In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
Janusz Głowacki was a Polish playwright and screenwriter. Janusz Głowacki was born on 13 September 1938 in Poznań, he began his literary career by publishing his collections of short stories depicting the cultural and social reality of the 1960s and 1970s in Poland, such as The Nonsense Spinner and The New La-ba-da Dance. His works achieved great popularity and made him famous, thanks to his satirical portrayal of social phenomena in published articles, he wrote the screenplay for Andrzej Wajda's Polowanie na muchy and co-wrote the screenplay of the popular Polish movie Rejs, released in 1970. The 2001 film Mechanical Suite is based on his short story Brothers. Głowacki co-wrote screenplay for Cold War, selected to compete for the Palme d'Or at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival. Głowacki emigrated in 1981 to New York City in the wake of the imposition of martial law in Poland by its Communist government. There, he was nominated for the Charles MacArthur Award for Outstanding New Play for Antigone in New York.
He was prominent in the arts. 1982: The Guardian and The Times awarded Cinders as the best play of the year 1987: American Theatre Critics Association Award for Hunting Cockroaches 1987: Joseph Kesselring Honorary Mention 1987: John S. Guggenheim Award 1987: Hollywood Drama League Critics Award 1987: Time Magazine called Hunting Cockroaches the best play of the year 1988: National Endowment for the Arts 1993: Time Magazine called Antigone in New York one of the best plays of the year 1994: Nomination for The Charles MacArthur Award for Outstanding New Play for Antigone in New York 1994: Jurzykowski Prize 1997: Le Baladin Award, Paris 1997: Students of Sorbonne Award, Paris 1998: Critics Award for Antigone in New York, staged in Proscenium Theatre in Paris 1999: Tony Cox Award at Nantucket Film Festival 2001: The Fourth Sister wins at International Theatre Festival in Dubrovnik 2002: Grand Prix for the best author at "Rzeczywistość przedstawiona" Festival 2002: Nomination for Nike Award 2003: Grand Prix at Two Theatres Festival 2005: Śląski Wawrzyn Literacki 2005: Award of Ministry of Culture and National Heritage for literature 2005: Nomination for Nike Award 2011: Czesław Miłosz Award given by US Embassy in Warsaw 2011: Warsaw Literary Award 2013: Gustaw Award 2013: Special Award "Diamond of Polish Radio Three" 2013: Naptune Award - Gdańsk Literary Award 2013: Jan Michalski Prize for Literature, Good Night, Dzerzi!
2019: Nomination to BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay Glowacki's homepage Janusz Głowacki's Alphabet Janusz Głowacki at Culture.pl
Stanisław Tym is a Polish, comedian and satirist, as well as a film and theatre director and writer. He coproduced and starred in many films of Stanisław Bareja, he gained much fame for his performance in the cult film of Marek Piwowski, Rejs. In 1990s he was a columnist of a popular Polish news magazine, Wprost for a newspaper Rzeczpospolita and since 2007 for Polityka. Winner of many awards, among them Nagroda Kisiela for best columnist of 1998. Rozmowy przy wycinaniu lasu Dick (Ryś, Brunet Will Call What Will You Do When You Catch Me? Teddy Bear Controlled Conversations Rozmowy przy wycinaniu lasu Dick (Ryś, Octopus Cafe - Partisan Nobody's Calling Kwiecień - Medic Penguin - Osetnik Walkower Barrier - Waiter Paris - Warsaw without Passport - American Soldier Hole in the Earth - Member of Scientific Debate The Cruise - Stowaway/Political Cultural Attaché Civil the Police Dog - Thief A Jungle Book of Regulations - Zenek Czterdziestolatek - Construction Worker Niespotykanie spokojny człowiek - Captain The Shadow Line - Jacobus What Will You Do When You Catch Me?
- Dudała / Szymek Teddy Bear - Ryszard Ochódzki / Stanisław Paluch The War of the Worlds: Next Century - Secret Agent Controlled Conversations - Ryszard Ochódzki Agata's Abduction - Homeless Rozmowy przy wycinaniu lasu Czy można się przysiąść Baśń o ludziach stąd The Incredibles - Gilbert Huph Dick - Ryszard Ochódzki Niania - Czesław Only Love - Mr. Sztern About Stanisław Tym - Filmweb.pl Stanislaw Tym on IMDb
Polish United Workers' Party
The Polish United Workers' Party was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989. Ideologically it was based on the theories of Marxism-Leninism, it controlled the armed forces, the Polish People's Army. Until 1989, the PUWP held dictatorial powers, controlled an unwieldy bureaucracy, the military, the secret police, the economy, its main goal was to help to propagate Communism all over the world. On paper, the party was organised on the basis of democratic centralism, which assumed a democratic appointment of authorities, making decisions, managing its activity, yet in fact, the key roles were played by the Central Committee, its Politburo and Secretariat, which were subject to the strict control of the authorities of the Soviet Union. These authorities decided about the composition of the main organs. Between sessions, party conferences of the regional, county and work committees were taking place; the smallest organizational unit of the PUWP was the Fundamental Party Organization, which functioned in work places, cultural institutions, etc.
The main part in the PUWP was played by professional politicians, or the so-called "party's hard core", formed by people who were recommended to manage the main state institutions, social organizations, trade unions. In the crowning time of the PUWP's development it consisted of over 3.5 million members. The Political Office of the Central Committee and regional committees appointed the key posts not only within the party, but in all organizations having ‘state’ in its name – from central offices to small state and cooperative companies, it was called the nomenklatura system of the economy management. In certain areas of the economy, e.g. in agriculture, the nomenklatura system was controlled with an approval of the PUWP and by its allied parties, the United People's Party, the Democratic Party. After martial law began, the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth was founded to organize these and other parties; the Polish United Workers' Party was established at the unification congress of the Polish Workers' Party and Polish Socialist Party during meetings held from 15 to 21 December 1948.
The unification was possible because the PPS activists who opposed unification had been forced out of the party. The members of the PPR who were accused of "rightist – nationalistic deviation" were expelled. Thus, for all intents and purposes, the PUWP was the PPR under a new name. "Rightist-nationalist deviation" was a political propaganda term used by the Polish Stalinists against prominent activists, such as Władysław Gomułka and Marian Spychalski who opposed Soviet involvement in the Polish interior affairs, as well as internationalism displayed by the creation of the Cominform and the subsequent merger that created the PZPR. It is believed that it was Joseph Stalin who put pressure on Bolesław Bierut and Jakub Berman to remove Gomułka and Spychalski as well as their followers from power in 1948, it is estimated that over 25 % of socialists were expelled from political life. Bolesław Bierut, an NKVD agent and a hard Stalinist, served as first Secretary General of the ruling PUWP from 1948 to 1956, playing a leading role in the Sovietization of Poland and the installation of one of its most repressive regimes.
He had served as President since 1944. After a new constitution abolished the presidency, Bierut took over as Prime Minister, a post he held until 1954, he remained party leader until his death in 1956. Bierut oversaw the trials of many Polish wartime military leaders, such as General Stanisław Tatar and Brig. General Emil August Fieldorf, as well as 40 members of the Wolność i Niezawisłość organisation, various Church officials and many other opponents of the new regime including Witold Pilecki, condemned to death during secret trials. Bierut signed many of those death sentences. Bierut's mysterious death in Moscow in 1956 gave rise to much speculation about poisoning or a suicide, symbolically marked the end of Stalinism era in Poland. In 1956, shortly after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the PUWP leadership split in two factions, dubbed Natolinians and Puławians; the Natolin faction - named after the place where its meetings took place, in a government villa in Natolin - were against the post-Stalinist liberalization programs and they proclaimed simple nationalist and antisemitic slogans as part of a strategy to gain power.
The most well known members included Franciszek Jóźwiak, Wiktor Kłosiewicz, Zenon Nowak, Aleksander Zawadzki, Władysław Dworakowski, Hilary Chełchowski. The Puławian faction - the name comes from the Puławska Street in Warsaw, on which many of the members lived - sought great liberalization of socialism in Poland. After the events of Poznań June, they backed the candidature of Władysław Gomułka for First Secretary of party, thus imposing a major setback upon Natolinians. Among the most prominent members were Leon Kasman. Both factions disappeared towards the end of the 1950s. Initiall
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di
A river cruise is a voyage along inland waterways stopping at multiple ports along the way. Since cities and towns grew up around rivers, river cruise ships dock in the center of cities and towns. River day cruises are day excursions ranging from 30 minutes to a full day, they can be from boats carrying as little as 10 people to the thousands. Such a cruise is based in a city with a river flowing through the centre or an area of natural beauty, such as on the Hudson River, Rhine, or Thames; some popular locations include: Africa: Luxor, Cairo Americas: New York City, New Orleans, San Antonio Asia: Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City, Malacca, Singapore Europe: Amsterdam, Cologne, Paris River cruise ships with accommodation facilities offer longer cruises. According to Douglas Ward, "A river cruise represents life in the slow lane, sailing along at a gentle pace, soaking up the scenery, with plentiful opportunities to explore riverside towns and cities en route, it is a supremely calming experience, an antidote to the pressures of life in a fast-paced world, in surroundings that are comfortable without being fussy or pretentious, with good food and enjoyable company."River cruising is a major tourist industry in many parts of the world.
Africa: Nile Americas: Mississippi, Peruvian Amazon Asia: Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Yangtze Australia: Murray Europe: Danube, Seine, Volga, Main. Media related to River tourism at Wikimedia Commons
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra