The White Stripes
The White Stripes was an American rock duo formed in 1997 in Detroit, Michigan. The group consisted of Meg White. After releasing several singles and three albums within the Detroit music scene, The White Stripes rose to prominence in 2002, as part of the garage rock revival scene, their successful and critically acclaimed albums White Blood Cells and Elephant drew attention from a large variety of media outlets in the United States and the United Kingdom, with the single "Seven Nation Army" which used a guitar and a whammy pedal to create the iconic opening riff becoming their signature song. The band recorded two more albums, Get Behind Me Satan in 2005 and Icky Thump in 2007, dissolved in 2011 after a lengthy hiatus from performing and recording; the White Stripes used a low-fidelity approach to recording. Their music featured a melding of garage rock and blues influences and a raw simplicity of composition and performance; the duo were noted for their fashion and design aesthetic which featured a simple color scheme of red and black—which was used on every album and single cover the band released—as well as the band's fascination with the number three.
The band's discography consists of six studio albums, two live albums, one extended play, one concert film, one tour documentary, 26 singles, 14 music videos. Their last three albums each won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album; as a senior in high school, Jack Gillis, met Meg White at the Memphis Smoke—the restaurant where she worked and where he would read his poetry at "open mic" nights. The two became friends, began to frequent the coffee shops, local music venues, record stores of the area. By this time, Gillis was playing drums with musician friends, including his upholstery apprenticeship mentor, Brian Muldoon. In 1994, he got his first professional job as the drummer for the Detroit cowpunk band Goober & the Peas. After a courtship and White got married on September 21, 1996. Shortly after and the Peas broke up, but Jack continued to play in other bands, such as the garage punk band The Go, The Hentchmen, Two-Star Tabernacle. In 1997—allegedly on Bastille Day—Meg first began to learn to play the drums.
In Jack's words, "When she started to play drums with me, just on a lark, it felt liberating and refreshing. There was something in it that opened me up." The couple became a band and, while they considered calling themselves "Bazooka" and "Soda Powder", they settled on the name "The White Stripes". Jack explained the band name's origin this way: Meg loves peppermints, we were going to call ourselves The Peppermints, but since our last name was White, we decided to call it "The White Stripes". It revolved around this childish idea, the ideas kids have—because they are so much better than adult ideas, right?" From the beginning, they established certain motifs: publicly presenting themselves as brother and sister, outfitting their production in only black and white, using the number "three". White has explained that they used these colors to distract from the fact that they were young, white musicians playing "black music", they were noted for their lack of a bass player, their general refusal to be interviewed separately.
The White Stripes had their first live performance on August 14, 1997, at the Gold Dollar bar in Detroit. They began their career as part of the Michigan underground garage rock scene, playing with local bands such as The Hentchmen, The Dirtbombs, The Gories, Rocket 455. In 1998, Dave Buick—owner of an independent, Detroit-based, garage-punk label called Italy Records—approached the band at a bar and asked if they would like to record a single. Jack declined, believing it would be too expensive, but he reconsidered when he realized that Buick was offering to pay for it, their debut single, "Let's Shake Hands," was released on vinyl in February 1998 with an initial pressing of 1,000 copies. This was followed in October 1998 by the single "Lafayette Blues" which, was only released on vinyl with 1,000 copies. In 1999, The White Stripes signed with the California-based label Sympathy for the Record Industry. In March 1999, they released the single "The Big Three Killed My Baby", followed by their debut album, The White Stripes, released on June 15, 1999.
The self-titled debut was produced by Jack and engineered by Jim Diamond at his Ghetto Recorders studio in Detroit. The album was dedicated to the seminal Mississippi Delta blues musician, Son House—an artist who influenced Jack; the track "Cannon" from The White Stripes contains part of an a cappella version, as performed by House, of the traditional American gospel blues song "John the Revelator". The White Stripes covered House's song "Death Letter" on their follow-up album De Stijl. Looking back on their debut during a 2003 interview with Guitar Player, Jack said, "I still feel we've never topped our first album. It's the most raw, the most powerful, the most Detroit-sounding record we've made."Allmusic said of the album: Jack White's voice is a singular, evocative combination of punk, metal and backwoods while his guitar work is grand and banging with just enough lyrical touches of slide and subtle solo work... Meg White balances out the fretwork and the fretting with methodical and booming cymbal, bass drum, snare...
All D. I. Y. Punk-country-blues-metal singer-songwriting duos should sound this good. At the end of 1999, The White Stripes released "Hand Springs" as a 7" split single with fellow Detroit band The Dirtbombs on the B-side
Oxford is a city in, the county seat of, Lafayette County, United States. Founded in 1837, it was named after the British university city of Oxford in hopes of having the state university located there, which it did attract; as of the 2010 US Census, the population is 18,916. Oxford is the home of the University of Mississippi, founded in 1848 commonly known as "Ole Miss". Oxford and Lafayette County were formed from lands ceded by the Chickasaw in the Treaty of Pontotoc Creek in 1832; the county was organized in 1836, in 1837 three pioneers—John Martin, John Chisom, John Craig—purchased land from Hoka, a female Chickasaw landowner, as a site for the town. They named it Oxford, intending to promote it as a center of learning in the Old Southwest. In 1841, the Mississippi legislature selected Oxford as the site of the state university, which opened in 1848. During the American Civil War, Oxford suffered invasion by federal troops under Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman in 1862. In the postwar Reconstruction Era, the town recovered aided by federal judge Robert Andrews Hill, who secured funds to build a new courthouse in 1872.
During this period many African American freedmen moved from farms into town and established a neighborhood known as "Freedmen Town", where they built houses, businesses and schools, exercised all the rights of citizenship. After Mississippi disenfranchised most African Americans in the Constitution of 1890, they continued to build their lives in the face of discrimination. During the Civil Rights Movement, Oxford drew national attention in the Ole Miss riot of 1962. State officials, including Governor Ross Barnett, prevented James Meredith, an African American, from enrolling at the University of Mississippi after the federal courts had ruled that he be admitted. In late September 1962, President John F. Kennedy, following secret face-saving negotiations with Barnett, ordered United States Marshals to accompany Meredith, while Barnett agreed to use Highway State Police to keep the peace. Thousands of armed "volunteers" flowed into the Oxford area. Meredith traveled to Oxford under armed guard to register, but riots by segregationists broke out in protest of his admittance.
That evening, cars were burned, federal marshals were pelted with rocks and small arms fire, university property was damaged by three thousand rioters. Two men were killed by gunshot wounds; the riot spread into adjacent areas of the city of Oxford. Order was restored to the campus with the early morning arrival of nationalized Mississippi National Guard and regular U. S. Army units, who camped in the City. More than 3000 journalists came to Oxford on September 26, 2008 to cover the first presidential debate of 2008, held at the University of Mississippi. Oxford is within 100 miles of Tennessee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.0 square miles, of which 10.0 square miles is land and 0.10% is water. The city is located in the North Central Hills region of Mississippi; the region is known for its forested hills made up of red clay. The area is higher and greater in relief than areas to the west, but lower in elevation than areas in Northeast Mississippi.
The changes in elevation can be noticed when traveling on the Highway 6 bypass since the east-west highway tends to transect many of the north-south ridges. Downtown Oxford sits on one of these ridges and the University of Mississippi sits on another one, while the main commercial corridors on either side of the city sit in valleys. Oxford is located at the confluence of highways from eight directions: Mississippi Highway 6 runs west to Batesville and east to Pontotoc. Highway 30 goes northeast to New Albany; the streets in the downtown area follow a grid pattern with two naming conventions. Many of the north-south streets are numbered from west to east, beginning at the old railroad depot, with numbers from four to nineteen; the place of "Twelfth Street," however, is taken by South Lamar Boulevard. The east-west avenues are named for the U. S. presidents in chronological order from north from Washington to Cleveland. Oxford is in hardiness zone 7b; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,916 people, with 8,648 households residing in the city.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.3% White, 21.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.5% of the population. The average household size was 2.09. The median income for a household in the city was $38,872, the average household income was $64,643; the per capita income for the city was $29,195. About 12% of families and 32.3% of the population were below the poverty line. The City of Oxford is served by two public school districts, Oxford School District and Lafayette County School District, three private schools, Oxford University School, Regents School of Oxford and
Primal Scream are a Scottish rock band formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie and Jim Beattie. The band's current lineup consists of Gillespie, Andrew Innes, Martin Duffy, Simone Butler, Darrin Mooney. Barrie Cadogan has toured and recorded with the band since 2006 as a replacement after the departure of guitarist Robert "Throb" Young. Primal Scream had been performing live from 1982 to 1984, but their career did not take off until Gillespie left his position as drummer of The Jesus and Mary Chain; the band were a key part of the mid-1980s indie pop scene, but moved away from their jangly sound, taking on more psychedelic and garage rock influences, before incorporating a dance music element to their sound with their 1991 album Screamadelica, which broke them into the mainstream. Their latest album Chaosmosis was released on 18 March 2016. Bobby Gillespie moved to Mount Florida in southeastern Glasgow, where he attended Kings Park Secondary School, where he first met Robert Young. Another schoolfriend was Alan McGee, who took Gillespie to a Thin Lizzy concert.
McGee and Gillespie were influenced by punk rock, they joined a local punk band, The Drains, in 1978. The Drains' guitarist was a 15-year-old Andrew Innes; the band was short-lived, Innes and McGee moved to London while Gillespie chose to remain in Glasgow. After the punk movement ended, Gillespie became disenchanted with mainstream new wave music, he met another schoolfriend who shared his outlook, Jim Beattie, they recorded "elemental noise tapes", in which Gillespie would bang two dustbin lids together and Beattie played fuzz-guitar. They soon moved on to The Velvet Underground and The Byrds cover songs before starting to write their own songs, based on Jah Wobble and Peter Hook basslines. Gillespie said that the band "didn't exist, but we did it every night for something to do." They named themselves a term for a type of cry heard in primal therapy. Still a partnership, Primal Scream first played live in 1982, their first recording session, for McGee's independent label Essential Records, produced a single track entitled "The Orchard", with Judith Boyle on vocals.
Beattie claimed that they burned the master tape. After the aborted recording, Gillespie joined The Jesus and Mary Chain as their drummer, alternated between the two bands. While The Jesus and Mary Chain became notorious for their chaotic gigs and Beattie expanded Primal Scream's lineup to include schoolfriend Young on bass, rhythm guitarist Stuart May, drummer Tom McGurk, tambourine player Martin St. John; this lineup was signed to Creation Records, an independent record label founded by Alan McGee, recorded the group's debut single, "All Fall Down", which received positive reviews. After the release of the single, Gillespie was told by The Jesus and Mary Chain leaders William and Jim Reid that he was to either dissolve Primal Scream to join their band full-time or resign. Gillespie chose to remain with Primal Scream. Stuart May was replaced by Paul Harte, the group released a new single, "Crystal Crescent", its B-side, "Velocity Girl", was released on the C86 compilation, which led to their being associated with the scene of the same name.
The band disliked this, Gillespie saying that other groups in that scene "can't play their instruments and they can't write songs."The band toured throughout 1986, Gillespie became disenchanted with the quality of their performances. He said that there "was always something missing, musically or in attitude." They switched to McGee's newly set-up Warner Bros. subsidiary Elevation Records. Before the band entered Rockfield Studios in Wales to record their debut album, McGurk was asked to leave; the group subsequently began recording using session players. They spent four weeks recording with producer Stephen Street before deciding to halt the sessions. May was subsequently dismissed. With their new lineup, the band re-entered the studio, this time in London with producer Mayo Thompson. By the time Sonic Flower Groove was completed, it had cost £100,000; the album reached number 62 on the British charts and received poor reviews, with AllMusic calling it "pristine but dull." The backlash from the album caused internal strife within the band.
Beattie and Skinner subsequently resigned. The band, now consisting of Gillespie and Young, relocated to Brighton to regroup. Young switched to guitar, they recruited bassist Henry Olsen and drummer Phillip "Toby" Tomanov, who had both been in Nico's backing band, The Faction, they traded in their jangle pop sound for a harder rock edge, or as Gillespie said, "e had found rock'n' roll." The band re-signed to Creation Records and released their first single in two years, "Ivy, Ivy". This was followed by Primal Scream; the band's new sound was met with poor reviews, NME called it "confused and lacking in cohesion". Fans responded as unfavourably as the critics, with many of the old fans being disappointed or confused by the new sound; the album featured Felt keyboardist Martin Duffy guesting. The band were first introduced to the acid house scene by McGee in 1988, they were at first sceptical. The band began attending raves; the band met up with DJ Andrew Weatherall at a rave, he was given a copy of "I'm Losing More Than I'll Ever Have", a track from Primal Scream, to remix for one of his shows.
Weatherall added a drum loop from an Italian bootleg mix of Edie Brickell's "What I Am", a sample of Gillespie singing a line from Robe
Modest Mouse is an American rock band formed in 1992 in Issaquah and based in Portland, Oregon. The founding members are lead singer/guitarist Isaac Brock, drummer Jeremiah Green, bassist Eric Judy. Influenced by Pavement, the Pixies, XTC, Talking Heads, the band rehearsed and recorded demos for two years before signing with small-town indie label K Records and releasing numerous singles. Since their 1996 debut This Is a Long Drive for Someone with Nothing to Think About, the band's lineup has centered on Brock and Green; the band achieved mainstream success with their fourth album Good News for People Who Love Bad News and its singles "Float On" and "Ocean Breathes Salty". Judy performed on every Modest Mouse album until his departure in 2012. Guitarist Johnny Marr joined the band in 2006, shortly following percussionist Joe Plummer and multi-instrumentalist Tom Peloso, to work on the album We Were Dead Before the Ship Even Sank. Guitarist Jim Fairchild joined the band in 2009; the band's sixth album Strangers to Ourselves was released on March 17, 2015.
The band's name is derived from a passage from the Virginia Woolf story "The Mark on the Wall", which reads, "I wish I could hit upon a pleasant track of thought, a track indirectly reflecting credit upon myself, for those are the pleasantest thoughts, frequent in the minds of modest mouse-coloured people, who believe genuinely that they dislike to hear their own praises." It was during his teenage years that Brock, who at the time was employed at the local family video store just outside Seattle, met bassist Eric Judy. Brock and Judy discovered drummer Jeremiah Green, who resided near Seattle, at a heavy metal show, at which point they decided to make music together. In 1994, at Calvin Johnson's Dub Narcotic Studios, Modest Mouse recorded its first EP, Blue Cadet-3, Do You Connect?, released by K Records. This was followed by a single, "Broke", recorded by Steve Wold under Sub Pop records at Moon Studios in Olympia, Washington. During this time, Modest Mouse recorded what would have been its first album, Sad Sappy Sucker, but constant delays caused the album to be shelved and forgotten.
It was not until 2001 that it was released. Before the band made its way into the pop music world in 2004, many of Modest Mouse's tours included stops at DIY/punk venues. After moving to Up Records, Modest Mouse released two full-length albums and other recordings including the 1996 LP This Is a Long Drive for Someone with Nothing to Think About. Steve Wold recorded and produced this album along with the next offering, Interstate 8; the 1997 album, The Lonesome Crowded West served as the band's breakthrough. The Lonesome Crowded West gained the band a cult following, is now popularly considered to be one of the defining albums of mid-1990s indie rock. During this time, Nick Kraft became involved with the task of refining the band's sound. Prior to its release, the band had recorded the EP The Fruit. In 1999, Up Records released a singles and rarities collection entitled Building Nothing Out of Something that included the entirety of Interstate 8 except for the songs "Edit the Sad Parts" and "Buttons to Push the Buttons".
In 2000, Modest Mouse released its first album on Epic Records. The album, produced by Califone's Brian Deck during five months of sessions in Chicago, was met with critical acclaim, including a 9.8/10 score from online music magazine Pitchfork Media, despite concerns about releasing material on a major label. The album would subsequently receive further acclaim; the band licensed "Gravity Rides Everything" for a Nissan Quest minivan, a move that Brock has publicly acknowledged as blatantly commercial but necessary to achieve financial stability. Regarding the commercial, Brock stated, "People who don't have to make their living playing music can bitch about my principles while they spend their parents' money or wash dishes for some asshole."In 2001, Modest Mouse released the EP Everywhere and His Nasty Parlour Tricks, a collection of unused songs from the recording sessions of The Moon and Antarctica. In 2002, the band joined Cake, De La Soul, the Flaming Lips, the Hackensaw Boys and Kinky on the Unlimited Sunshine Tour.
In March 2003, Green left the band after suffering a nervous breakdown. The same year, he and Judy appeared on Adam Forkner's first solo album, VVRSSNN. Drummer Benjamin Weikel joined the band, replacing Green, along with Murder City Devils guitarist Dann Gallucci, who had played with Modest Mouse. Prior to starting the band’s writing and recording process, Brock was devastated by the loss of "a couple of the most important people in my life," he said. Following these events, the band released their fourth album, Good News for People Who Love Bad News, on April 6, 2004; the following August, the album was certified Platinum, having two hits with "Float On" and "Ocean Breathes Salty". The album was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album that year, "Float On" was nominated for Best Rock Song; that year, Green returned to the band and Weikel returned to drumming for the Helio Sequence. The public radio program Marketplace used "Float On" as bumper music, which helped propel the group to a broader audience.
In 2006, Johnny Marr joined the band after Gallucci quit amicabl
John Robert Parker Ravenscroft, known professionally as John Peel, was an English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist. He was the longest serving of the original BBC Radio 1 DJs, broadcasting from 1967 until his death in 2004, he was one of the first broadcasters to play psychedelic rock and progressive rock records on British radio, he is acknowledged for promoting artists working in a multitude of genres including pop, dub reggae, punk rock and post-punk, electronic music and dance music, indie rock, extreme metal, British hip hop. Fellow DJ Paul Gambaccini described Peel as "the most important man in music for about a dozen years". In 2012 he was among the British cultural icons selected by artist Sir Peter Blake to appear in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover. Peel's Radio 1 shows were notable for the regular "Peel sessions", which consisted of four songs recorded by an artist live in the BBC's studios, which provided the first major national coverage to bands that would achieve great fame.
Another popular feature of his shows was the annual Festive Fifty countdown of his listeners' favourite records of the year. Peel appeared on British television as one of the presenters of Top of the Pops in the 1980s, he provided voice-over commentary for a number of BBC programmes, he became popular with the audience of BBC Radio 4 for his Home Truths programme, which ran from the 1990s, featuring unusual stories from listeners' domestic lives. John Peel was born in Heswall Cottage Hospital in Heswall near Liverpool, his father was an upper middle-class cotton merchant, he grew up in the nearby village of Burton. He was educated as a boarder at Shrewsbury School, where one of his contemporaries was future Monty Python member Michael Palin; the solitary Peel was an avid radio listener and record collector from an early age, cutting his teeth on fare offered by the American Forces Network and Radio Luxembourg. He recalled an early desire to host a radio programme of his own "so that I could play music that I heard and wanted others to hear."His housemaster, R. H. J. Brooke, whom Peel described as "extraordinarily eccentric" and "amazingly perceptive", wrote on one of his school reports, "Perhaps it's possible that John can form some kind of nightmarish career out of his enthusiasm for unlistenable records and his delight in writing long and facetious essays."In his posthumously published autobiography, Peel said that he had been raped by an older pupil while at Shrewsbury.
After finishing his National Service in 1959 in the Royal Artillery as a B2 radar operator, he worked as a mill operative at Townhead Mill in Rochdale and travelled home each weekend to Heswall on a scooter borrowed from his sister. Whilst in Rochdale during the week, he stayed in a bed-and-breakfast in the area of Milkstone Road and Drake Street and would develop long-term associations with the town as the years progressed. In 1960, aged 21, he went to the United States to work for a cotton producer who had business dealings with his father. Once this job finished, he took a number of others, including working as a travelling insurance salesman. While in Dallas, where the insurance company he worked for was based, he conversed with the presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson, who were touring the city during the 1960 election campaign, took photographs of them. Following Kennedy's assassination in November 1963, Peel passed himself off as a reporter for the Liverpool Echo in order to attend the arraignment of Lee Harvey Oswald, he and a friend can be seen in the footage of the 22/23 November midnight press conference at Dallas Police Department when Oswald was paraded before the media.
He phoned in the story to the Liverpool Echo. While working for the insurance company, Peel wrote programs for punched card entry for an IBM 1410 computer, he got his first radio job, albeit unpaid, working for WRR in Dallas. There, he presented the second hour of the Monday night programme Kat's Karavan, hosted by the American singer and radio personality Jim Lowe. Following this, as Beatlemania hit the United States, Peel got a job with the Dallas radio station KLIF as the official Beatles correspondent on the strength of his connection to Liverpool, he worked for KOMA in Oklahoma City, until 1965 when he moved to KMEN in San Bernardino, using the name John Ravencroft to present the breakfast show. While in Dallas, in 1965, he married his first wife, Shirley Anne Milburn aged 15, in what Peel described as a "mutual defence pact"; the marriage was never happy and although she accompanied Peel back to Britain in 1967, they were soon separated. The divorce became final in 1973. Milburn took her own life.
Peel returned to England in early 1967 and found work with the offshore pirate radio station Radio London. He was offered the midnight-to-two shift, which developed into a programme called The Perfumed Garden, it was on "Big L" that he first adopted the name "John Peel" and established himself as a distinctive radio voice. Peel's show was an outlet for the music of the UK underground scene, he played classic blues, folk music and psychedelic rock, with an emphasis on the new music emerging from Los Angeles and San Francisco. As important as the musical content of the programme was the personal – sometimes confessional – tone of Peel's pres
BBC Radio 1
BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation which broadcasts internationally, specialising in modern popular music and current chart hits throughout the day. Radio 1 provides alternative genres after 7 pm, including electronica, hip hop and indie; the choice of music and presenting style is that of programme hosts, however those who present in the daytime have to rotate a number of songs a specific number of times per week. It was launched in 1967 to meet the demand for music generated by pirate radio stations, when the average age of the UK population was 27; the BBC claim that they target the 15–29 age group, the average age of its UK audience since 2009 is 30. BBC Radio 1 started 24-hour broadcasting on 1 May 1991. Radio 1 was established in 1967 as a successor to the BBC Light Programme, which had broadcast popular music and other entertainment since 1945. Radio 1 was conceived as a direct response to the popularity of offshore pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline and Radio London, outlawed by Act of Parliament.
Radio 1 was launched at 6:55 am on Saturday 30 September 1967. Broadcasts were on 247 metres high wave, using a network of transmitters which had carried the Light Programme. Most were of comparatively low power, at less than 50 kilowatts, leading to patchy coverage of the country; the first disc jockey to broadcast on the new station was Tony Blackburn, whose cheery style, first heard on Radio Caroline and Radio London, won him the prime slot on what became known as the "Radio 1 Breakfast Show". The first words on Radio 1 – after a countdown by the Controller of Radios 1 and 2, Robin Scott, a jingle, recorded at PAMS in Dallas, beginning "The voice of Radio 1" – were: And, good morning everyone. Welcome to the exciting new sound of Radio 1; this was the first use of US-style jingles on BBC radio, but the style was familiar to listeners who were acquainted with Blackburn and other DJs from their days on pirate radio. The reason jingles from PAMS were used was that the Musicians' Union would not agree to a single fee for the singers and musicians if the jingles were made "in-house" by the BBC.
The first music to be heard on the station was "Theme One", specially composed for the launch by George Martin. It was followed by an extract from "Beefeaters" by Johnny Dankworth; the first complete record played on Radio 1 was "Flowers in the Rain" by The Move, the number 2 record in that week's Top 20. The second single was "Massachusetts" by The Bee Gees; the breakfast show remains the most prized slot in the Radio 1 schedule, with every change of breakfast show presenter exciting considerable media interest. The initial rota of staff included John Peel and a gaggle of others, some transferred from pirate stations, such as Keith Skues, Ed Stewart, Mike Raven, David Ryder, Jim Fisher, Jimmy Young, Dave Cash, Kenny Everett, Simon Dee, Terry Wogan, Duncan Johnson, Doug Crawford, Tommy Vance, Chris Denning, Emperor Rosko, Pete Murray, Bob Holness. Many of the most popular pirate radio voices, such as Simon Dee, had only a one-hour slot per week Initially, the station was unpopular with some of its target audience who, it is claimed, disliked the fact that much of its airtime was shared with Radio 2 and that it was less unequivocally aimed at a young audience than the offshore stations, with some DJs such as Jimmy Young being in their 40s.
The fact that it was part of an "establishment" institution such as the BBC was a turn-off for some, needle time restrictions prevented it from playing as many records as offshore stations had. It had limited finances and as in January 1975, suffered disproportionately when the BBC had to make financial cutbacks, strengthening an impression that it was regarded as a lower priority by senior BBC executives. Despite this, it gained massive audiences, becoming the most listened-to station in the world with audiences of over 10 million claimed for some of its shows. In the early-mid-1970s Radio 1 presenters were out of the British tabloids, thanks to the Publicity Department's high-profile work; the touring summer live broadcasts called the Radio 1 Roadshow – as part of the BBC'Radio Weeks' promotions that took Radio 1, 2 and 4 shows on the road – drew some of the largest crowds of the decade. The station undoubtedly played a role in maintaining the high sales of 45 rpm single records although it benefited from a lack of competition, apart from Radio Luxembourg and Manx Radio in the Isle of Man..
Alan Freeman's'Saturday Rock Show' was voted'Best Radio Show' five years running by readers of a national music publication, was axed by controller Derek Chinnery. Annie Nightingale, who joined in 1970, was Britain's first female DJ and is now the longest serving presenter, having evolved her musical tastes with the times. On Thursday 23 November 1978 the station moved to two new medium wave frequencies which allowed a major increase in transmitter powers and improved coverage of the UK. 247 metres was passed to Radio 3. The station was on medium wave only until the early 80s, when it took over the Radio 2 FM frequency for a number of hours on weekend afternoons and late weekday evenings; the BBC set up an FM channel specifically
Top of the Pops
Top of the Pops known as TOTP, is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006. The programme was shown every Thursday evening on BBC One, except for a short period on Fridays in mid-1973 before being again moved to Fridays at 7:30 pm in 1996 and to Sundays on BBC Two in 2005; each weekly programme consisted of performances from some of that week's best-selling popular music artists, with a rundown of that week's singles chart. Additionally, there was a special edition of the programme on Christmas Day, featuring some of the best-selling singles of the year. With its high viewing figures, the show became a significant part of British popular culture. Although the weekly show was cancelled in 2006, the Christmas special has continued. In recent years, end-of-year round-up editions have been broadcast on BBC1 on or around New Year's Eve, albeit featuring the same acts and tracks as the Christmas Day shows, it survives as Top of the Pops 2, which began in 1994 and features vintage performances from the Top of the Pops archives.
In the 1990s, the show's format was sold to several foreign broadcasters in the form of a franchise package, at one point various versions of the show were shown in nearly 100 countries. Editions of the programme from the 1970s are being repeated on most Thursday and Friday evenings on BBC Four, although episodes featuring disgraced presenters and artists such as Jimmy Savile, Dave Lee Travis and Gary Glitter are not repeated. BBC Four aren't showing any episodes with Mike Smith presenting, either, as he decided not to sign the licence extension that would allow the BBC to repeat the Top of the Pops episodes that he presented. Top of the Pops was created by BBC producer Johnnie Stewart, inspired by the popular Teen and Twenty Disc Club which aired on Radio Luxembourg, it was first aired in 1964 and was based on the Top 20. By 1970 the Top 30 was being used and the show was extended from 30 to 45 minutes duration; the show was now shown in colour following the BBC1 upgrade in November 1969. A switch to the Top 40 was made in 1984..
The show saw many changes through the decades, in style, design and taste. It periodically had some aspect of its title sequence and theme tune, format, or set design altered in some way, keeping the show looking modern despite its age; the programme had several executive producers during its run, in charge of the overall production of the show, although specific content on individual shows was sometimes decided by other producers. When Stewart left the show in 1973, after nearly 10 years in charge, he was replaced by Robin Nash. Both Stewart and Nash made brief returns to the show as producer after they left, in 1976 and 1981 respectively. Stewart devised the rules which governed how the show would operate: the programme would always end with the number one record, the only record that could appear in consecutive weeks; the show would include the highest new entry and the highest climber on the charts, omit any song going down in the chart. Tracks could be featured in consecutive weeks in different formats.
For example, if a song was played over the chart countdown or the closing credits it was acceptable for the act to appear in the studio the following week. These rules were sometimes interpreted flexibly and were more formally relaxed from 1997 when records descending the charts were featured more possibly as a response to the changing nature of the Top 40; when the programme's format changed in November 2003, it concentrated on the top 10. During the BBC Two era, the top 20 was regarded as the main cut-off point, with the exception made for up and coming bands below the top 20. Singles from below the top 40 were shown if the band were up and coming or had a strong selling album. If a single being performed was below the top 40, just the words "New Entry" were shown and not the chart position; the show was intended to run for only a few programmes but lasted over 42 years, reaching landmark episodes of 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 in the years 1973, 1983, 1992 and 2002 respectively. Top of the Pops was first broadcast on 1 January 1964 at 6:35 pm.
It was produced in Studio A on Dickenson Road in Manchester. DJ Jimmy Savile presented the first show live from the Manchester studio, which featured Dusty Springfield with "I Only Want to Be with You", the Rolling Stones with "I Wanna Be Your Man", the Dave Clark Five with "Glad All Over", the Hollies with "Stay", the Swinging Blue Jeans with "Hippy Hippy Shake" and the Beatles with "I Want to Hold Your Hand", that week's number one – throughout its history, the programme proper always finished with the best-selling single of the week, although there was a separate play-out track. In 1964, the broadcast time was moved to one hour at 7:35 pm, the show moved from Wednesdays to what became its regular Thursday slot. Additionally its length was extended by 5 minutes to 30 minutes. For the first three years Alan Freeman, David Jacobs, Pete Murray and Jimmy Savile rotated presenting duties, with the following week's presenter appearing at the end of each show, although this practice ceased from October 1964 onwards.