Atlantic Recording Corporation is an American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding, its position was improved by its distribution deal with Stax. In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, expanded into rock and pop music with releases by Led Zeppelin and Yes. In 2004, Atlantic and its sister label. Craig Kallman is the chairman of Atlantic. Ahmet Ertegün served as founding chairman until his death on December 14, 2006, at age 83. In 1944, brothers Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun remained in the United States when their mother and sister returned to Turkey after the death of their father Munir Ertegun, Turkey's first ambassador to the U. S; the brothers were fans of jazz and rhythm & blues, amassing a collection of over 15,000 78 RPM records.
Ahmet ostensibly stayed in Washington to undertake post-graduate music studies at Georgetown University but immersed himself in the Washington music scene and entered the record business, enjoying a resurgence after wartime restrictions on the shellac used in manufacture. He convinced the family dentist, Dr. Vahdi Sabit, to invest $10,000 and hired Herb Abramson, a dentistry student. Abramson had worked as a part-time A&R manager/producer for the jazz label National Records, signing Big Joe Turner and Billy Eckstine, he had no interest in its most successful musicians. In September 1947, he sold his share in Jubilee to his partner, Jerry Blaine, invested $2,500 in Atlantic. Atlantic was run by Abramson and Ertegun. Abramson's wife Miriam ran the label's publishing company, Progressive Music, did most office duties until 1949 when Atlantic hired its first employee, bookkeeper Francine Wakschal, who remained with the label for the next 49 years. Miriam gained a reputation for toughness. Staff engineer Tom Dowd recalled, "Tokyo Rose was the kindest name some people had for her" and Doc Pomus described her as "an extraordinarily vitriolic woman".
When interviewed in 2009, she attributed her reputation to the company's chronic cash-flow shortage: "... most of the problems we had with artists were that they wanted advances, and, difficult for us... we were undercapitalized for a long time." The label's office in the Ritz Hotel in Manhattan proved too expensive, so they moved to a room in the Hotel Jefferson. In the early fifties, Atlantic moved from the Hotel Jefferson to offices at 301 West 54th St and to 356 West 56th St. Atlantic's first recordings were issued in late January 1948 and included "That Old Black Magic" by Tiny Grimes and "The Spider" by Joe Morris. In its early years, Atlantic concentrated on modern jazz although it released some country and western and spoken word recordings. Abramson produced "Magic Records", children's records with four grooves on each side, each groove containing a different story, so the story played would be determined by the groove in which the stylus happened to land. In late 1947, James Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians, announced an indefinite ban on all recording activities by union musicians, this came into effect on January 1, 1948.
The union action forced Atlantic to use all its capital to cut and stockpile enough recordings to last through the ban, expected to continue for at least a year. Ertegun and Abramson spent much of the late 1940s and early 1950s scouring nightclubs in search of talent. Ertegun composed songs under the alias "A. Nugetre", including Big Joe Turner's hit "Chains of Love", recording them in booths in Times Square giving them to an arranger or session musician. Early releases included music by Sidney Bechet, Barney Bigard, The Cardinals, The Clovers, Frank Culley, The Delta Rhythm Boys, Erroll Garner, Dizzy Gillespie, Tiny Grimes, Al Hibbler, Earl Hines, Johnny Hodges, Jackie & Roy, Lead Belly, Meade Lux Lewis, Professor Longhair, Shelly Manne, Howard McGhee, Mabel Mercer, James Moody, Joe Morris, Art Pepper, Django Reinhardt, Pete Rugolo, Pee Wee Russell, Bobby Short, Sylvia Syms, Billy Taylor, Sonny Terry, Big Joe Turner, Jimmy Yancey, Sarah Vaughan, Mal Waldron, Mary Lou Williams. In early 1949, a New Orleans distributor phoned Ertegun to obtain Stick McGhee's "Drinking Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee", unavailable due to the closing of McGhee's previous label.
Ertegun knew Stick's younger brother Brownie McGhee, with whom Stick happened to be staying, so he contacted the McGhee brothers and re-recorded the song. When released in February 1949, it became Atlantic's first hit, selling 400,000 copies, reached No. 2 after spending six months on the Billboard R&B chart – although McGhee himself earned just $10 for the session. Atlantic's fortunes rose rapidly: recorded 187 songs were recorded in 1949, more than three times the amount from the previous two years, received overtures for a manufacturing and distribution deal with Columbia, which would pay Atlantic a 3% royalty on every copy sold. Ertegun asked about artists' royalties, which he paid, this surprised Columbia executives, who did not, the deal was scuttled. On the recommendation of broadcaster Willis Conover and Abramson visited Ruth Brown at the Crystal Caverns club in Washington and invited her to audition for Atlantic, she was injured in a car accident en route to New York City, but Atlantic supported her for nine months and signed her.
The Mellotron is an electro-mechanical, polyphonic tape replay keyboard developed and built in Birmingham, England, in 1963. It could be mass-produced more effectively; the instrument is played by pressing its keys, each of which presses a length of magnetic tape against a capstan, drawing it across a playback head. As the key is released, the tape is retracted by a spring to its initial position. Different portions of the tape can be played to access different sounds; the first models were designed to be used in the home, contained a variety of sounds, including automatic accompaniments. Bandleader Eric Robinson and television personality David Nixon were involved in initial promotion of the instruments. A number of other celebrities such as Princess Margaret were early adopters; the instrument began to be used by pop groups in the mid to late 1960s. The Moody Blues' keyboardist Mike Pinder was an early adopter, used it extensively on the band's 1967 album Days of Future Passed; the Beatles used the instrument on several tracks, including the hit single "Strawberry Fields Forever".
The Mellotron was subsequently used by groups like King Crimson and Genesis, thus became a common instrument in progressive rock. Models such as the M400, the best selling model, dispensed with the accompaniments and some sound selection controls in order to be used by touring musicians; the instrument's popularity declined in the 1980s after the introduction of polyphonic synthesizers and samplers, despite a number of high-profile users like Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and XTC. Production of the Mellotron ceased in 1986, but it regained popularity in the 1990s and was used by several notable bands; this led to the resurrection of Streetly Electronics. In 2007, Streetly produced the M4000, which combined the layout of the M400 with the bank selection of earlier models; the Mellotron generates its sound via audio tape. When a key is pressed, a tape connected to it is pushed against a playback head, like a tape recorder. While the key remains depressed, the tape is drawn over the head, a sound is played.
When the key is released, a spring pulls the tape back to its original position. A variety of sounds are available on the instrument. On earlier models, the instrument is split into "rhythm" sections. There is a choice of six "stations" of rhythm sounds, each containing three rhythm tracks and three fill tracks; the fill tracks can be mixed together. There is a choice of six lead stations, each containing three lead instruments which can be mixed. In the centre of the Mellotron, there is a tuning button that allows a variation in both pitch and tempo. Models do not have the concept of stations and have a single knob to select a sound, along with the tuning control. However, the frame containing the tapes is designed to be removed, replaced with one with different sounds. Although the Mellotron was designed to reproduce the sound of the original instrument, replaying a tape creates minor fluctuations in pitch and amplitude, so a note sounds different each time it is played. Pressing a key harder allows the head to come into contact under greater pressure, to the extent that the Mellotron responds to aftertouch.
Another factor in the Mellotron's sound is. For a musician accustomed to playing in an orchestral setting, this was unusual, meant that they had nothing against which to intonate. Noted cellist Reginald Kirby refused to downtune his cello to cover the lower range of the Mellotron, so the bottom notes are performed on a double bass. According to Mellotron author Nick Awde, one note of the string sounds contains the sound of a chair being scraped in the background; the original Mellotrons were intended to be used in the home or in clubs and were not designed for touring bands. The M400, designed to be as portable as possible, weighed over 122 pounds. Smoke, variations in temperature, humidity were detrimental to the instrument's reliability. Moving the instrument between cold storage rooms and brightly lit stages could cause the tapes to stretch and stick on the capstan. Leslie Bradley recalls receiving some Mellotrons in for a repair "looking like a blacksmith had shaped horseshoes on top". Pressing too many keys at once caused the motor to drag, resulting in the notes sounding flat.
Robert Fripp stated that "uning a Mellotron doesn't". Dave Kean, an expert Mellotron repairer, recommends that older Mellotrons should not be used after a period of inactivity, as the tape heads can become magnetised in storage and destroy the recordings on them if played. Although tape samplers had been explored in research studios, the first commercially available keyboard-driven tape instruments were built and sold by California-based Harry Chamberlin; the concept of the Mellotron originated when Chamberlin's sales agent, Bill Fransen, brought two of Chamberlin's Musicmaster 600 instruments to England in 1962 to search for someone who could manufacture 70 matching tape heads for future Chamberlins. He met Frank and Les Bradley of tape engineering company Bradmatic Ltd, who said they could improve on the original design; the Bradleys subsequently met bandleader Eric Robinson, who agreed to help finance the recording of the necessary instruments and sounds. Together with the Bradleys and television celebrity David Nixon, they formed a company, Mellotronics, in order to market the instrument.
Robinson was enthusiastic about the Mellotron, because he felt it would revitalise his career, on the wane. He arranged the recording sess
21st Century Schizoid Man
"21st Century Schizoid Man" is a song by the progressive rock band King Crimson from their debut album In the Court of the Crimson King. The lyrics of "21st Century Schizoid Man" were written by Peter Sinfield and consist chiefly of disconnected phrases which present a series of images. All three verses follow a set pattern in presenting these images; the first line of each verse presents two vague images. The second line is a single image more specific than the first two, the third line approaches an actual sentence; the fourth and last line of each verse is the song's title. The song makes reference to the Vietnam War with the lyrics "Politicians' funeral pyre/Innocence raped with napalm fire". Before a live performance of the song on 14 December 1969, heard on the live album Epitaph, Robert Fripp remarked that the song was dedicated to "an American political personality whom we all know and love dearly, his name is Spiro Agnew." Clocking at nearly seven and a half minutes, the song is notable for its distorted vocals sung by Greg Lake, its instrumental middle section, called "Mirrors".
Most of the song is in either 4/4 or 6/8 time, save for the end of the song, in free time. Fripp explained his guitar solo to Guitar Player magazine in 1974: "It's all picked down-up; the basis of the picking technique is to strike down on the on-beat and up on the off-beat. One must learn to reverse that. I'll use a downstroke on the down-beat except where I wish to accent a phrase in a particular way or create a certain kind of tension by confusing accents, in which case I might begin a run on the upstroke." British Prime Minister Tony Blair praised the song and the guitar solo. The song encompasses the heavy metal, jazz-rock and progressive rock genres, is considered to be an influence on development of progressive metal; the atonal solo was rated number 82 in Guitar World's list of the Top 100 Greatest Guitar Solos in 2008. Louder Sound ranked the solo at no. 56 in its "100 greatest guitar solos in rock" poll. King Crimson continued to perform it in their live act after Greg Lake left King Crimson in 1970 to form Emerson, Lake & Palmer.
It appeared on five live albums from different versions of the band, first sung by Lake on Epitaph by Boz Burrell on Earthbound, by John Wetton, on USA, by Adrian Belew on Vrooom Vrooom, by Jakko Jakszyk on 2014 Live EP. In 1993, Lake & Palmer recorded a version for their 1993 box set The Return of the Manticore. Greg Lake performed the song on his 1981 solo tour with Gary Moore on guitar. Greg Lake – bass, lead vocals Ian McDonald – alto saxophone Robert Fripp – electric guitar Michael Giles – drums Peter Sinfield – lyrics Kanye West sampled the song on "Power", from his 2010 album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy; the song is used on the trailer for Mr. Mercedes; the song is a playable song in the 2009 video game Guitar Hero 5. The song appears on April Wine's 1979 album Harder... Faster. Buckley, Peter; the Rough Guide to Rock. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-201-2
Eläkeläiset are a Finnish humppa band founded in 1993. They specialise in humppa and jenkka music and have been successful in Germany and elsewhere. Current members of the band are Onni Waris, Petteri Halonen, Lassi Kinnunen, Martti Waris and Tapio Santaharju. Ilmari Koivuluhta and Pekka Jokinen complete the "humppa family". According to the band's statements, they play between 80 and 100 concerts per year, of which only 20 in Finland and 40 to 50 in Germany, due to their popularity there. Performing in big venues, they have visited several big international music festivals, to many large heavy metal festivals e.g. Wacken Open Air and Tuska Open Air, they travel on a private lorry and no bus. Eläkeläiset play cover versions of famous pop and rock hits in a fast humppa or slow jenkka style with Finnish lyrics — the original songs are recognizable, they publish bootleg recordings of their own concerts. Eläkeläiset are popular among some OpenBSD developers and played at their hackathons, where they claim they are "thwarting evil with humppa and math."Eläkeläiset was one of the nominees to represent Finland in Eurovision Song Contest 2010.
Joulumanteli Humppakäräjät Humppalöyly Pyjamahumppa Humpan Kuninkaan Hovissa In Humppa We Trust Dementikon Keppihumppa / Take Me To The City Humppamaratooni - its title track is a humppa arrangement of Whiskey in the Jar. Sensational Monsters Of Humppa Humppaorgiat Werbung, Baby! Huipputähtien Ykköshitit Humpan Kuninkaan Hovissa Ja Humppa Soi Humppa-Akatemia Humppa Till We Die Humppa! Jenkkapolkkahumppa Joulutorttu Pahvische Katkolla Humppa Keväthumppa Humppaelämää Jukolan Humppa Humppasirkus Das Humppawerk Humppakonsertto Humppa United Humppabingo Humpan Kuninkaan Hovissa Humppasheikkailu Humppakalmisto Humppa of Finland Humppainfarkt Official Homepage Russian Eläkeläiset fanclub Eläkeläiset history Eläkeläiset covers, a list of which band and song each track on the album parodies. Eläkeläiset covers, just another list of the covers including YouTube links to the originals
Robert William Gary Moore was a Northern Irish blues guitarist and singer-songwriter. During his teenage years in the 1960's, Moore played in the line up of a number of local Belfast based bands, before a move to Dublin, after being asked to join the Irish band Skid Row, whose soon to depart lead singer, was one Phil Lynott. On, Moore could be seen playing in the likes of Thin Lizzy and British band Colosseum II, as well as having his own successful solo career split between the genres of heavy metal and blues. Moore shared the stage with such blues and rock musicians as B. B. King, Albert King, John Mayall, Jack Bruce, Ginger Baker, Albert Collins, George Harrison, Greg Lake. Moore grew up on Castleview Road opposite Stormont Parliament Buildings, off the Upper Newtownards Road in east Belfast, as one of five children of Bobby, a promoter, Winnie, a housewife, he left the city as a teenager, because of troubles in his family – his parents parted a year – just as The Troubles were starting in Northern Ireland.
Moore picked up a battered acoustic guitar at the age of ten. He started performing at a young age, making his live debut in a school band, during the intermission of one of his father's promoted shows, he got his first quality guitar at the age of 14, learned to play the right-handed instrument in the standard way, despite being left-handed. In 1968, after performing with a number of Belfast-based bands, Gary Moore, at the age of 16, was "headhunted" as the replacement guitarist in the Dublin-based band Skid Row and he moved to Dublin. Moore's greatest influence in the early days was English guitarist Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac, a mentor to Moore when performing in Dublin. Other early musical influences were artists such as Albert King, Elvis Presley, The Shadows, Buddy Guy and The Beatles. Having seen Jimi Hendrix, Roy Buchanan and John Mayall's Bluesbreakers in his home town of Belfast, his own style was developing into a blues-rock sound that would be the dominant form of his career in music.
After joining the group Skid Row with Noel Bridgeman and Brendan "Brush" Shiels, in mid 1968, cutting a number of singles and an album, released in 1970, Skid Row went on to play shows across Europe and the US, opening for a number of high-profile bands. It was with this group that Gary Moore earned a reputation in the music industry, his association with Phil Lynott began. Moore left the band in December 1971. In 1970, Moore moved to England and remained there, apart from two short periods in the United States. In 1973, under the name "The Gary Moore Band", he released Grinding Stone. Grinding Stone was issued in North America on Neil Kempfer-Stocker's fledgling record label imprint Cosmos and received "Album of the Year" accolades on KTAC-FM/Seattle-Tacoma, Washington, in 1974. In 1974 he re-joined Lynott, when he first joined Thin Lizzy after the departure of founding member Eric Bell. From 1975 to August 1978, he was a member of Colosseum II. With that band, he collaborated with Andrew Lloyd Webber on the composer's Variations album in 1978.
In 1977, Moore re-joined Thin Lizzy, first as a temporary replacement for Brian Robertson, on a permanent basis a year later. Between late 1977 and early 1978 while moving from Colosseum II and a future return to the ranks of Thin Lizzy, Gary Moore recorded the album Back on the Streets, featuring the hit single "Parisienne Walkways" which reached the Top Ten in the UK Singles Chart in April 1979. While Back on the Streets was climbing the charts, Gary Moore had joined Thin Lizzy on a more permanent basis. Recording the album Black Rose: A Rock Legend, which reached number two in the UK album chart. Moore appears in the videos for "Waiting for an Alibi", "With Love" and "Do Anything You Want To". In July 1979, he left Thin Lizzy permanently to focus on a possible solo career, but went on to form the short lived band G-Force recording an album for Jet Records. A couple of other albums were made at this time, but not released until after Moore had signed to, found some success with Virgin Records in 1982, had released the album Corridors of Power.
During the 1980s, Moore released several heavy metal records as a solo artist, beginning with Corridors of Power in 1982, which were followed by Dirty Fingers and Victims of the Future the following year. Dirty Fingers had been recorded in 1981, with an different band, it represents Moore's last attempt at finding somebody to sing his songs. The two remaining albums are notable for featuring ex-Deep Purple drummer Ian Paice, Victims of the Future was the first album to feature Neil Carter, who would become a permanent fixture in Moore's bands in the years to come; these albums are Moore's most unrelenting. In years they were disowned by Moore himself, but remain fan favourites; these albums are in particular noteworthy for their descriptions of the feelings of dread and anxiety for youth growing up during the Cold War. Songs with anti-militaristic themes, which either implored the ceasing of war or depicted its horrors, would become a staple on every album from this period of Moore's career. Moore continued in a more commercial direction with the album Run for Cover, released in 1985.
This album is notable for being the final cooperation between Moore and Phil Lynott – front man and bassist in Thin Lizzy, who would die the following year – as well as being the final album to feature him, released in Phil's lifetime. The album's first single, Out in the Fields, was a major hit
In the Court of the Crimson King
In the Court of the Crimson King is the debut album from the English rock band King Crimson, released on 10 October 1969 on Island Records in England and Atlantic Records in America. The album is one of the first and most influential of the progressive rock genre, where the band departed from the blues influences that rock music was founded upon and combined elements of jazz and symphonic music; the album reached No. 5 on the UK Albums Chart and No. 28 on the US Billboard 200, where it was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. The album was reissued several times in the 1980s and 1990s using inferior copies of the master tapes. After the masters were located in 2003, a 40th-anniversary edition of the album was released in 2009 with new stereo and 5.1 surround sound mixes by Steven Wilson. Initial sessions for the album were held in early 1969 with producer Tony Clarke, most famous for his work with the Moody Blues. After these sessions failed to work out, the group were given permission to produce the album themselves.
The album was recorded on a 1" 8-channel recorder at Wessex Sound Studios in London, engineered by Robin Thompson and assisted by Tony Page. In order to achieve the characteristic lush, orchestral sounds on the album, Ian McDonald spent many hours overdubbing layers of Mellotron and various woodwind and reed instruments. In some cases, the band went through 5 tape generations to attain layered, segued tracks; some time after the album had been completed, however, it was discovered that the stereo master recorder used during the mixdown stage of the album had incorrectly-aligned recording heads. This misalignment introduced some unwanted distortion; this is evident in certain parts of the album on "21st Century Schizoid Man". While preparing the first American release for Atlantic Records, a special copy was made from the original 2-track stereo master in an attempt to correct some of these anomalies. From 1969 to 2003, this second-generation "corrected" copy was the source used in the dubbing of the various sub-masters used for vinyl, cassette and CD releases over the years.
The original, "first-generation" stereo masters, had been filed away soon after the original 1969 mixdown sessions. These tapes were considered lost until 2003. Barry Godber, a computer programmer, painted the design for the album cover. Godber died in February 1970 from a heart attack, shortly after the album's release, it was his only album cover. Fripp had said about Godber: Peter brought this painting in and the band loved it. I recovered the original from offices because they kept it exposed to bright light, at the risk of ruining it, so I ended up removing it; the face on the outside is the Schizoid Man, on the inside it's the Crimson King. If you cover the smiling face, the eyes reveal an incredible sadness. What can one add? It reflects the music; the album cover is painted on a wall in the 1987 Troma Entertainment film Surf Nazis Must Die. The album reached No. 5 on the UK Albums Chart and No. 28 on the US Billboard 200, where it was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America.
In the Court of the Crimson King received mixed reactions from critics. Village Voice critic Robert Christgau called the album "ersatz shit", while John Morthland of Rolling Stone said King Crimson had "combined aspects of many musical forms to create a surreal work of force and originality"; the album has since attained a classic status, with AllMusic praising it "s if somehow prophetic, King Crimson projected a darker and edgier brand of post-psychedelic rock" in its original review by Lindsay Planer, calling it "definitive" and "daring" in its current review. In his 1997 book Rocking the Classics and musicologist Edward Macan notes that In the Court of the Crimson King "may be the most influential progressive rock album released"; the Who's Pete Townshend was quoted as calling the album "an uncanny masterpiece". In the Q & Mojo Classic Special Edition Pink Floyd & The Story of Prog Rock, the album came fourth in its list of "40 Cosmic Rock Albums"; the album was named as one of Classic Rock magazine's "50 Albums That Built Prog Rock".
In 2014, readers of Rhythm voted it the eighth greatest drumming album in the history of progressive rock. In 2015, Rolling Stone named In the Court of the Crimson King the second greatest progressive rock album of all time, behind Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon; the album is featured in the book, 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. In the Venture Bros episode "Perchance to Dean," Dean is cautioned against listening to the album, as it will turn him into an evil scientist. In 2017, the album was rated #6 in "Top Albums of All Time" on Rate Your Music, above other classics such as Abbey Road and Led Zeppelin, with a RYM rating of 4.30 out of 5.0. In the Court of the Crimson King was reissued several times in the 1980s and 1990s through Polydor and E. G. Records, with pressings made from copies that were several generations removed from the stereo sub-master tape; this resulted in sub-par audio quality and audible tape hiss. In 1999, Virgin Records released a 30th Anniversary 24-bit remastered edition of the album.
In 2003, the first-generation stereo master tapes were rediscovered in a storage vault. A year the album was released on CD with the High Definition Compatible Digital encoding format, described as the "Original Master Edition", on Fripp's Discipline Global Mobile label with improved sound quality compared to previous editions. A 12-page booklet is in
A calliope is a musical instrument that produces sound by sending a gas steam or more compressed air, through large whistles—originally locomotive whistles. A calliope is very loud; some small calliopes are audible for miles. There is no way to vary tone or loudness. Musically, the only expression possible is the pitch and duration of the notes; the steam calliope is known as a steam organ or steam piano. The air-driven calliope is sometimes called a calliaphone, the name given to it by Norman Baker, but the "Calliaphone" name is registered by the Miner Company for instruments produced under the Tangley name. In the age of steam, the steam calliope was used on riverboats and in circuses. In both cases, a steam supply was available for other purposes. Riverboats supplied steam from their propulsion boilers. Circus calliopes were sometimes installed in steam-drive carousels, or supplied with steam from a traction engine; the traction engine could supply electric power for lighting, tow the calliope in the circus parade, where it traditionally came last.
Other circus calliopes were self-contained, mounted on a carved and gilded wagon pulled by horses, but the presence of other steam boilers in the circus meant that fuel and expertise to run the boiler were available. Steam instruments had keyboards made from brass; this was in part to resist the heat and moisture of the steam, but for the golden shine of the polished keys. Calliopes can be played by a player at a mechanically. Mechanical operation may be by a drum similar to a music box drum, or by a roll similar to that of a player piano; some instruments have both a keyboard and a mechanism for automated operation, others only one or the other. Some calliopes can be played via a MIDI interface; the whistles of a calliope are tuned to a chromatic scale, although this process is difficult and must be repeated to maintain quality sound. Since the pitch of each note is affected by the temperature of the steam, accurate tuning is nearly impossible. A calliope may have anywhere from 25 to 67 whistles.
Joshua C. Stoddard of Worcester, Massachusetts patented the calliope on October 9, 1855, though his design echos previous concepts, such as an 1832 instrument called a steam trumpet known as a train whistle. In 1851, William Hoyt of Dupont, Indiana claimed to have conceived of a device similar to Stoddard's calliope, but he never patented it. An employee of Stoddard's American Music, Arthur S. Denny, attempted to market an "Improved Kalliope" in Europe, but it did not catch on. In 1859, he demonstrated this instrument in London. Unlike other calliopes before or since, Denny's Improved Kalliope let the player control the steam pressure, therefore the volume of the music, while playing. While Stoddard intended the calliope to replace bells at churches, it found its way onto riverboats during the paddlewheel era. While only a small number of working steamboats still exist, each has a steam calliope; these boats include the Delta Queen, the Belle of Louisville, President. Their calliopes are played on river excursions.
Many surviving calliopes were built by Thomas J. Nichol, Ohio, who built calliopes from 1890 until 1932; the Thomas J. Nichol calliopes featured rolled sheet copper for the resonant tube of the whistle, lending a sweeter tone than cast bronze or brass, which were the usual materials for steam whistles of the day. David Morecraft pioneered a resurgence in the building of authentic steam calliopes of the Thomas J. Nichol style beginning in 1985 in Peru, Indiana; these calliopes are featured in Peru's annual Circus City Parade. Morecraft passed away on December 5, 2016. Stoddard's original calliope was attached to a metal roller set with pins in the manner familiar to Stoddard from the contemporary clockwork music box; the pins on the roller opened valves. Stoddard replaced the cylinder with a keyboard, so that the calliope could be played like an organ. Starting in the 1900s, calliopes began using music rolls instead of a live musician; the music roll operated in a similar manner to a piano roll in a player piano, mechanically operating the keys.
Many of these mechanical calliopes retained keyboards, allowing a live musician to play them if needed. During this period, compressed air began to replace steam as the vehicle of producing sound. Most calliopes disappeared in the mid-20th century, as steam power was replaced with other power sources. Without the demand for technicians that mines and railroads supplied, no support was available to keep boilers running. Only a few calliopes have survived, these are played; the pronunciation of the word has long been disputed, it is pronounced differently inside and outside the groups that use it. The Greek muse by the same name is pronounced kə-LY-ə-pee, but the instrument was pronounced KAL-ee-ohp by people who played it. A nineteenth century magazine, Reedy's Mirror, attempted to settle the dispute by publishing this rhyme: This, in turn, came from a poem by Vachel Lindsay, called "The Kallyope Yell", in which Lindsay uses both pronunciations. In the song "Blinded by the Light", written in 1972, Bruce Springsteen used the four-syllable pronunciation when referring to a fairground organ, this was repeated by Manfred Mann's Earth Band in their 1976 cover.
The calliope is similar to the pyrophone. The difference between the two is that the calliope is an external com