass playing throughout the recording.
It was announced on April 14, 2009 that the band was changing their name from Street Sweeper to Street Sweeper Social Club via Trent Reznor's official blog. In late April 2009, the band revealed details and the release date for the band's self-titled debut album. Warner Music Group released the album on June 16, 2009. In April 2009, former Satellite Party and Freedom Fighter Orchestra instrumentalist Carl Restivo revealed, via his MySpace page, that he has been asked to join the band. Eric Gardner and Dave Gibbs joined to play drums and bass completing the band's touring line-up. On June 11, 2009, Street Sweeper Social Club put their entire new album on their MySpace page, before the official release five days later. On June 17, 2009, appeared on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, playing their debut single "100 Little Curses". On October 14, 2009, Tom Morello and Boots Riley performed alongside Public Enemy at the VH1 Hip Hop Honors; the band released The Ghetto Blaster EP in August 2010, the EP features covers of "Paper Planes" by M.
I. A and "Mama Said Knock You Out" by LL Cool J. Besides Morello and RIley the album was recorded with touring members Carl Restivo, Dave Gibbs and Eric Gardner, they have performed at Coachella and performed at the 2010 Rock The Bells festival as well as the Voodoo Experience. On August 2, 2010, the band performed their cover of M. I. A's "Paper Planes" on Lopez Tonight to promote the EP; when asked what's next for Street Sweeper Social Club, Riley confirmed that there will be another full length Street Sweeper Social Club album. Street Sweeper Social Club's music video of their cover of MIA's Paper Planes was released on Oct. 5th, 2010 via YouTube. Official membersTom Morello – guitar, bass guitar Boots Riley – lead vocals Touring membersCarl Restivo – guitar Dave Gibbs – bass guitar Scott Guzman – drums, percussion Daniel Durque – flute, triangle, cowbell Official website Live tour pix and review Street Sweeper Social Club interview July 2009 Consequence of Sound: interview AV Club: article Blabbermouth: article "Revolutionary Party Music" – video report by Democracy Now
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are determined by competition in goods and services markets. Economists, political economists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice; these include welfare capitalism and state capitalism. Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition and state-sanctioned social policies; the degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism.
The extent to which different markets are free as well as the rules defining private property are matters of politics and policy. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which combine elements of free markets with state intervention and in some cases economic planning. Market economies have existed under many forms of government and in many different times and cultures. Modern capitalist societies—marked by a universalization of money-based social relations, a large and system-wide class of workers who must work for wages, a capitalist class which owns the means of production—developed in Western Europe in a process that led to the Industrial Revolution. Capitalist systems with varying degrees of direct government intervention have since become dominant in the Western world and continue to spread. Over time, capitalist countries have experienced consistent economic growth and an increase in the standard of living. Critics of capitalism argue that it establishes power in the hands of a minority capitalist class that exists through the exploitation of the majority working class and their labor.
Supporters argue that it provides better products and innovation through competition, disperses wealth to all productive people, promotes pluralism and decentralization of power, creates strong economic growth, yields productivity and prosperity that benefit society. The term "capitalist", meaning an owner of capital, appears earlier than the term "capitalism" and it dates back to the mid-17th century. "Capitalism" is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on caput, meaning "head"—also the origin of "chattel" and "cattle" in the sense of movable property. Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money or money carrying interest. By 1283, it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm and it was interchanged with a number of other words—wealth, funds, assets, property and so on; the Hollandische Mercurius uses "capitalists" in 1654 to refer to owners of capital. In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788, six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France.
In his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, David Ricardo referred to "the capitalist" many times. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used "capitalist" in his work Table Talk. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term "capitalist" in his first work, What is Property?, to refer to the owners of capital. Benjamin Disraeli used the term "capitalist" in his 1845 work Sybil; the initial usage of the term "capitalism" in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850 and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1861. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the "capitalistic system" and to the "capitalist mode of production" in Capital; the use of the word "capitalism" in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Capital, p. 124 and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p. 493. Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism, but instead those of capitalist and capitalist mode of production, which appear more than 2,600 times in the trilogy The Capital. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term "capitalism" first appeared in English in 1854 in the novel The Newcomes by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, where he meant "having ownership of capital".
According to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German American socialist and abolitionist, used the phrase "private capitalism" in 1863. Capitalism in its modern form can be traced to the emergence of agrarian capitalism and mercantilism in the early Renaissance, in city states like Florence. Capital has existed incipiently on a small scale for centuries in the form of merchant and lending activities and as small-scale industry with some wage labour. Simple commodity exchange and simple commodity production, which are the initial basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a long history. Classical Islam promulgated capitalist economic policies such as free banking, their use of Indo-Arabic